The Eiffel Tower In Paris Was Built For The World Exhibition Tourism Essay

Many undertakings all round the universe has built and designed through schemes and for different aims. For illustration, the Eiffel tower in Paris was built for the universe exhibition of 1889. The aim of this construction was to demo the universe how France has improved in engineering and beauty. Another illustration is the Sydney Opera House, after the Second World War the Australians realized that the state needs a world-class opera house to increase their repute ( A position on citation ) . The same thing happened in London, when British Prime Minister Tony Blair agreed the program to work the new millenary to construct an building for the state in this juncture. Therefore, they call it The Millennium Dome.

Project Management stages were used in those undertakings. The Millennium Dome besides passed through the Project Management phases which all undertakings should go through through it to make their ends. These stages are concept, feasibleness, undertaking definition, development, production, operation and expiration. This called The Project Life Cycle. The Millennium Dome faced different environmental issues, besides jobs which slowed the attack of making the aims which will be discussed in this study.

This study will exemplify how to get the better of these jobs and get by with several sorts of undertakings environment. However, to find these troubles, really elaborate information demand to be mentioned within the study. This information will be collected from different resources such as cyberspace, picture, media, diaries and books.

2 Concept:

Although, the thought of the Millennium Dome saw the visible radiation when John Major ‘s authorities considered constructing a construction to tag the new millenary, It had non existed before the election of the British President Tony Blair took topographic point. After that the authorities agreed the execution and made it in his precedences. They started be aftering the undertaking in 1997. Therefore, they had four old ages for the undertaking to be done ( Carling & A ; Seely, 1998 ) . The purpose was really clear as it mentioned before to construct a construction which tantrum with the millenary juncture. Besides, breathe life and activity to an country of London, located in the south-east of the capital called Greenwich.

3 Feasibility:

To get down large undertakings there are some issues need to be thought about and taken into consideration like the location, where to construct this construction. Furthermore, the most of import thing before get downing a undertaking is to see the feasibleness of the undertaking and whether it can be done in the current fortunes. Who are the stakeholders? What are the critical success factors? When it should be finished? Besides, when it should be ready to host visitants? The fiscal issues should be discussed and from where it will be provided? Who is traveling to put to death this undertaking? Does he hold sufficient experience and the necessary factors for success to set about this undertaking? Are his old undertakings and their successes show how expert is he? What are the preliminary hazards? Is at that place adequate clip and budget to near the coveted public presentation? Besides, believing about a preliminary rating of option in instance something happened before, during or after the executing.

The so Prim Minister Tony Blair said the dome would be a symbol of British assurance and escapade. By giving the green visible radiation for get downing the Millennium Dome in 1997, the deadline clip for the undertaking was known at the terminal of the twelvemonth 1999. Then looking for the optimum location has been started. It will be on the Greenwich peninsula in the south E of London. The support for this undertaking has been ensured by the authorities and from three committees. First, the Millennium Commission which funded the Millennium Dome Project of ?649 1000000s in entire. Second, sponsorship estimated income ?175 1000000s for 14 zones. Last, the 12 1000000s paying visitants was the estimated figure of visitants which faced resistances and described as ambitious expected figure. ( GENERAL, 2000 )

4 Definition:

The Millennium Dome Project was implemented by a major attempt from the undertaking organisation which was being supervised by the British Government. This organisation was composed of The New Millennium Experience Company ( NMEC ) this organisation was given the duty to run the millenary experience. This company was established by the authorities in February 1997, therefore it is owned by the authorities. Besides, edifice and runing the Millennium Dome. English Partnerships, the responsibility of this company was to pull off the competition for the hereafter usage of the Millennium Dome. In add-on, to give advises to the curates on competition ‘s issues and information that they need to do determinations on the hereafter of the Dome. Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions ( DETR ) was responsible to command and ease the issues related to these facets. The Millennium Commission, it was established in 1994 under the national lottery to fund and back up the communities to observe the 3rd millenary. The responsible for museums, galleries, libraries, the heritage, the humanistic disciplines, athleticss, instruction, broadcast medium, the media and touristry for the Millennium was The Department for Culture, Media and Sport ( DCMS ) . Finally, The National Audit Office ( NAO ) who have to present a study to the parliament about the authorities money, how and where it is spent ( who ‘s who? ) .

The authorities and these sections formed The Millennium Dome Project Organization. This type of organisations called Matrix Organizations which “ allow the undertaking director to concentrate on the undertaking and the undertaking work merely every bit in a undertaking organisation. The undertaking squad is free to concentrate on the undertaking objectives with minimum distractions from the functional section ” ( Heldman, Baca, & A ; Jansen, 2007 ) . This undertaking focused on three chief stakeholders. Tourism, were the most of import manner for acquiring benefits from the undertaking by the paying visitants whether from inside or outside the state. The authorities which was oversing the undertaking. Besides, they were besides interested in how the undertaking attracts tourers and how it reflects the image of the state. In add-on, the patrons were of import for the Undertaking and the advertizement.

The Millennium Experience was wanted to be attractive, inspirational, entertaining, educational and involved visitants and participants. Besides, seeks to consolidate the state ‘s location between the peoples of the universe. Besides there were more aims for the company to be done such as, to present the undertaking in specific clip and within an estimated budget to construct and run the Dome. The Government ensured to fund the undertaking if any jobs appeared. This measure came after they failed to pull private backup for the proposed undertaking. It was funded by private sponsorship such as British Airways, National Lottery grants were provided by the Millennium Commission, a non-departmental public organic structure chaired by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport and admission tickets. 12 million of visits should be achieved by the terminal of the twelvemonth 2000, which is the estimated figure of visitants. Value for money should be delivered to the Millennium Commission, patrons and paying visitants. Best utilizing of British and international originative endowment and the latest art of engineering should be made in this juncture ( The Dome: Who runs it? ) .

5 Execution:

The undertaking started in 1997, the involved committees were runing harmonizing to the program, budget and schemes which developed by the implemented company NMEC. Finally, The Millennium Dome Project has finished and opened his Gatess on clip. It is the largest single-roofed construction in the universe. It besides has become one of the United Kingdom ‘s most recognizable landmarks. However, positions differed on whether the undertaking is successful or non. However, to cognize that, analyzing whether the undertaking has succeeded in carry throughing the demands and aims for which it was conducted within the clip agreed upon and the estimated costs and the quality of public presentation which pleased the undertaking ‘s stakeholders. The reply seems varies depending on which stakeholder was asked ( Ammar, 2007 ) . Content has been showed by people who visited the Millennium celebrations, whilst it did non pleased the imperativeness and termed it a failure. However, as a undertaking director looking to the three chief facets Time, Cost and Quality is the right manner to knock a undertaking.

6 Success:

The Millennium Dome as edifice is impressive as it is considered the largest individual roof construction in the universe. Despite its size, the air contained within the edifice is heavier than the roof itself. The Dome is subdivided into 14 zones. Each zone contains different life facets such as instruction, finance, journey, amusement and religion. ( Ammar, 2007 )

There is no uncertainty about naming The Millennium Dome Project a successful in footings of clip. Opening on clip was a major accomplishment it self. Very big figure of paying visitants was attracted to the Dome, by June the record for 1999 ( 2.65 million ) for a UK ‘pay-to-visit ‘ attractive force has been beaten. A recent study showed that the satisfaction was shown on 87 % of the visitants with their visit and 86 % were satisfied with the provided services by the Dome ‘s hosts ( GENERAL, 2000 ) .

Construction of the undertaking in the Greenwich peninsula country has breathed life and activity back to the country after being for a period of clip one of the most contaminated country in Europe because of a gasworks had contaminated the dirt up to a deepness of 14 metres ( Millennium Dome – Construction ) .

7 Failure:

7.1 Fiscal Failure:

The Millennium Dome undertaking was one of the most controversial public works undertakings of all time undertaken. The authorities has been accused of blowing money on the undertaking for a big figure of grounds in footings of fiscal issues and different facets of quality. The undertaking started confronting problems when it was refused to be funded by the private companies motivating the authorities to make up one’s mind to set about it through the lottery money.The estimated budget from lottery of the Millennium Dome Project was ?399 1000000s in 1997, and the existent budget was ?630 1000000s by the terminal of September 2000 which is about twice the estimated budget ( Over budget? The Dome ‘s non entirely… , 2000 ) .

A 2000 National Audit Office study declared that The Millennium Commission made four extra grants to the NMEC during the twelvemonth 2000. ?60 1000000s in February, ?29 in May, ?43 in August and ?47 in September. This monolithic addition caused by the incorrect estimated figure of visitants and their gross. 12 1000000s paying visitants was the estimated figure while the existent figure of visitants was 6.5 1000000s. It is clear that the NMEC was depending on the visitants ‘ gross for the Dome operating processes. Another ground for the dramatic grant addition was the sponsorship gross. In fact the company expected to pull ?175 1000000s in sponsorship for 14 zones. However, the company decreased its prognosis to ?122 1000000s for 12 zones due to the lake of patrons. For these ground they asked for more grants from the Millennium Commission. ( GENERAL, 2000 )

During the operating of the Dome and subsequently there were care procedures, and because of the monolithic size of the edifice and the really latest engineering used there besides the sort of visitants and equipments, the care cost was ?28.4 1000000s after it was closed in the twelvemonth 2001. Therefore, and after this add-on on the old entire cost of 2000, the entire cost of 2001 become ?786 1000000s. Furthermore, the existent income for the company in 2000 was ?189 1000000s about half the estimated income with ? 359 1000000s ( Dome cost continues to gyrate, 2002 ) . Thus, after all this grounds the right people to depict the Millennium Dome as a waste of money.

7.2 Quality:

7.2.1 Quality of planning:

The rules of hazard direction to inquire yourself some inquiries “ What If? “ if something unsteadily happened. Then the other inquiry should be “ Then What? “ . These inquiries should hold been asked by the Millennium Dome Organization but it seems to be ignored. “ What if the estimated figure of visitants was excessively optimistic? “ which has happened. “ Then what shall we make if this happened? “ .Millennium Dome operating ended with the terminal of the twelvemonth 2000, once more the inquiry “ Once the Millennium jubilations ended, so what? “ ( Ammar, 2007 ) . Furthermore, The inquiry that the imperativeness has asked it and the organisation should hold asked is “ After the twelvemonth 2000 and the Millennium Dome has become history, What it may make for London “ . If these inquiries were asked at the definition stage of the Millennium Dome Project, it would be emerged better than it appeared, and avoided many of the fiscal disablement, which make it in the eyes of the people a failure.

These inquiries which seem non to be discussed lead us to a point. Are the staff of the Millennium Dome Organization have adequate experiences? In the early yearss of the gap, there was a clear lake of direction when 1000s of visitants were made to stand outside in the cold queuing for tickets or failed to have their tickets through the station. In position of the direction troubles that appeared in the early yearss of the gap, a Vice- President of Euro Disney with short experience was appointed to replace the so main executive ( GENERAL, 2000 ) .

There were besides transits jobs making the Dome. The Jubilee Line has an extension to ease the entree to the north Greenwich peninsula, the execution of the Jubilee Line cost ?1.2 billion over the budget and it was delayed for 14 months. In add-on, after the opining of the station in May 1999 some installations were still uncomplete, including handicapped entree ( Millennium Dome ) .

7.2.2 Quality of direction:

The disadvantages of the Matrix organisation affected the Millennium Dome managing procedure. It was clear that the complex organisational agreements complicated the undertaking of pull offing the undertaking. Harmonizing to the National Audit Office that during the scrutiny it has become clear that the parties were non agree among themselves on the portion of decision-making and treatments. These caused by varies issues from each committee. For illustration, the authorities made the five cardinal committednesss for the Dome in 1997 that covered cost, content, effectual direction, national impact and what should be done to the Dome after the terminal of the Millennium jubilation. All these committednesss were the duty of the stockholder, the proprietor of the company. From the company ‘s 22 meetings since August 1999, the stakeholder has attended 16 of the meetings and been represented at two of those which he did non go to personally. ( GENERAL, 2000 )

The Millennium Commission was lacked of power to implement the Dome. For this ground, the authorities has established the MNEC and the Commission ‘s duties were to O.K. the company ‘s programs and budget, supervise the advancement in edifice and runing the Dom, and do lottery grants for the company. After that, the company ‘s finance has been reviewed by advisers appointed by the committee due to the addition of the cost. The advisers suggested to the Commission 8 1000000s as a figure of visitants and reported that the estimated figure of the visitants made by the company was exaggerated. However, the company ignored the suggestion and went with its appraisal. ( GENERAL, 2000 )

The lake of direction experiences and the hapless construction of the organisation affected the organisation itself. Get downing from February 2000 the company had to do major alterations at senior degrees. The Chief Executive and Accounting Officer left the Company and was replaced. In May, the so non-executive Chairman resigned. In September, the replacement stepped down, of his petition, to the place of Vice-Chairman, and an Executive Chairman was appointed. Besides, A new Finance Director was besides appointed. These alterations have raised the entire cost by telling extra grants from the Commission ( GENERAL, 2000 ) .

This sort of Instability did non do alterations merely on the degree of persons. Whilst in 2001, the company was liquidated and the authorities bureau English Partnerships took the ownership of the edifice. In 2004, the Meridian Delta Ltd bought the Dome and 170 estates on the Greenwich peninsula to make a 26,000 capacity sphere and develop the environing country, including constructing 10,000 new places and making 24,000 occupations ( Millennium Dome ) .

8 Monitoring and Controlling:

The Comptroller and Auditor General, Sir John Bourn said “ the New Millennium Experience Company has experienced terrible fiscal troubles this twelvemonth and has required considerable extra lottery support. The chief cause of these troubles is the failure to accomplish the visitant Numberss and income required. The marks were extremely ambitious and inherently hazardous taking to a important grade of fiscal exposure on the undertaking ” . ( Press Release – The Millennium Dome, 2000 )

The incorrect appraisal of the budget and the visitants ‘ figure supports the thought that the leaders of the Millennium organisation were inexperienced. The determination to be after on the footing of 12 million visitants meant that the Dome had to pull four times as many visitants as the following most popular UK ‘pay-to-visit ‘ attractive force achieved in 1999 by Alton Towers. It is clear that is impossible to accomplish this difference in one twelvemonth.

From the early months of the gap of the Dome, it was clear from the figures that the estimated figure of visitants will non be achieved. For illustration, in January 344.620 people visited the dome which is tantamount to 3 % of the original one-year mark. In add-on, the attractive force of the visitants made ?189m while the company forecasted income was ?359m and the ticket monetary values were reduced by up to 50 % in a concluding effort to change by reversal the go oning slack in visitant Numberss ( Dome cost continues to gyrate, 2002 ) . All the figures were demoing that there is an administrational job at the organisation in several degrees which should be easy realized.

The experts of the undertakings that the Millennium Commission has funded said that as is the instance with the Millennium Dome there are besides undertakings carried out by the Commission failed. Such as The Portsmouth Spinnaker and the many other undertakings funded by the UK lottery. From this information it can be concluded that the monitoring and commanding section in the Millennium Commission was really weak.

9 Pull offing uncertainness:

In February 1999 the Company ‘s Board agreed to let free entree to the Dome for up to one million schoolchildren. The Company claimed that this determination will increase the Losingss by ?7 million. In 1998 it was known in progress that the Millennium Dome will be presented for sale after the terminal of the jubilation for the hereafter usage. In July 2000 Ministers selected Dome Europe plc as the preferable bidder. However, in September Dome Europe withdrew. Then dialogues with other parties started once more. At the terminal of 2001, a development company was selected to turn the millenary dome into an indoor athleticss sphere and to develop its environing country into a complex that includes residential, shopping, and concern facilities.A The edifice itself has been renamed into O2 as portion of its renovation ( GENERAL, 2000 ) .A

By looking at these unsure jobs and how the company and the organisation acted with it. The ground for the failure of this undertaking will be known. Sing to the schoolchildren, being runing a museum or a national topographic points such visits or these sorts of people should be expected. Besides, understanding with more than one company or at least their files and offers after the first dialogue should be existed to do the resolution procedure easier.

10 Decision:

The English authorities has experienced The Millennium Dome and they seem to be learned from it. The BBC political letter writer says the authorities has taken a large hazard and many of its protagonists believe the money would be better spent on instruction and the wellness service ( Blair defends Millenium Dome, 1998 ) . On the other manus, the so dainty curate Tony Blair eventually admits that it had failed to run into public outlooks. Michael Heseltine, the politician who commissioned the Dome admits that it should non hold been built.A This experience will take into consideration in the 2012 Olympic Games.