This chapter reviews old literature and surveies on the African touristry industry, the demand for political, historical and societal analysis of touristry and the continents accepted strengths and failings. On a regional degree the literature analysis of West Africa and East Africa will concentrate on how these parts have attempted to construct on best patterns related to touristry. The purpose of this chapter is to show the theoretical background and context that justifies the chief aim of the survey, which is to look into a footing for the development of a strategic attack for calculating the future development of the touristry industry. The cardinal intent of this reappraisal centres on the acknowledgment of the economic significance of touristry to African state economic systems, the importance of advancing sustainable touristry activities and attractive force and the publicity of coordinated touristry development.
The Rationale for the African Tourism Industry Strategic Framework
A reappraisal of the literature agrees that the African continent has an tremendous potency for touristry development ( Medlik, 2002, Ankomah and Crompton, 1990 ) . Further research articulated by Poon ( 1993 ) points to the “ new touristry ” and planetary tendency towards non-traditional finishs and long-haul travel. This, he suggests illustrates altering traveler wants in footings of finish experience which should supply a major window of chance for finishs in Africa. Unfortunately, harmonizing to the World Travel and Tourism Council the continent appears to be executing below its potency. The inquiry is what is the cause of this under-performance? Gauci et Al ( 2002 ) histories for this by indicating at hapless substructure, such as roads, electricity and H2O supplies ; deficient adjustment ; unsatisfactory public wellness services ; hapless telecommunication installations ; and in a figure of instances security jobs. Gauci et al farther attention deficit disorder that delays in using more efficient direction systems and the continuity of patterns that impede their fight have besides contributed to decelerate development of the touristry industry.
Ankomah and Crompton besides observe that Africa ‘s population doubled to 700 million in the post-independence period, thereby puting enormous emphasis on all facets of economic, societal, cultural, environmental, every bit good as political development. In this context Luvanga and Shitundu ( 2003 ) argue that rapid growing of the touristry sector is an of import instrument of poorness allevation, the creative activity of occupations, the sale of goods and services, support of cultural industries and beginning of foreign exchange. In understanding with this statement it is of import to observe the elevated position given to tourism by the United Nations ( UN ) and the Economic Commission of Africa ( ECA ) , which clearly supports the possible function of touristry in the economic and societal development of Africa ( ECA, 1999 ) . Indeed, extended informations and literature point to the peculiar and turning importance of touristry in Africa and exemplify that despite the overpowering restraints there are positive marks for the touristry industry. For illustration, harmonizing to the Tourism Vision 2020 study of the World Tourism Organisation ( WTO ) an mean one-year rise of 5.5 per centum was envisaged in the international reachings in Africa between 1995 and 2020. A similar rate of growing was forecasted for intra-African touristry. However, the survey by Luvanga and Shitundu ( 2003 ) demonstrates the flip-side of the touristry: that it is a complex industry frequently driven by the private sector to profit international companies instead than local economic systems and doing environmental debasement. It is such conflicting statements that have produced advocators of a strategic model ( Nelson, 2007, Heath, 2003 ) reasoning that as touristry develops and becomes intricate it will necessitate strategic direction of the procedure. The aim is that by developing a prediction theoretical account to foretell the future development of the industry the sector will be able to maximize the benefits, contain and extenuate the negative impacts in order to guarantee development conforms to national policy aims.
The Purpose of the Strategic model
Dumont and Teller ( 2005 ) argue that a strategic model will assist to set up, measure and benchmark incorporate touristry policy at the local degree with a position to maximizing the benefits of touristry on preservation and sweetening of heritage diverseness. This reading indicates a strategic model aimed at furthering a pro-active attack, easing impact appraisal and increasing consciousness of sustainability issues for the hereafter. The intent here is to use a strategic model as a tool for calculating the hereafter in order for the touristry industry to be prepared for what might go on. Forecasting that is based on historical information and past events. Importantly, Fayol ( 1949 ) wrote that pull offing agencies looking in front and that if foresight is non the whole of the direction it is at least a major portion of it. Harmonizing Fayol to anticipate is to measure the hereafter and do commissariats for it and that any program needs to hold integrity, continuity, flexibleness and preciseness. It means that the administration or industry should be run as if the hereafter was foreseen. The program of action is considered indispensable and that experience, from the yesteryear, was what determined the value of the program. Fayol did, nevertheless, recognise that there would be unexpected events but the program would function as protection against such events and ensuing implemented alterations of class.
Predicting and preparing is, harmonizing to Ackoff ( 1983 ) , the paradigm of direction with foretelling and calculating being the more of import. Prognosiss are based on descriptions of the yesteryear and that informations is fitted to a line and projected into the hereafter. The premise is that what has happen in the yesteryear will go on in the hereafter. Therefore, the overall purpose is aimed at measuring the yesteryear to better work end products and concentrating work force and resources to accomplish better degrees in footings of public presentation and market competition.
At this phase of the paper it is besides of import to observe that different degrees of scheme preparation, development and execution exist. These degrees relate to the purpose of the scheme. Prince alberts ( 2004 ) identifies three degrees of strategic prediction model. The first being the corporate degree where corporate ends are set, the mark markets are defined and the footings and conditions of the corporate scheme are defined. The 2nd degree is the concern unit degree. Here the concern scheme degree involves inventing moves and attacks to vie successfully and to procure a competitory advantage over rivals. The 3rd degree is the functional degree, which includes value analysis, concern procedures responding to selling, resources allotment and direction and research and development. Each degree of the scheme strives to derive competitory advantage in the market and is driven by the kineticss of market demand. This, harmonizing to Alberts, is peculiarly necessary because touristry endeavors are exposed to a vibrant market where they need to last through advanced techniques that will make a sustainable competitory advantage. Advanced action is one of the chief beginnings of sustainable competitory and is achieved through well-designed strategic model.
Strategic Framework theories
A myriad of concern scheme preparation methods, theoretical accounts and theories exist. For illustration, on the one manus Smith ( 2001 ) suggests that the best manner of explicating a strategic model is for it to be derived from job designation, intending that the attacks should be job based. On the other land, Oldham, Creemers and Rebeck ( 2000 ) see the intent and aims of the endeavor as the foundation of the strategic preparation. Their attack is more model-orientated as it brings in a procedure that is more of a flow chart or a series of relational stairss. Pazstor ( 2001 ) concurs with Hamel and Prahalad ( 1994 ) who stresses that different fortunes call for different types of scheme. Indeed, since the 1960s, harmonizing to Mintzberg ( 1987 ) strategic models have had a clinical popularity with administrations as it has gained a lost popularity, much as a consequence of its limited success in neglecting to present outlooks and consequences ; viz. making wealth for administrations and stockholders. Allaire and Firsirotu ( 1989 ) suggest that this limited success is attributable non merely to earlier hapless patterns but is besides a map of of all time quickly increasing alteration of the concern environment. This quickly altering environment causes uncertainness and brings into inquiry the rightness of strategic models and how to cover with uncertainness.
The inquiry arises why make industries necessitate calculating strategic models? The literature suggests it is to cut down future uncertainness ( Linneman and Kennell, 1977 ) . Langley adds that portion of the reply is to help administrations make better schemes through a systematic logical attack. Loasby answers the inquiry with three responses
To understand the future deductions of present determinations in order for the administration to acquire the full benefits from its present determinations.
To understand the deductions of future events in order to do determinations to fix for the hereafter. This is an effort to calculate the hereafter.
To fix motive and a mechanism for covering with the above and reexamining premises about the hereafter.
Relevant literature pays significant attending to developing strategic with the intent of covering with such variables. It is of import to understand these different strategic positions so as to derive a holistic apprehension of scheme preparation and execution.
Strategic model: Analysing competitory industry construction
Porter ‘s competitory schemes
We now turn to reexamine some documents covering the subject of Porter ‘s generic competitory schemes, the beginning for much concern scheme analysis. In their survey Caves and Porter ( 1977 ) generalise the theory of competitory barriers to come ining an industry into a theory of mobility kineticss and decision-making behavior of both emerging and traveling administrations. Porter ( 1979 ) establishes the nexus between competitory forces and competitory schemes. Porter ( 1980 ) presents the competitory forces and generic concern competitory schemes for emerging, mature, worsening and disconnected industries while sing entry and issue industry barriers. In his reappraisal of Porter ‘s generic competitory schemes Vanhove ( 2005 ) writes that when Porter ‘s two basic theories of competitory advantage, that is lower cost and distinction, is adapted to the tourer sector. Lower cost is the ability of a house to bring forth a more comparable service than its rivals. Differentiation is the ability to supply alone and superior value. How does this relate to prediction in the tourer sector? Importantly, Treacy and Wiersema ( 1995 ) note that competitory scheme is about two things: make up one’s minding where you want your concern to travel, and make up one’s minding how to acquire at that place.
Resource based View ( RBV )
Grant ( 2001 ) writes that late there has been a revival of involvement in the function of the house ‘s resources as the foundation for house scheme. Advocated by several bookmans ( Hampton, 2003 ; Lawson, 2003 ; Kozal and Louisa, 2006 ) the position looks at an endeavor in footings of capacity by measuring the degrees and the potency of the endeavor to better within the scopes of available resources.
Collins and Montgomery ( 1995 ) offer a series of five trials for a valuable resource:
Inimitability – how difficult is it for rivals to copy the resource? A company can procrastinate imitation if the resource is ( 1 ) physically alone, ( 2 ) a effect of way dependant development activities, ( 3 ) causally equivocal ( rivals do n’t cognize what to copy ) , or ( 4 ) a dearly-won plus investing for a limited market, ensuing in economic disincentive.
Durability – how rapidly does the resource depreciate?
Appropriability – who captures the value that the resource creates: company, clients, distributers, providers, or employees?
Substitutability – can a alone resource be trumped by a different resource?
Competitive Superiority – is the resource truly better comparative to rivals?
How does the above relate to the touristry sector? Massukado-Nakatani and Teixeria ( 2009 ) represent the usage of RBV in the survey of the touristry industry and explain that although, tourist resources are non explicitly illustrated as a resource class in RBV, they can be considered a physical ( e.g. geographical location ) or an organizational resource ( e.g. local traditions and civilization ) . He identifies touristry resources as the most of import plus for touristry development because the resources are cardinal to any public policy that aims to better touristry activities.
The two above models have combined to bring forth farther research in the touristry literature:
Crouch and Ritchie ( 1999 ) developed a comprehensive and sophisticated model for touristry finish direction. This model is based on the theoretical constructs of competitory ( effectual usage of resources ) and comparative advantages ( Porter, 1990 ; Enderwick, 1990 ) , which consider a figure of wide classs of factor gifts – human resources, physical resources, cognition resources, capital resources, substructure, and historical and cultural resources. However, they argued that it is non good plenty to simply name the factors that determine the finish ‘s fight ; it is besides of import to understand the relationships and interplays between these factors. The conceptual theoretical account of finish fight includes the undermentioned constituents: competitory ( micro ) environment, planetary ( macro ) environment, nucleus resources and drawing cards for primary elements of finish entreaty, back uping factors and resources for secondary elements of finish entreaty, finish direction ( see besides Go & amp ; Govers, 2000 ) , and measure uping determiners ( i.e. , situational factors ) . Government and opportunity events are viewed as act uponing fight through their impact on the basic determiners. Possibly inspired by Bordas ( 1994 ) , Tourism Policy was identified as a separate component to the above model in order to foster cover critical policy, planning, and development issues that contribute to destination fight and sustainability ( Ritchie & A ; Crouch, 2000 ) .
Surveying entirely from the touristry stakeholders ‘ position, Yoon ( 2002 ) theoretically developed a structural equation theoretical account of touristry finish fight and through empirical observation tested the interplay of relationships among five concepts: touristry development impacts, environmental attitudes, topographic point fond regard, development penchants about touristry attractive forces, and support for finish competitory scheme, where the first three are exogenic and the latter two are endogenous. Tourism development impacts construct in footings of making occupations and pulling investing capital and topographic point attachment concept in footings of emotional/symbolic fond regard to the community were found to significantly act upon the stakeholders ‘ development of touristry attractive forces, which in fact besides positively find their support for finish competitory scheme.
Dwyer and Kim ( 2003 ) developed a theoretical account of finish fight that enables comparings between states and between industries within the touristry sector. The theoretical account borrowed the chief elements of fight surveies in peculiar from Crouch and Ritchie ( 1999 ) who see the importance of competitory and comparative advantage. The theoretical account explicitly recognises demand conditions as an of import determiner of finish fight ( Dwyer & A ; Kim ) , which was non mentioned by Crouch and Ritchie.
Forecasting strategic theories
Since this paper is concerned about calculating a hereafter within touristry, what are the literature point of views on calculating theories? Chandra and Menezes ( 2001 ) write that accurate prognosiss for touristry demands are indispensable for the development of effectual strategic programs. In this respects, Brignall andA Ballantine ( 1996 ) note the handiness of accurate touristry has of import economic effect for assorted administrations involved with touristry planning and the proviso of touristry merchandises and substructure. They further note that given the spoilable of the touristry merchandise, the demand for accurate demand prognosis is even greater. Chandra and Menezes identify that among the prediction theoretical accounts utilizing multivariate techniques, multiple arrested development is the most used and the relevant technique for calculating international touristry demand
Further analysis of the literature reveals that empirical economic research in touristry has focussed chiefly on four countries viz. :
The economic impact of domestic/or international touristry on a local economic system ( Archer, 1977 ; Kottke, 1988 ; Zhou et Al, 1997 ; Wang, 1977 ; Vaughan et. al. , 2000 and Saayman et Al, 2000 ) .
The economic importance of touristry for development ( Diamond, 1976 ; Piga, 2003 ; and Saayman et Al, 2001 ) .
The economic impact of identified events ( Randall and Warf, 1996 ; and Grelan, 2003 ) .
Research attempts that are integrating the account of touristry demand on international touristry flows ( Crouch, 1995 ; Coshall, 2000 ; and Smeral and Weber, 2000 ) .
However, Prideaux et Al ( 2003 ) observe that given the frequent trust of the former prediction techniques on past experience, which in bend requires both expressed and silent premises sing the stableness of relationships, the ability of calculating to bring forth long-run consequences and history for unanticipated events remains limited. Prideaux et.al. Further notes that even short term prediction can merely factor in known relationships that appear identifiable tendencies and edifice on these give a image of what may happen if alterations occur along predictable lines. The premises are fundamentally those of equilibrium and stableness, in contrast to dynamic complexness and disruptive systems positions ( Laws et.al. , 1998 ) .
A figure of research worker ( Witt and Song, 2001 ) have acknowledged the restrictions of current prediction techniques, peculiarly the troubles posed by the inability to foretell abnormalities such as sudden alterations in consumer gustatory sensation and demand. To get the better of these deficits research workers such as Turner and Witt ( 2001 ) found that structured clip series theoretical accounts integrating explanatory variables produced the most accurate prognosiss. The designation of relevant non-economic variables as determiners for future growing and the mobility of their significance present a high degree of trouble for the predictors. Uysal and Crompton ( 1985 ) , for illustration, noted that there are a figure of restrictions facing demand prediction: ignoring supply factors, the skip of non-economic factors which may hold long-run effects and the rightness of variables to alter. In add-on, Prideaux ( 2003 ) writes, to these, a scope of other non-specific crises and catastrophes including domestic and international economic system and natural catastrophes such temblors, cyclones or hurricane should be added. Although, predictors such as Witt and vocal ( 2001 ) attempt to account for these state of affairss by utilizing dummy variables to let the impact of ‘one-off ‘ events such as the ‘oil crises ‘ in the 1970s, the job of abnormalities continues to withstand anticipation.
Witt and Song ( 2001 ) agree that a more sophisticated attack utilising clip changing parametric quantities ( TVP ) arrested development to pattern structural alteration is one solution to the job of prognostic failure encountered by causal touristry demand for forecasting theoretical accounts. They express that while the TVP attack is able to excite a scope of dazes and may act upon the relationship between explanatory variables and dependent variables it assumes that explanatory variables are exogenic. Witt and Song ( 2001 ) further notes that where there is some uncertainty about the creditability of the latter premise the vector autogressive ( VAR ) patterning attack may be more appropriate. This is because in the VAR theoretical account all variables are treated as endogenous.
Recognizing the inability of current prediction theory to get by with the unexpected, Faulkner and Russell ( 2000 ) put frontward an alternate position proposing that owing to ‘the uncertainness of the unexpected ‘ governments need to implement policies for get bying with the unexpected breaks to touristry flows.
A well-developed literature exemplified by Sonmez and Graete ( 1998 ) ; Lepp and Gibson ( 2003 ) ; Ritchie ( 2004 ) ; Gunn, ( 2002 ) ; and Inskeep ( 1991 ) recognise that there are a big scope of events that lie beyond the research of anticipations, that standard calculating techniques can be expected to give. One the other manus, Prideaux ( 2003 ) notes that the touristry literature has non began to look into the rich scope of techniques developed in the hazard direction literature. Yet this has the potency to give theoretical accounts, models and theories that will help touristry predictors and contrivers to get by with catastrophes and crises.
Where so, does this go forth the survey of prediction in touristry? Faulkner ( 2001 ) notes that if alteration is slow and ordered, predictable prediction may give a high grade of truth. On the other manus, where events follow the normal class of history and exhibit a inclination to sudden, large-scale instability and capriciousness, calculating loses its authority and an alternate signifier of anticipation is required.
Background: A Conceptual Model
Conceptual models and theory are typically based on uniting old literature, common sense and experience ( Eisenhardt, 1989 ) . A expression at the literature reveals a inclination towards sustainable touristry as a prediction scheme for African touristry. The construct of sustainable development has been described as ‘the cardinal challenge of our times ‘ ( Wheeler, 2002 ) and as ‘the issue of the 21st century ( Harrison, 2000 ) . Jabareen ( 2004 ) , even goes so far as to depict it as ‘one of the permeant icons of modernness ‘ . Yet, despite the attending it receives, the execution of sustainable development in pattern has been highly hapless given the continued diminution of environmental quality steps on a planetary graduated table ( Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005 ) . Numerous grounds can be put frontward for this state of affairs including vagueness of the term ( Mayumi and Gowgy, 2001 ) and dissension over what should be sustained ( Sachs and Warner, 1997 ) . In an effort to clear up the index choice procedure, attempts have been made to set up models, organizing the development and choice procedure. Many index sets and monitoring models consist of indicator/measures that are selected on an ad hoc mode ( Waldron and Williams, 2003 ) . White et Al. explicate that a conceptual model allows for the coherent and consistent choice of indexs. This is peculiarly of import given that any index choice procedure is value laden ; for illustration, stakeholder sentiment may differ over the weight given to different standards for a good index such as presuming the tradeoff between cost and complexness ; the really objectives chosen ; and the baseline and the benchmark informations. Therefore holding an expressed scheme model allows a more crystalline, antiphonal and robust procedure for index choice.
African Tourism Industry
Naude and Saayman ( 2004 ) make the designation that the economic dimensions of touristry to Africa, and specifically the determiners of the demand for Africa as a tourer finish are neglected in the economic research literature. Lim ( 1997 ) reviewed more than 70 surveies on international touristry demand, none of which focused in item or entirely on African states. Besides Eilat and Einav ( 2003 ) point out that a failing of the current international empirical literature on touristry demand is the absence of “ strict panel informations analysis ” . The deficiency of appropriate empirical research on touristry to Africa doubtless contributes to the “ limited policy counsel ” to the sector remarked by Christie and Crompton ( 2001 ) .
Naude and Saayman ( 2004 ) farther go on to explicate that, so far most research on touristry demand and international flow of touristry have focused chiefly on explicating touristry demand and flows in developed states, with small mention to developing states and even less to explicating touristry in Africa. They find that the literature focuses more on the influence of the exchange rate and income on touristry grosss, instead than to explicate certain country-specific determiners of touristry reachings
Determinants and obstructions to tourism growing in Africa
Why do some finishs attract more visitants than others? The inquiry has been asked by assorted research workers and has attracted legion surveies since the 1970s. Crouch ( 1994 ) indicates that reactivity of demand for international travel varies, depending upon the nationality of the tourer and the specific finish involved. Therefore, demand-elasticity for international touristry varies by country-of-origin and country-of-destination. Crouch ( 1995 ) concludes that the demand for touristry is hence a map of the tourer ‘s state of beginning, since cultural differences affect travel behavior.
Coshall ( 2000 ) indicates that “ There are many fiscal, perceptual. Cultural, societal and environmental factors that could be used to seek and explicate international touristry flows ” The research on which these statistics are compiled was chiefly based on touristry demand in developed states, with small mention to developing states and none to African states. Kester, ( 2003 ) and Gauci et.al. ( 2002 ) argue that certain factors non included in old surveies need to be identified. For illustration, Christie and Crompton ( 2003 ) put frontward the position that the greatest obstruction to Africa ‘s touristry sector growing is its deficiency of monetary value and quality fight. Kester argues the position that the major obstructions to touristry reachings in Africa are deficient air conveyance, a lack in installations and adjustment, deficiency of image and hapless perceptual experiences, poorness, disease and struggle. Gauci et.al. ( 2003 ) include amongst obstructions to tourism developing public wellness services and fright of personal safety. Eilat and Einav ( 2003 ) find that political hazard has a important impact on touristry demand in both developed and developing states.
Naude and Saayman ( 2003 ) make the designation that given the challenges confronting Africa and the demand for sound policy advice for advancing touristry, it seems more appropriate to place the long-term determiners of tourer reachings. Naude and Saayman note that the utilizations of fixed effects calculator allows the choice up of short-run effects since it focuses on clip series constituents of informations. Naude and saayman ( 2003 ) used both cross-section informations and panel informations for the period 1996-2000 to place the determiners of touristry reachings in 43 African states, taking into history tourers ‘ state of beginning. The consequences strongly suggest that political stableness, touristry substructure, selling and information, and the degree of development at the finish are cardinal determiners of travel to Africa. Typical ‘developed state determiners ‘ of touristry demand, such as the degree of income in the origin state, the comparative monetary values and the cost of travel, are non so important in explicating the demand for Africa as a touristry finish. It is hence recommended that attending should be given to bettering the overall stableness of the continent and the handiness and measure of touristry substructure.
A reappraisal of the literature on calculating analysis suggests that any future strategic model must include the above factors to derive significant weight when the purpose is to develop relevant prediction theoretical accounts in the African context.
2.6 East African touristry
Much of the strategic model in the literature for east Africa tends to encapsulate sustainable development based on preservation. For illustration, this was the intent of Nelson ‘s ( 2007 ) survey on strategic models for E Africa, which covered the states of Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique. The analysis was to make a footing for development and advancing signifiers of touristry that contribute to biodiversity/conservation in eastern Africa in line with the World Wide Fund for Nature ‘s ( WWF ) planetary mission and aims. Another survey on eastern Africa by Mugo ( 2006 ) besides focused on the strategic model for preservation. The survey used state of affairs analysis to invent a strategic model to associate related enterprises that were being undertaken in the part by national authoritiess and international bureaus. This included the Eastern African Ecoregion strategic model, which focuses on coastal and marine preservation issues.
What about the application of arrested development based strategic models in the East African literature? An illustration is the survey by Summary ( 1987 ) , which looked at touristry in Kenya between 1963 and 1982. The survey concentrated on the variable that touristry was one of the top three domestic exports during the period and aimed to act upon touristry demand and policy shapers in be aftering growing schemes. The consequences of the survey indicated multivariable arrested development analysis has limited utility in placing the important factors which influence tourer ‘s determinations. Drumhead notes that information jobs and multicollinearity caused unsuitable consequences in one instance, while theoretical account specification appears to be a job in another. The writer concludes that quantitative surveies should be supplemented by quantitative analysis in order to for Kenyan policy shapers to do optimum determinations.
West African Tourism
Ige and Odulara ( 2008 ) write that increasing importance of sustainable touristry has become imperative to West Africa as a regional economic community. A reappraisal of the literature focuses on the factors that explain growing. For illustration, theoretical accounts developed by Barro and Sal-I-Martin ( 1991 ) and Mankiw, Romer, Weil ( 1992 ) introduces the construct of “ conditional convergence ” and allows the analyst to take into history differences among states, such as the province of engineering. Ige and odulara ( 2008 ) note that most of the empirical surveies have used a cross-sectional analysis, although with a turning handiness of panel informations, and the development of econometric techniques has been used widely to turn out hypothesises. A reappraisal of the literature brings up a survey by Ige and Odulara ( 2008 ) which investigated the impact of touristry on West African economic system, utilizing pooled informations on 10 West African states from 2000 to 2004. The findings indicate that touristry does matter in West Africa. This may hold been induced by the fact that touristry finish in these economic systems are in the commercial nervus Centres which contribute to the economic prosperity and therefore do the arrested development consequence non excessively surprising. Whereas the consequences of suggests that the function of touristry can non be over-emphasised in sustainable direction of touristry in order to harvest maximal benefit of topical relevancy to West African macro economic public presentation. In other words, economic public presentation in West Africa can be enhanced through sound touristry development policies that support openness with greater accent on liberalization policy. The consequences of the theoretical account revealed that for West African states, the growing in touristry reachings has resulted in important economic growing during the period 2000 to 2004. Therefore, Ige and Odulara ( 2008 ) conclude that West Africa needs to strategically tackle its touristry potency in order to better its economic public presentation.
From the research it is of import to observe strategic models are indispensable in developing touristry prediction theoretical accounts but as stated by Crouch ( 2007 ) finishs vary tremendously and states compete for different market sections in touristry, and so it is more meaningful to compare states by market section. Indeed, the properties that affair more in one section may be less of import in a different section.