Demand for main road travel by Americans continues to turn as population additions, peculiarly in metropolitan countries. Traffic congestion is choking our metropoliss, aching our economic system, and cut downing our quality of life. Rush-hour holds rob us of clip with our households, and commute times frequently dictate where we live and work. The Texas Transportation Institute estimates that, in 2003, the 85 largest metropolitan countries experienced 3.7 billion vehicle-hours of hold, ensuing in 2.3 billion gallons in otiose fuel and $ 63 billion in lost productiveness ( Beginning: 2005 Urban Mobility Report, TTI ) .
Businesss besides suffer because of congestion, longer travel clip additions travel cost, and the deficiency of dependable bringing compels houses to keep more stock lists and to add excess clip for cargo. Not merely the concern houses but besides the touristry industry in besides affected through traffic and parking jobs.
Harmonizing to Texas Mobility Report, Los Angeles as the state ‘s most engorged urban country, while New York is someplace around figure 13. Yet, comparative to Los Angeles main roads, most New York main roads tend to hold narrower lanes, shorter merge lanes at on- and off-ramps, and tighter curves, all of which cut down the flow capacities of New York expresswaies. If we take all these factors in history so New York congestion may really be worse than in Los Angeles.
TRANSPORTATION CHALLENGES IN NYC:
Driving in Manhattan is a large hurting ; traffic crawls along at under 10 stat mis an hr. In New York City, the biggest substructure challenge is our transit system.
Our mass-transit system carries a tierce of America ‘s commuters every twenty-four hours via commuter rail, metros and coachs. We have 7 million trips a twenty-four hours and we are at capacity. There has non been an enlargement of our system since the 1940s. Limited resources, intending the deficiency of money needed to put in immense capital undertakings. For illustration, building of a new metro line in New York City on 2nd Avenue is estimated to take 25 old ages and cost 10 to 11 billion dollars. That is non something that is easy to acquire done, although we are supposed to get down building on the first stage of that undertaking shortly.
In New York City, the supply of route infinite can non be increased at a gait, which would maintain up with the unrestricted growing in demand for that route infinite. Expansion of route capacity to alleviate congestion is no longer possible or desirable. The costs of enlargement have become inordinate, both in pecuniary and community impact footings
Manhattan is an island, surrounded by H2O, doing it really hard to be flexible in covering with the congestion job. But Manhattan Island is the hub of an 800 billion dollar New York Metro Area economic system. Within Manhattan South of 60th Street, there are 600.000 occupants, 3.6 million people come into this country every twenty-four hours, 1.8 million of those are transposing to work, and the others are at that place for visiting and other intents. 90 % of the stat mis driven during the working day in Manhattan are driven by autos, and a 3rd of those are single-passenger vehicles. Every weekday 810.000 vehicles come from outside the Manhattan cardinal concern territory, and come in over 19 points of entry. The norm velocities throughout the metropolitan country and in the cardinal concern territory scope between 4 and 12 miles per hour during the full working day. We do non hold merely a peak period in the forenoon. It is all twenty-four hours ; 6 to 6aˆ¦ .
The labour force of New York City has the longest mean commute of any topographic point in the United States: 38.4 proceedingss on norm. But remember that many people live within walking distance of work, so it is a long trip in for the others. Congestion adds 11 to 12 proceedingss to every commuter trip into the metropolis. Since the 1920 we have been adding about 8000 extra autos a twelvemonth coming in to the cardinal concern territory, without any enlargement of the roads and main roads.
Harmonizing to The Tri-State Transportation Campaign Survey, more than three-quarterss of New Yorkers ( 79 % ) consider traffic jams on metropolis streets to be a job, including 53 % who consider it a “ major job. ” And to the full half ( 50 % ) believe traffic congestion in Manhattan on a normal working day is unacceptable.
By sing all present state of affairss, The construct of bear downing for the usage of the route web as a agency to cut down traffic volumes and velocity travel is fast deriving disciples and is deserving sing in New York City. This is called “ Congestion Pricing ” .
It is a comparatively new transit control step ( TCM ) that is frequently referred to as “ value pricing. ” This TCM, which is still in the pilot plan phase of development in the United States, operates in one of two ways. It either provides a disincentive to driving on highly-used roadways by enforcing fees in engorged countries that vary depending on location, clip or vehicle tenancy, or it offers a priced option to a congestion roadway that enables the automobilist to make his or her finish more rapidly. These fees are intended to cut down congestion and better air quality by promoting people to alter their travel forms by switching to off-peak periods, less engorged travel paths, higher tenancy vehicles, or a different manner of conveyance ( e.g. , public theodolite ) . There are several congestion pricing steps, which may be implemented such as variable tolls, high tenancy vehicle ( HOV ) lane licenses, vehicle stat mis traveled ( VMT ) fees, and parking fees.
Depending on their range, these policies may be used in three ways: installation pricing, regional web pricing, or cordon pricing, as described below.
Facility pricing is a mechanism in which the pricing step is levied on one or several roadways that link residential countries to downtown commercial territories. Fees may be imposed on new or bing roads, but normally it is more politically acceptable to enforce fees on new installations because people would non see the policy as taking away a free service. In order for a pricing step to be considered an application of installation pricing, the intent of the step must be to cut down congestion. Therefore, many bing toll roads are non appropriate illustrations because their intent is mostly to raise gross. Toll roads may be viewed as congestion pricing mechanisms if the fees are structured in such a mode as to act upon demand. For illustration, bear downing higher fees during peak hours encourages people to rideshare or exchange manners of transit.
Regional web pricing refers to policies in which people are charged to go on a web of similar roads ( e.g. , main roads ) . Unlike installation pricing, web pricing applies fees on multiple roads traveling in many waies. This fee construction consequences in a more accurate fee for vehicle usage than installation pricing because more of the trip is included within the boundary of the system. Fees may be collected from a series of toll booths along the web or from entryway and issue inclines on controlled entree installations.
Cordon pricing is a mechanism that charges vehicles that enter high-activity countries such as cardinal concern territories. Vehicles may come in an country via different types of roads. This policy is implemented by placing congested countries and encircling them with one or more cordons ( lines ) . Then, fees are collected from people who drive into the surrounded part Monetary values may change by clip of twenty-four hours, so that during typical peak congestion periods, people will be loath to come in the cordoned countries. Although this pricing step has been successfully implemented in states such as Singapore, Norway, and London, it has yet to be implemented in the United States.
Cordon pricing systems are most effectual in concern territories or other concentrated engorged countries so harmonizing to my position the Cordon pricing is really utile to alleviate the congestion in New York City.
LESSONS LEARNED FROM OTHER COUNTRIES:
In Singapore, tolls on all entries to the nucleus country were foremost introduced in the 1970s, dropping traffic volumes by 40 per centum and holds by a humongous 70 per centum. With the debut of electronic route pricing in 1998 the system was fine-tuned so rates could be varied every 30 proceedingss, depending on traffic degrees. The authorities ‘s current stated end is for 75 per centum of all journeys to be taken with public theodolite ; presently 60 per centum of New Jersey to be taken by public theodolites.
In three Norse metropoliss – Oslo, Bergen, and Trondheim – tolls were put in topographic point on route entries to their nucleus countries to raise financess for theodolite investing. In Trondheim, the low charge ( around $ 2 ) has reduced congestion by 10 per centum. To protect users traversing into the nucleus more than one time a twenty-four hours, peculiarly occupants, vehicles traversing into the zone wage merely one time per hr ; there are besides overall bounds on the figure of charges one vehicle can accrue and on monthly bills14. This differs from London ‘s pattern of bear downing vehicles for traversing into the zone merely one time per twenty-four hours and supplying fleet price reductions for companies. Norway ‘s pricing strategy makes sense for traffic, which a metropolis might non desire to deter. In New York, there may be a category of commercial vehicles and service suppliers, for illustration, who should non be discouraged in doing frequent day-to-day trips across a tolled zone.
London began bear downing vehicles that travel into the eight-square mile Central London territory in February 2003. The congestion charge is a level five-pound ( $ 8 ) fee for entries during the 7am to 6:30pm period on weekdays. The charge is collected in progress through a figure of payment mechanisms, including retail mercantile establishments, a call centre, and over the Internet and through wireless text messaging, which has proved really popular. Vehicles are photographed by cameras at all 174 entry points. Payments can be made up until 10pm on the twenty-four hours of the journey, and from 10pm to midnight for a five-pound surcharge. Images of licence home bases are captured utilizing 688 cameras with automatic figure home base acknowledgment engineering, and are matched against the pre-purchased fees. If there is no record of payment, the registered vehicle proprietor is penalized in increasing sums, the longer the fees are non paid. Less than five per centum of vehicles come ining the zone have been penalized. Taxis, exigency vehicles, coachs and some other vehicles are exempted. Those populating in the congestion-pricing zone wage merely 10 per centum of the charge.
London is the best illustration for New York City. New York City and London are similar in size, economic activity, and international civilization. The metropoliss besides portion similar mobility issues – intense traffic congestion, slow coachs, crowded metros, and high prosaic volumes.
COMPARISON OF LONDON AND NEW YORK CONGESTION ZONE:
Congestion Charging Zone
Center of London
Manhattan South of 60th Street
Size of Zone
8 sq. stat mis
8.5 sq stat mis
Number of Vehicles Entry Points
Peoples Entering Zone Each Morning Peak
Over 1 million
Peoples Entering Zone by Public Transit
85 % prior to bear downing
Vehicles Entering Zone Each Day 7 AM to 6:30 Autopsies
315,000 anterior to bear downing
Vehicle Peak Hour During Four Hour Morning Peak Period
Residents in Zones
Above tabular array compares the possible Manhattan congestion zone with London ‘s. The tabular array indicates that the size of the congestion zones would be similar, as is the range of the job – approximately half a million vehicles come ining per twenty-four hours. But in New York, there are one-tenth as many entry points, streamlining the aggregation procedure. Pricing in New York is complicated by six times as many people populating in the nucleus country and there would look to be fewer ways to besiege the charge by driving around it.
KEY FACTORES LEAD TO CONGESTION IN CBD OF NYC:
Harmonizing to New York Metropolitan Transportation Council, Hub-bound Survey-2000, 47 per centum of the vehicles come ining on weekdays attack from the north utilizing the 11 entries transporting southbound traffic, 24 per centum enter from Brooklyn utilizing either one tolled and three free crossings, another 16 per centum enter from Queens utilizing either one tolled and one free crossing, and under 13 per centum enter from the West utilizing either the Lincoln and Holland tunnels. Merely 17 per centum of the vehicles utilizing the four entries from Brooklyn and 33 per centum utilizing the two entries from Queens pay a toll. None of the vehicles come ining from the north do. These informations are summarized in below tabular array & A ; figure.
TOLLED & A ; FREE VEHICLES ENTERING MANHATTEN SOUHT OF 60th Street
Beginning: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council, Hub-bound Survey-2000
DISTRIBUTION OF VEHICLES ENTERNING IN CORE:
Beginning: An Exploration of Motor Vehicle Congestion Pricing in NYC-RPA 2003
These four free crossings bear the load of the traffic volumes traversing from the E into the CBD, as over 250,000 vehicles a twenty-four hours, most working their manner through local streets, avoid the tolled Brooklyn-Battery and Queens-Midtown tunnels while merely 79,000 use the two tolled tunnels. Making affairs worse is the concentration of some 17,000 trucks come ining Manhattan via the free crossings, about half over the Manhattan Bridge entirely, while merely 3,400 used tolled crossing
Harmonizing to me in NYC we should implemented the congestion charges pattern same as the London ( Cordon Pricing ) . In this option, every commuter has to pay as congestion charges if he or she enters the South of 60th street for 13 daytime hours on weekdays with level East River tolls during the same clip period.
The Regional Plan Association gives the pricing construction for this option. Harmonizing to their study from 6 am to 7 autopsy on weekdays, drivers on southbound avenues that cross sixtieth Street would be charged a level toll ( $ 7.00 ) . East River Bridges would be tolled to fit: $ 7.00 for autos coming over the Bridgess into Manhattan during the twenty-four hours on weekdays. As in London, the new tolls would non be in consequence on weekends and they would non change during the twenty-four hours.
Harmonizing to Regional Plan Association study this scenario reduces day-to-day entries of inbound traffic by 9 per centum that means about 73,000 vehicles. Traffic velocities and clip nest eggs ensuing from these scenarios can be expected to be important. The London experience indicates that a given per centum lessening in traffic volumes reduces congestion degrees in per centum footings well more than the volume bead. Using these relationships to specific avenues and streets in Manhattan suggests travel clip nest eggs throughout the twenty-four hours on major streets to be from one to three proceedingss for every stat mi traveled A two minute clip nest eggs for going a stat mi on a major route may look modest, but it is tantamount in its clip salvaging impact to upgrading a 20 miles per hour main road to 60 miles per hour main road
For toll aggregation, Drivers have to buy a transponder ( E-Z base on balls ) for a fee and set up an history through the bureau administrating the tolling plan. When the vehicle passes a tolling point, the payment is deducted automatically from the recognition or bank history linked to the transponder history. In most instances, tolls are pre-paid, intending that a vehicle ‘s transponder must hold sufficient financess to pay for the toll when it is incurred. Drivers may besides set up a plan with their bank so that their transponder histories are automatically replenished. Ideally, this system reduces the sum of clip and attempt drivers spend get bying with the tolling plan. Enforcement cameras take images of any vehicle that passes a gauntry without a transponder.
Now with the usage of assorted ITS engineerings tolls can be paid by the Internet, cellular phone text message, or at selected retail shops
ARGUMENT AND COUNTERARGUMENT FOR THE CONGESTION CHARGES:
For this congestion charges, it can be expected that those driving across 60th Street who would be asked to pay, populating in upper Manhattan, the Bronx, Westchester and Connecticut, will be in resistance. Aside from the natural resistance based on an added cost where there is none now, their statements are that a ) the infliction of a toll will damage the economic system of the City, particularly Brooklyn and Queens, but perchance Manhattan, as fewer trips are likely to be made to them, B ) lower income drivers will be faced with an burdensome and regressive charge, degree Celsius ) tolls will impact many drivers who do non hold a feasible theodolite option.
Two recent studies, one by the Bridge Tolls Advocacy Project ( BTAP ) and the other by the New York City Independent Budget Office ( IBO ) , analyze how East River span tolls might impact assorted income groups. Both conclude that most of those affected by new tolls on the East River Bridgess would be from higher income groups. The IBO study used the Regional Travel-Household Interview Survey of 1997-1998 to happen that 66 per centum of those who use free Bridgess in New York had incomes higher than $ 50,000. BTAP used nose count informations to happen that drivers who are really likely to utilize the free East River bridges earn $ 53,468 on norm, which is $ 14,300, more than their neighbours who commute by theodolite or other agencies.
These informations beginnings have yet to be mined to be able to pull similar decisions about income distributions for those who would traverse 60th Street. Drivers from the North are likely to arise from the Upper East Side or West Sides of Manhattan, upper Manhattan, the Bronx, and suburban countries outside of the metropolis in the Hudson Valley or Connecticut. Analysis of income degree of drivers from these countries has non been done, but they are likely to demo forms similar as those from the E. More research is needed to find the features of those being asked to pay more crossing either the East River or sixtieth Street. For commuters, the long-awaited elaborate work trip Census could
reference this inquiry.
The outer boroughs would profit from beefed up theodolite service that could be funded by the congestion charge, as London has done. The outer boroughs would besides profit from less traffic go throughing through outer borough vicinities on the manner into Manhattan. In Long Island City, 57 per centum of traffic come ining the country during the forenoon peak hr is bound for the Queensboro Bridge. Likewise in Brooklyn, traffic edge for the East River bridges histories for 43 per centum of all vehicles come ining downtown Brooklyn during the forenoon haste hr and 45 per centum during noon. Reducing traffic would besides look to profit those little to mid-size concerns that need to travel into Manhattan often. These folks presumptively charge for their clip and would profit from holding to pass less clip in traffic.
The economic system can be affected by congestion pricing to the extent that pricing reduces trip-making to and from the CBD ; pricing can potentially extinguish trips that, if taken, might hold created an economic addition for the driver, the City, the concerns in the CBD, or concerns in next boroughs and provinces. Businesss by and large considered the costs of congestion to be greater than any costs potentially imposed by congestion pricing.
A study by London First in August 2003 indicates that 71 per centum of the 504 companies surveyed do non believe the charge has had a discernible impact on their bottom line, while 9 per centum believe the strategy has had a really positive impact and 9 per centum believe it has had a really negative impact. With merely 9 per centum sing lost concern it is besides possible that such a little per centum might hold seen losingss even without the congestion
charges. Forty-nine per centum of those surveyed thought congestion bear downing was working in London while 16 per centum did non, and 35 per centum did non cognize. Almost all companies based in the zone are non sing relocating based on the charge ; 2 per centum are sing resettlement and 4 per centum do n’t cognize. Again, this study consequence may hold been obtained under normal fortunes. ( Second Annual Monitoring Report from TfL in spring 2004. )
Industries that rely on motor vehicle traffic, most notably the garage proprietors in Manhattan, can be expected to strongly take issue with added charges. They would non
benefit from any countervailing travel clip additions. On the other manus, bundle bringing companies, exigency services, the constabulary and fire section and others who depend on a dependable traffic environment may happen much to wish about lower traffic volumes and higher velocities and fall in those advancing route charges and tolls.
Congestion pricing is an thought that has been around for over 50 old ages, but there it sits on the dust-covered shelf of unimplemented good thoughts. But there is a renewed attempt by a wide alliance of environmental, concern groups, public wellness and urban advocator to turn a good thought into public policy.
Congestion Pricing is a good tool for non merely cut downing traffic congestion, leting higher value traffic to flux, but besides cut downing land degree pollution, promoting extremely energy efficient transit manners ( mass theodolite, biking, walking ) , making a gross watercourse for farther transit betterments and overall improve quality of life in the metropolis. But Congestion Pricing entirely will non cut down low value car traffic. Congestion pricing should be one portion of a multi-prong traffic decrease program including increased degrees of mass theodolite service, decreases in authorities parking licenses, better biking and prosaic installations, and all other ways to better theodolite options for commuters.
Success against congestion requires non merely assailing it on multiple foreparts with schemes.It besides requires cooperation between transit bureaus, public safety bureaus, concerns, and the populace. Since we are all affected by congestion, it is of import that we all work together to turn to the congestion job and happen solutions.