Strategic direction is a systematic attack of analysing. planning and implementing the scheme in an organisation to guarantee a continued success. Strategic direction is a long term process which helps the organisation in accomplishing a long term end and its overall duty lies with the general direction squad. It focuses on constructing a solid foundation that will be later achieved by the combined attempts of each and every employee of the organisation. Types of Schemes
1. Corporate degree
The board of managers and main executive officers are involved in developing schemes at corporate degree. Corporate degree schemes are advanced. permeant and futuristic in nature. The four expansive schemes in a corporate degree are:
— Stability and enlargement scheme
— Corporate restructuring
— Combination schemes – construct of synergism
The basic attack of the stableness scheme is to keep the present position of the organisation. In an effectual stableness scheme. the organisation tries to keep consistence by concentrating on their present resources and quickly develops a meaningful fight with the market demands. Further categorizations of stableness scheme are as follows: — No alteration scheme – No alteration scheme is the procedure of go oning the current operation and making nil new. Normally little concern organisations follow no alteration scheme with an purpose to keep the same degree of operations for a long period. — Pause/Proceed with cautiousness scheme – Pause/Proceed with cautiousness scheme provides an chance to hold the growing scheme. It analyses the advantages and disadvantages before treating the growing scheme. Hence it is termed as pause/proceed with cautiousness scheme. — Net income scheme – Net income scheme is the procedure of cut downing the sum of investings and short term discretional outgos in the organisation. Expansion scheme
The organisations adopt enlargement scheme when it increases its degree of aims much higher than the past accomplishment degree. Organizations choice enlargement scheme to increase their net income. gross revenues and market portion. Expansion scheme besides provides a important addition in the public presentation of the organisation. Many organisations pursue enlargement scheme to cut down the cost production per unit. Expansion scheme besides broadens the range of client groups. and client maps. Example – Prior to 1960’s most of the furniture industry did non venture into spread outing their industry globally. This was because furniture got damaged easy while transporting and the cost of conveyance was high.
Subsequently in 1970’s a Swedish furniture company. IKEA. pioneered towards spread outing the industry to other geographical countries. The new thought of transporting unassembled furniture parts lead to minimising the costs of conveyance. The clients were able to easy piece the furniture. IKEA besides lowered the costs by affecting client in the value concatenation. IKEA successfully expanded in many European states since clients were willing to buy similar furniture. The farther categorization of enlargement scheme is as follows: — Diversification – Diversification is a procedure of entry into a new concern in the organisation either marketwise or engineering wise or both. Many organisations adopt variegation scheme to minimise the hazard of loss. It is besides used to capitalise organisational strengths. Diversification may be the lone scheme that can be used if the bing procedure of an organisation is discontinued due to environmental and regulative factors. The two basic variegation schemes are:
° Concentric variegation
The organisation adopts homocentric variegation when it takes up an activity that relates to the features of its current concern activity. The organisation prefers to diversify concentrically either in footings of client group. client maps. or alternate engineerings of the organisation. It is besides called every bit related scheme. ° Conglometric variegation
The organisation adopts conglometric variegation when it takes up an activity that does non associate to the features of its current concern activity. The organisation chooses to diversify conglometrically either in footings of client group. client maps. or alternate engineerings of the organisation. It is besides called every bit unrelated variegation. — Concentration – Concentric enlargement scheme is the first path towards growing in spread outing the present lines of activities in the organisation. The present line of activities in an organisation indicates its existent growing potency in the present activities. concentration of resources for present activity which means scheme for growing. The two basic concentration schemes are:
° Vertical enlargement
The organisation adopts perpendicular enlargement when it takes over the activity to do its ain supplies. Vertical enlargement reduces costs. additions control over a limited resource. obtain entree to possible clients. ° Horizontal enlargement
The organisation adopts horizontal growing when it takes over the activity to spread out into other geographical locations. This increases the scope of merchandises and services offered to the current markets. Retrenchment
Retrenchment scheme is followed by an organisation which aims to cut down the size of activities in footings of its client groups. client maps. or alternate engineerings. Example – A healthcare infirmary decides to concentrate merely on particular intervention to obtain higher gross and hence reduces its committedness to the intervention of general instances which is less profitable. Different types of retrenchment schemes are:
— Turnaround – Turnaround is a procedure of set abouting impermanent decrease in the activities to do a stronger organisation. This sort of processing is called retrenchment or rightsizing. The thought behind this scheme is to hold a impermanent decrease of activities in the organisation to prosecute growing scheme at some future point. Turnaround scheme acts as a physician when issues like negative net incomes. misdirection and diminution in market portion arise in the organisation. — Captive company scheme – Captive company scheme is a procedure of binding up with larger organisations and remaining feasible as an sole provider to the big organisations.
An organisation may besides be taken as confined if their competitory place is irreparably weak. — Divestment scheme – Divestment scheme is followed when an organisation involves in the sale of one or more part of its concern. Normally if any unit within the organisation is executing ill so that unit is sold and the money is reinvested in another concern which has a greater possible. — Bankruptcy – Bankruptcy is a legal protective scheme that does non let others to reconstitute the organization’s debt duties or other payments. If an organisation declares bankruptcy with clients so there is a possibility of turnaround scheme. — Liquidation – Liquidation scheme is considered to be the most unattractive procedure in an organisation. This procedure involves in shuting down an organisation and selling its assets. It consequences in unemployment. merchandising of edifices and equipments and the merchandises become disused. Hence. most of the directors work hard to avoid this scheme. Corporate restructuring
Corporate restructuring is the procedure of cardinal alteration in the current scheme and way of the organisation. This alteration affects the construction of the organisation. Corporate restructuring involves increasing or diminishing the degrees of forces among top degree. mid-level and lower degree direction. It is reorganising and transfering of functions and duties of the forces due to unsatisfactory public presentation and hapless consequences. Combination strategies – construct of synergism
Combination scheme is a procedure of uniting – stableness. enlargement and retrenchment schemes. This is used either at the same clip in assorted concerns or at different times in the same concern. It consequences in better public presentation of the organisation. The consequence towards the success is greater when there is a synergism between the schemes. Synergy is obtained in footings of gross revenues. operations. investings and direction in the organisation. Example – Levis & A ; co. a denims fabricating company suffered corrosion in market portion in 1990. This was due to the industry of denims that did non pull the younger coevals. Hence there was a alteration in schemes laid at the corporate degree with variegation of merchandises. This led to the alteration in geting new resources. selling the current resources. altering the forces at assorted degrees of direction and analysing the rivals in the market. With these alterations the company was able to do net incomes and achieved success. 2. Business degree
Business degree scheme relates to a unit within an organisation. Chiefly strategic concern unit ( SBU ) directors are involved in this degree. It is the procedure of explicating the aims of the organisation and apportioning the resources among assorted functional countries. Business degree scheme is more specific and action oriented. It chiefly relates to “how a scheme functions” instead than “what a scheme is” in corporate degree. The chief facets of concern degree schemes are related with: — Business stakeholders
— Achieving cost leading and distinction
— Hazard factors
Business stakeholders are a portion of concern. Any operation which is affected in concern besides affects the concern stakeholders along with net income or loss of the concern. Business stakeholders include employees. proprietors and clients. Other indirect concern stakeholders are rivals. authorities etc. They play a really of import function in ups and downs of the organisation. Cost leading and distinction
Cost leading scheme is adopted by the organisations to bring forth a comparatively standardised merchandises or services to the client. It must be acceptable to the features as mentioned by clients. Customers value the company if it adopts cost leading scheme. Differentiation scheme chiefly deals with supplying the merchandises or services with alone characteristics to the clients. Differentiated merchandises satisfy the customer’s needs. The alone characteristics of the merchandise pull the clients more when compared to the traditional characteristics of the merchandises. But cost leading must be pursued in concurrence with distinction scheme to bring forth a cost effectual. superior quality. efficient gross revenues and a alone aggregation of characteristics in the merchandise or services. Harmonizing to Porter’s generic scheme. the organisation that succeeds in cost leading and distinction frequently has the undermentioned internal strengths: — The company possesses the accomplishments in planing efficient merchandises — High degree of expertness in the fabrication procedure
— Well organized distribution channel
— Industry repute for quality and invention
— Strong gross revenues section with the ability to pass on successfully the existent strengths of the merchandise Hazard factors
Hazard is the chance of “good” or “bad” things that may go on in the concern. Risk will impact the aims of the organisation. The hazard factors in the concern schemes include two types – external and internal hazards. — External hazards – External hazard includes assorted hazards experienced externally similar competition with companies. political issues. involvement rates. natural jeopardies etc. — Internal hazards – Internal hazards include issues of employees. care of procedures. impact of alterations in schemes. hard currency flows. security of employees and equipments. 3. Tactical of functional degree
The functional scheme chiefly includes the schemes related to specific functional country in the organisation such as production. selling. finance and forces ( employees ) . Decisions at functional degree are frequently described as tactical determinations. Tactical determination means “involving or refering to actions for short term than those of a larger purpose” . Sing tactical determinations in functional degree scheme describes affecting actions to specific functional country. The purpose of the functional scheme is “doing things right” whereas the corporate and concern degree scheme stresses on “doing the right thing” . The different types of schemes at functional degree are:
— Procuring and pull offing
— Monitoring and directional resources towards the end
Procuring and pull offing
Procuring fundamentally means buying or owning. In the direction field procuring is the procedure of buying goods or services which includes ordination. obtaining conveyance. and storage for organisation usage. Most of the single organisations set procurement scheme to obtain their pick of merchandises. methods. providers and the processs that are used to pass on with their providers. Stairss involved in securing scheme are:
— Identify the demand of purchase and the needed measure. — Plan the cost budget of the goods or services being purchased and the process of catching by look intoing the cost and demands with assorted Sellerss. — Select the marketer who is fiting the cost and demand standards as per the organisation. — Perform the contract trade with selected marketer and supervise the contract. — Close the contract once the goods or services are acquired. Managing is the procedure of supervising the schemes that are implemented in the concern. Many schemes are implemented at assorted degrees of the concern. Hence providing these schemes is termed as managing. Pull offing includes finishing the undertaking efficaciously in every sector of the organisation. It can be pull offing employees. the external and internal factors of organisation. and the equipments. An effectual managing procedure strengthens the critical activities in the concern such as selling. fabrication. human resource planning. public presentation appraisal. and communications. Monitoring and directional resources towards the end
Monitoring and directing is the indispensable portion of direction. Monitoring means cognizing “what is traveling on” . Monitoring is besides called as measurement. In an organisation monitoring includes mensurating the public presentation of the organisation to look into whether the scheme implemented is achieved or non. Monitoring the resources includes supervising the employees. the equipments. and the activities being performed in the organisation. It leads to put on the line if monitoring of the resources show a divergence from the true way as expected by the organisation. The directing procedure will do way to guarantee a relevant action is performed to take the divergence and put all the resources on the right path. Directing procedure uses rules and statement of the aims to work out the job which was identified during supervising procedure. Monitoring and directing procedure of resources sets the organisation to work on the right path by taking all hurdlings and green goodss effectual result in making the ends of the organisation expeditiously. 4. Operational degree
Operational degree is concerned with successful execution of strategic determinations made at corporate and concern degree. The basic map of this degree is interpreting the strategic determinations into strategic actions. The basic facets in operational degree are:
— Achieving cost and operational efficiency
— Optimal use of resources
Achieving cost and operational efficiency
Achieving cost trades with accomplishing greater net incomes by cut downing the cost for assorted resources within the organisation to equilibrate the outgo and investing. Organizations must implement cost accomplishment in targeted operational countries like HR. supply concatenation. and procurance. The operational efficiency comes into image once the cost decrease is achieved with greater net incomes. It deals with minimising the waste and maximising the resource capablenesss. Optimum use of resources
Optimum use of resources includes use of resources in a planned mode. The use of resources must be cost effectual. Normally the board of managers ensures that the procedure of optimum use of resources is implemented and monitored on a regular footing. Planning and scheduling activities in concern dramas a major impact on the use of resources. The systematic planning and programming of activities result in use of less budgeted resources for greater net incomes in an organisation. Productiveness
Productivity fundamentally means a comparative step of the efficiency of production in footings of change overing the ratio of inputs to utile end products. Productivity is a cardinal to success of an organisation. Productivity growing is a critical factor for uninterrupted growing of the organisation.
2 ) Describe Porter’s five forces theoretical account.
Michael E. Porter developed the Five Force Model in his book. ‘Competitive Strategy’ . Porter has identified five competitory forces that influence every industry and market. The degree of these forces determines the strength of competition in an industry. The aim of corporate scheme should be to revise these competitory forces in a manner that improves the place of the organisation. Forces driving industry competitions are:
— Threat of new entrants – New entrants to an industry by and large bring new capacity ; desire to derive market portion and significant resources. Therefore. they are menaces to an established organisation. The menace of an entry depends on the presence of entry barriers and the reactions can be expected from bing rivals. An entry barrier is a hinderance that makes it hard for a company to come in an industry.
— Suppliers – Suppliers affect the industry by raising monetary values or cut downing the quality of purchased goods and services.
— Rivalry among bing houses – In most industries. organisations are reciprocally dependent. A competitory move by one organisation may ensue in a noticeable consequence on its rivals and therefore do revenge or counter
— Buyers – Buyers affect an industry through their ability to cut down monetary values. deal for higher quality or more services.
— Threat of replacement merchandises and services – Substitute merchandises appear different but satisfy the same needs as the original merchandise. Utility merchandises curb the possible returns of an industry by puting a ceiling on the monetary values houses can productively bear down.
— Other stakeholders – A 6th force should be included to Porter’s list to include a assortment of stakeholder groups. Some of these groups include authoritiess. local communities. trade association brotherhoods. and stockholders. The importance of stakeholders varies harmonizing to the industry.
3 ) Define the term “Business policy” . Explain its importance.
Business policies are the instructions laid by an organisation to pull off its activities. It identifies the scope within which the subsidiaries can take determinations in an organisation. It authorizes the lower degree direction to decide their issues and take determinations without confer withing the top degree direction repeatedly. The bounds within which the determinations are made are good defined. Business policy involves the skill of resources through which the organisational ends can be achieved. Business policy analyses functions and duties of top degree direction and the determinations impacting the organisation in the long-run. It besides deals with the major issues that affect the success of the organisation.
Importance of Business Policies
A company operates systematically. both internally and externally when the policies are established. Business policies should be set up before engaging the first employee in the organisation. It deals with the restraints of real-life concern. It is of import to explicate policies to accomplish the organisational aims. The policies are articulated by the direction. Policies serve as a counsel to administrate activities that are insistent in nature. It channels the thought and action indecisiveness devising. It is a mechanism adopted by the top direction to guarantee that the activities are performed in the coveted manner. The complete procedure of direction is organized by concern policies. Business policies are of import due to the undermentioned grounds:
Reliable policies coordinate the intent by concentrating on organisational activities. This helps in guaranting uniformity of action throughout the organisation. Policies encourage cooperation and promote enterprise.
— Quick determinations
Policies help subordinates to take prompt action and speedy determinations. They demarcate the subdivision within which determinations are to be taken. They help subsidiaries to take determinations with assurance without confer withing their higher-ups every clip. Every policy is a usher to activities that should be followed in a peculiar state of affairs. It saves clip by foretelling frequent jobs and supplying ways to work out them.
— Effective control
Policies provide logical footing for measuring public presentation. They guarantee that the activities are synchronized with the aims of the organisation. It prevents divergency from the planned class of action. The direction tends to divert from the nonsubjective if policies are non defined exactly. This affects the overall efficiency of the organisation. Policies are derived aims and supply the lineation for processs.
Well defined policies help in decentalisation as the executive functions and duty are clearly identified. Authority is delegated to the
executives who refer the policies to work expeditiously. The needed managerial processs can be derived from the given policies. Policies provide guidelines to the executives to assist them in finding the suited actions which are within the bounds of the declared policies. Policies contribute in constructing coordination in larger organisations.
4 ) What. in brief. are the types of Strategic Alliances and the intent of each? Supplement your reply with existent life illustrations.
Strategic confederations constitute a feasible option in add-on to Strategic Alternatives. Companies can develop confederations with the members of the strategic group and execute more efficaciously. These confederations may take any of the undermentioned signifiers. Following are the different types of strategic Alliances:
— Product and/or service confederation: Two or more companies may acquire together to synergies their operations. seeking confederation for their merchandises and/or services. A fabricating company may allow licence to another company to bring forth its merchandises. The necessary market and merchandise support. including proficient know-how. is provided as portion of the confederation. Example: – Coca-cola ab initio provided such support to Hitchhike Up.
Two companies may jointly market their merchandises which are complementary in nature. Example: – 1 ) Cocoa companies more frequently tie up with plaything companies. 2 ) Television Channels affiliation with Cricket boards to televise full series of cricket lucifers live.
Two companies. who come together in such an confederation. may bring forth a new merchandise wholly. Example: – Sony Music created a retail corner for itself in the ice-cream parlours of Baskin-Robbins.
— Promotional confederation: Two or more companies may come together to advance their merchandises and services. A company may hold to transport out a publicity run during a given period for the merchandises and/or services of another company. Example: – The Cricket Board may allow Coke’s merchandises to be displayed during the cricket lucifers for a period of one twelvemonth.
— Logistic confederation: Here the focal point is on developing or widening logistics support. One company extends logistics support for another company’s merchandises and services. Example: – The mercantile establishments of Pizza Hut. Kolkata entered into a logistic confederation with TDK Logistics Ltd. . Hyderabad. to outsource the demands of these mercantile establishments from more than 30 sellers all over India – for case. meat and eggs from Hyderabad etc.
— Pricing coactions: Companies may fall in together for particular pricing coactions. Example: – It is customary to happen that hardware and package companies in information engineering sector offer each other monetary value price reductions. Companies should be really careful in choosing strategic spouses. The scheme should be to choose such a spouse who has complementary strengths and who can countervail the present failings.
5 ) Explain the construct. demand for and importance of a Decision Support System.
Decision support systems constitute a category of computer-based information systems including knowledge-based systems that support decision-making activities.
It is besides explained as a category of information systems ( including but non limited to computerized systems ) that support concern and organisational decision-making activities. A decently designed DSS is an synergistic software-based system intended to assist determination shapers compile utile information from a combination of natural informations. paperss. personal cognition. or concern theoretical accounts to place and work out jobs and do determinations.
Typical information that a determination support application might garner and present are:
• an stock list of all of your current information assets ( including bequest and relational informations beginnings. regular hexahedrons. information warehouses. and informations marketplaces ) .
• comparative gross revenues figures between one hebdomad and the following.
• Projected gross figures based on new merchandise gross revenues premises.
Need: Many companies in developing states have a really elaborate coverage system traveling down to the degree of a individual merchandise. a individual provider. a individual twenty-four hours. However. these studies – which are usually provided to the General Manager – should non be used by them at all. They are excessively elaborate and. therefore. be given to befog the true image. A General Manager must hold a bird’s oculus position of his company. He must be alerted to unusual occurrences. upseting fiscal informations and other abnormalities.
As things stand now. the undermentioned phenomena could go on:
• That the direction will extremely leverage the company by presuming inordinate debts burthening the hard currency flow of the company.
• That a false Net income and Loss ( PNL ) image will emerge – both on the individual merchandise degree – and by and large. This could take to incorrect decision-making. based on incorrect informations.
• That the company will pay inordinate revenue enhancements on its net incomes.
• That the stock list will non be to the full controlled and appraised centrally.
• That the incorrect hard currency flow image will falsify the determinations of the direction and lead to incorrect ( even to dangerous ) determinations.
Importance: A determination system has great impact on the net incomes of the company. It forces the direction to apologize the depreciation. stock list and rising prices policies. It warns the direction against impending crises and jobs in the company. It specially helps in following countries:
? The direction knows precisely how much recognition it could take. for how long ( for which adulthoods ) and in which involvement rate. It has been proven that without proper feedback. directors tend to take excessively much recognition and burthen the hard currency flow of their companies.
? A determination system allows for careful fiscal planning and revenue enhancement planning. Net incomes go up. non hard currency spendings are controlled. revenue enhancement liabilities are minimized and hard currency flows are maintained positive throughout.
The determination system is an built-in portion of fiscal direction in the West. It is wholly compatible with western accounting methods and derives all the informations that it needs from information extant in the company.
So. the constitution of a determination system does non impede the operation of the company in any manner and does non interfere with the authorization and operation of the fiscal section
6 ) Write short notes on:
Corporate societal duty:
Corporate societal duty ( CSR ) . besides known as corporate duty. corporate citizenship. responsible concern. sustainable responsible concern ( SRB ) . or corporate societal public presentation. is a signifier of corporate self-regulation integrated into a concern theoretical account. Ideally. CSR policy would work as a constitutional. self-acting mechanism whereby concern would supervise and guarantee its attachment to jurisprudence. ethical criterions. and international norms. Business would encompass duty for the impact of their activities on the environment. consumers. employees. communities. stakeholders and all other members of the populace sphere. Furthermore. concern would proactively advance the public involvement by promoting community growing and development. and voluntarily extinguishing patterns that harm the populace sphere. regardless of legality.
Basically. CSR is the calculated inclusion of public involvement into corporate decision-making. and the observance of a ternary bottom line: Peoples. Planet and Profit.
The pattern of CSR is capable to much argument and unfavorable judgment. Advocates argue that there is a strong concern instance for CSR. in that corporations benefit in multiple ways by runing with a perspective broader and longer than their ain immediate. short-run net incomes. Critics argue that CSR distracts from the cardinal economic function of concerns ; others argue that it is nil more than superficial window-dressing ; others yet argue that it is an effort to pre-empt the function of authoritiess as a watchdog over powerful transnational corporations. Corporate Social Responsibility has been redefined throughout the old ages. However. it basically is titled to help to an organization’s mission every bit good as a usher to what the company stands for and will continue to its consumers.
A concern program is a elaborate description of how an organisation intends to bring forth market and sell a merchandise or service. Whether the concern is lodging. commercial or some other endeavor. a good concern program describes to others and to your ain board of managers. direction and staff the inside informations of how you intend to run and spread out your concern.
A solid concern program describes who you are. what you do. how you will make it. your capacity to make it. what fiscal resources are necessary to transport it out. and how you intend to procure those resources. A well-written program will function as a usher through the start-up stage of the concern. It can besides set up benchmarks to mensurate the public presentation of your concern venture in comparing with outlooks and industry criterions. And most of import. a good concern program will assist to pull necessary funding by showing the feasibleness of your venture and the degree of idea and professionalism you bring to the undertaking.
A well-written program will function as a usher through the start-up stage of the concern. It can besides set up benchmarks to mensurate the public presentation of your concern venture in comparing with outlooks and industry criterions. And most of import. a good concern program will assist to pull necessary funding by showing the feasibleness of your venture and the degree of idea and professionalism you bring to the undertaking. A good concern program will assist pull necessary funding by showing the feasibleness of your venture and the degree of idea and professionalism you bring to the undertaking. A good concern program serves the undermentioned intents:
— Revenue Generation – Your organisation may trust to make a concern that will bring forth sufficient net income or net income to finance other plans. activities or services provided by your organisation.
— Employment Creation – A new concern venture may make occupation chances for community occupants or the constituency served by your organisation.
— Neighborhood Development Strategy – A new concern venture might function as an ground tackle to a deteriorating vicinity commercial country. attract extra concerns to the country and make full a spread in bing retail services. You may necessitate to happen a usage for a vacant commercial belongings that blights a strategic country of your vicinity. Or your concern might concentrate on the rehabilitation of bedraggled individual household places in the community.
— Establish Goals- Once you have identified ends for a new concern venture. the following measure in the concern planning procedure is to place and choose the right concern. Many organisations may happen themselves get downing at this point in the procedure. Business chances may hold been dropped at your doorsill. Depending on the ends you have set. you might take several attacks to place possible concern chances.
— Local Market Study- Whether your end is to regenerate or make full infinite in a neighborhood commercial territory or to rehabilitate vacant lodging stock ; you should carry on a local market survey. A good market survey will mensurate the degree of bing goods and services provided in the country. and assess the capacity of the country to back up bing and extra commercial or home-ownership activity. A bad or deficient market survey could promote your organisation to prosecute a concern destined to neglect. with potentially black consequences for the organisation as a whole. Through a market survey you will be able to place spreads in bing merchandises and services and unsated demand for extra or expanded merchandises and services.
— Analysis of Local and Regional Industry Trends- Another method of look intoing possible concern chances is to research local and regional concern and industry tendencies. You may be able to place which concern or industrial sectors are turning or worsening in your metropolis. metropolitan country or part. The regional or metropolitan country planning bureau for your country is a good beginning of informations on industry tendencies.
— Internal Capacity- The board. staff or rank of your organisation may possess cognition and accomplishments in a peculiar concern sector or industry. Your organisation may wish to pull upon this internal expertness in choosing possible concern chances.
— Internal buying demands / Collaborative Procurement- Possibly. the organisation often purchases a peculiar service or merchandise. If nearby affiliate organisations besides use this service or merchandise. this may show a concern chance. Examples of such merchandises or services include publishing or copying services. travel services. transit services. belongings direction services. office supplies. catering services. and other merchandises.