Materialism and idealism are two theories that greatly differ but are basically straightforward to hold on in footings of contrasting and comparing the two. Karl Marx. a 19th century German philosopher and socialist saw philistinism as a theory in respects to all world being based on affair. Materialism is based on more of a scientific and factual attack. For illustration. the thought of a tabular array was developed by worlds because of their experience with other tabular arraies. non from consciousness. Idealism. is a theory that refers to the head or the spirit of God being the beginning of all material things on Earth. Using the table illustration. a materialist would reason that societal being determines consciousness. whereas an dreamer would reason that consciousness determines being. Materialism respects all phenomena even that of the head. is due to a stuff bureau.
Idealism respects thoughts as the lone world. The bulk of people do non populate a life free of philistinism. To make so people must be happy with a life free of indulging their organic structures and heads with things that pleasure the senses. Very few people are without philistinism. which would intend that money and other physical ownerships mean really small to them and it is indispensable that they have to pick to be able to freely take this without being pushed on by certain social forces.
The most popular signifier of idealism is the thought that persons can make anything that set their heads to. For illustration. one can get the better of poorness if they put their head to it and seek truly difficult. Poverty is non a societal phenomenon caused by social restrictions or unwellness in the household. instead a personal pick. In this paper I will be discoursing Karl Marx’s history philistinism theory. Alfred North Whitehead’s scientific philistinism theory. and how the two coincide in footings of facets of human creativeness ; but besides the differences of their impressions through an idealistic attack.
KARL MARX’S HISTORY MATERIALISM
Marx’s theory of historical philistinism is greatly influenced from Hegel’s point of view of history being composed of opposing forces. Hegel believed that the universe is simply made up of visual aspects. and that true world is an idealistic position of the universe. However. although Marx did side with Hegel in footings of his impression of the universe consisting of opposing forces – he did non believe that the universe hides these “true realities” that Hegel insisted upon ( idealistically ) . The manner Marx analyzes history and it’s development over the old ages. is based upon the agencies of production and the relationships people enter as they use these agencies of production ( socially ) . At first. Marx considered the capitalist manner of production to be the most radical the universe has of all time seen due to the fact that the agencies of production in a capitalistic society alteration more than the societal relationships people enter in this type of society ; referred to as dealingss of production.
In capitalistic societies. people sell their “availability to work” as opposed to the goods they are produce. Basically. the sum of labor traveling into the merchandises does non intend much in a capitalistic society. The compensation of what is being produced by the laborers is what is most of import as the laborers receive money for their capacity to work. in order to last ; these people are called workers. And the ‘opposition’ in this instance. are called capitalists ; whom are the people that usually own the concerns and have the labour power.
Marx. I guess you could state. had an oculus opening experience when he realized that over clip capitalistic societies would finally pass less money on labor and put more into new technological promotions. Keeping this in head. the rate of net income will drastically fall even if the economic system grew because labor is the beginning of all net incomes. If the rate of net incomes lessenings plenty. a recession will shortly be the result. To reason. in such an economical crisis. the monetary value of labor will besides fall. which will take to more money being invested into new engineerings alternatively of laborers.
MARX & A ; WHITEHEAD PROCESSES AND CRITIQUE OF CAPITALISM
When discoursing human history. Marx and Whitehead had different takes on what constituted human development and flawlessness. For Whitehead. the driving force of human history is reached by self-regulation and ground where the wonts of head are close to the wonts of organic structure. Through self-regulation one can make human flawlessness. On the other manus. Marx argues that history is all wonts of the organic structure. and the dealingss between organic structure to organic structure. It is more of a factual based review where the “possible” is projected from the existent. To Marx. the head is a wont of the organic structure created by other organic structures dealingss with other organic structures. Marx and Whitehead can be compared by the manner they both begin their reviews of human history with experience. and finally return to it.
Both of them rely on internal dealingss as they analyze. Internal dealingss sees activities ever bearing qualities if they. themselves. are qualities. Through internal dealingss they are adjectives of their societal context. Marx and Whitehead both see oculus to oculus as modern natural philosophies sees everything as a developmental procedure and on-going activity. Everything is connected to everything through an environment. Marx’s positions on production in the economical universe can be straight compared to Whitehead’s manner of idea. The drive force behind the universe procedure ( Whitehead’s “creativity” ) is the production ability ( Marx’s position ) . To understand what is incorrect with pay labor is to understand the procedure of production. Wage can non and should non mensurate populating labor. Marx see’s capitalist economy as a misdemeanor of individual and things. as it treats them as objects.
Whitehead and Marx see capitalist economy as metaphysically deficient. The universe is a procedure that sees every person as alone. but capitalist economy sees every individual’s creativeness as the same. which leaves no room for development. For Marx and the capitalistic impression. human labor is treated as an object when the excess value separates people’s activity as being truly human. The push labour upon people. it easy takes off from the individual’s originative nature. Capitalism does non let for new possibilities of originative to originate.
This quotation mark from Marx’s book _Das Kapital_ . explains Marx’s position of how capitalist economy may expropriate human creativeness has to make with the captivity of other’s in order to convey present creativeness through the past labor of persons. “Present creativeness sparked by future envisionment has been reduced to the abstract pecuniary look of the generalized past labor of my brothers and sisters. Their originative lives have paid my pay and mine has paid theirs. We are the monetary value of… . one another’s enslavememnt” ( _Das Kapital. _ Marx Pg. 124 ) . Human existences are non free and originative under capitalist economy. as it does non admit human existences this manner. In a capitalistic society. people are merely seen in the visible radiation of production – what they produce.
Whitehead goes into item about capitalist economy merely merely force the universe to a halt. and the procedure of development and creativeness finally seizes to be. Whitehead’s thought tends to happen similarities and truths through scrutiny of things that may oppose each other but tend to happen a manner of belonging together. Marx tends to divide any method from the stuff. nevertheless both Whitehead and Marx’s thought alumnus to legalize constructs.
WHITEHEAD’S SCIENTIFIC MATERIALISM
Scientific Materialism is a impression that 20th century philosopher Alfred North Whitehead defined as the belief that physical world is all that exists. In this philosophical construct. there is non much room for faith as it is entirely based on religion in the unobserved. Many scientists are opposed to spiritual religion. and stop up roasting such beliefs. However. Whitehead stated that “modern scientific discipline. as it developed in the West. was based on a religion in the being of rational. ascertainable laws” ( Whitehead. Pg. 17-19. 27 ) . The resistance between the existent and faith is a subject that is ever looked at when these two “philosophies” are talked about. What Whitehead attempts to mend is the spread made by philistinism which splits the constructs of value and intent from scientific account. Whitehead believed that faith was a cultural phenomenon. and that philistinism has gotten out of control in modernness. For Whitehead. everything is basically everyplace at all times.
Every location involves an facet of life in every other location. which is fundamentally a series of events that are connected and basically organize a timeline. or a constructed series of procedures. This construct is what distinguishes the metaphysical constituent of the universe. The procedure. and series of events are what constitute the universe. instead than the substance. Procedure and world is a construct that makes the universe what it is harmonizing to Whitehead. “Actual Occasion” is a construct in which Whitehead believes is non an long-run substance. but a procedure in which everything finally becomes. This construct can be contrasted with Kant’s doctrine on how the universe emerges from the topic. With this in head. Whitehead’s impression is one that is the complete antonym of Kant’s. where the topic emerges from the universe. Scientific philistinism consists of interaction between things is spacial and non developmental. where the individuality of something does non depend on other things for its being.
Many inquiries are brought up when covering with scientific philistinism. and even the comparings between philistinism and idealism in the visible radiation of how alteration comes approximately. and how form gets into the universe to get down with? These inquiries are important when covering with philistinism. which needs to explicate the outgrowth of the formation of affair. and idealism which explains how thoughts ( substances ) even acquire into the universe. For Whitehead. the features of life are absolute self-enjoyment. The ideal community is holding dealingss with others. which is something both Whitehead and Marx believe. No 1 will willingly make something that is bad. if what is good is true. The originative activity that Whitehead speaks of. is similar to Marx’s position of human flawlessness and activity every bit good.
The procedure of self-creation is the transmutation of the possible into the existent. and the satisfaction of such a transmutation includes self-enjoyment. which is what humans strive for. Self-enjoyment is a certain immediate individualism where each and every experience is alone. and done for its ain interest ( no terminal in itself ) . When Whitehead negotiations about the human experience and how to gestate things that are existent. he means that all of our experiences are wholly subjective and that our organic structures are associated with the presence of our heads. which is where Whitehead and Marx bump caputs. if you will ( Whitehead. Nature Alive ) . As I mentioned. Whitehead believes the wonts of head are close to the wonts of organic structure. whereas Marx believes everything is made up of the wonts of organic structures. and dealingss between organic structures.
To further understand Whitehead’s theory of scientific philistinism. one must to the full understand self-enjoyment and what is ideal. Purpose. besides referred to as the AIM. limits the field of possible and is present throughout the yesteryear. nowadays. and future experiences – they are present but non ever achieved. In footings of the idealistic attack of Whitehead’s scientific philistinism impression. there are two sorts of observations he goes over ; which are traditional empiricist philosophy ( sense perceptual experience ) . and direct facet of our experience ( Whitehead. “Nature Alive 1” . Lect ) .
The grounds for AIM or aim. comes from bodily feelings. Human existences are natural. as the know and realize the good ( Whitehead. “Nature Alive 1” . Lect ) . This can be straight related to Marx and his economic reading of history which actualizes the good. ( Whitehead “Nature Alive 2” ) . Whitehead and Marx portion their positions of nature as a set of internal procedures. instead than an externally set of substances. which is the most common subject shared between the two and their mentality of nature.
Procedure AND REALITY
Alfred North Whitehead’s doctrine can be really complicated at times. but he presents a system that explains how touchable facets of human experience can supply an account as to how we understand world. Procedure and world can be looked at as a manner of going. There are many stages in this doctrine that attempt to explicate Whitehead’s impression. However. Whitehead’s bad doctrine is known as the doctrine of being in which Whitehead views world as incorporate parts that drama of import functions in prolonging certain procedures. Actual entities or occasions are what Whitehead describes as the worlds of the universe. Actual occasions are solid facts in which our emotions and ideas are based upon. hence the name “Actual” .
The other elements of human experience are called “prehensions” ( mental apprehension ) of existent entities – a system of relationships that connects all existent entities. Graspings are ways of apprehension and analysing the universe. Grasping is non a manner of thought. but to seize something is to hold a thought or a construct of a peculiar thing. This is a procedure of an existent entity going itself by allowing elements from other bing entities. This can be referred back to the procedure of going. which in the instance. the going of an existent entity is because of the procedure of graspings that take topographic point.
In decision. although idealism and philistinism differ greatly from a philosophical and spiritual point of view. Marx’s and Whitehead’s philistinism theories overlap in facets that have to make with human creativeness and how dealingss with others and one’s ego helps transform the possible into the existent. Although Marx’s impression of human creativeness and flawlessness is chiefly covered in regard to his economic position of societies and capitalist economy. both impressions tend to portion similarities and differences when looking at the universe and what it has to offer.
Traveling back to Whitehead’s position of the driving force of human ideals and flawlessness that is reached by self-regulation where the wonts of one’s head tend to hold a hardy clasp to the wonts of the organic structure. Whereas. Marx did believe that human history and the realization of flawlessness are all wonts of the organic structure and the dealingss from organic structure to organic structure. which goes back to the possibilities of people being in way relation with other people. Both philosophers have alone ways of looking at human history and creativeness. which was inspired by others every bit good. but in the terminal still have the potency of trying to detect how things connect. develop. and advancement in the universe.
Schilpp. Paul Arthur. editor: _The Doctrine of Alfred North White. _ “The Library of Living Philosophers. ” ( LaSalle: Open Court Publishing Company. 1951 )
_Process and Reality_ ( New York: The Macmillan Company 1929. New York: The Free Press. 1978. )
Marx. Karl: _Das Kapital_ . ( Capital Volume III. 1894 )
Whitehead. Alfred North: _Nature Alive_ ( Lecture 1 & A ; 2 )
Whitehead. Alfred North. _Modes of Thought. _ ( Lectures VII and VIII )
Whitehead. Alfred North. _Adventurs of Ideas. _ ( Chap. II )
A. H. Johnson. _Whitehead’s Theory of Reality. _ Boston: The Beacon Press. 1952. p. 116