This paper presents the survey of the position and jobs in rural countries of Vojvodina. Vojvodina villages that are economically and demographically devastated have been singled out. Particular accent is placed on the position and positions of development of rural touristry in this Province as one of the auxiliary beginnings of grosss of rural families. Some of the present restrictions of faster development of this subdivision of economic system have besides been pointed out. In the terminal, the development chances of this signifier of economic activity in rural countries are pointed out, with a particular accent on salas farmsteads as specific signifiers of rural manner of life and organising of agricultural production.
Rural countries have been neglected for old ages and without development positions in our and other states. However, within the last 20 old ages, rural development has been in the focal point of attending of scientific and professional populace in Europe. This issue is studied by economic experts, agro-economists, rural sociologists, town contrivers, tourismologists, etc. Rural countries occupy about 85 % of the district of Europe and Serbia. More than 50 % of dwellers live in them. These are important resource and consumers ‘ countries. Taking into history a changeless diminution in grosss of nutrient manufacturers in the conditions of economic crisis, the demand to happen the auxiliary beginnings of grosss for families is present more and more. The possibilities for that can be found in development of little and moderate-sized endeavors in rural countries that rely on agribusiness as the natural material footing.
The 2nd pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union stimulates rural development. The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU has shifted the focal point of its activities from market support to fiscal support to rural and sustainable development.[ 1 ]In add-on to the fact that rural countries offer to the market agricultural-food merchandises, forest fruits, merchandises made of wood and family merchandises, they are besides leisure, touristry, diversion resorts, and topographic points for life in general. The chances are unfastened for new, non-agricultural activities and services. Rural touristry enables variegation of activities at agricultural estates or in their milieus for the intent of geting alternate grosss and addition of income. The husbandmans regain their self-respect and assurance that they have lost within the last 50 old ages in procedures of “ urbanization ” and “ mechanization ” of rural countries. Rural communities are besides seen as socially desirable communities in which all human demands can be satisfied: economic, household, cultural and educational.
Subject of research conducted in this paper includes the position and jobs of rural countries and rural touristry in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. The restrictions related to available human and fiscal potencies have been emphasised in peculiar.
The aim of the research is the analysis of chances and positions of development of rural touristry, with a particular consideration attributed to “ salas ” farmsteads. They represent specific finishs that can be the chief magnets for domestic and foreign demanding tourers thanks to their diverse offer.
The analysis of contents of available mentions and certification is an built-in portion of this paper. Temporal series and diagrammatically presented researched phenomena have been created based on statistical informations. In add-on to that, we have besides conducted the field research, viz. conducted the interviews with 48 proprietors of “ salas ” farmsteads.
The research includes the period from the twelvemonth 2000 to 2010, depending on available statistical informations. For the period from 2006 to 2010, we used the informations that refer to puting into human and material resources and for the period from 2000 to 2004 and from 2006 to 2007, we used the informations on use rate of available adjustment capacities for two “ salas ” farmsteads since others have non been maintaining regular records. We used the stuffs of the Republic Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Water Management, Republic Statistical Institute and modest consequences of old researches as beginnings of informations.
Consequences of the research and treatment
Deep alterations have occurred in all the domains of life in rural parts of the Republic of Serbia. aˆzExtinction of small towns ” represents the most seeable and most unsafe mark of alterations in a long-run sense. It is the affair of demographic voidance, in peculiar when it comes to small towns that are at a larger distances from urban Centres, viz. that are ill connected with such Centres in communicating sense. In such small towns, as by the regulation, merely the oldest remain, and they are insufficiently motivated for inventions and modernization. They are non capable of planing the hereafter.
There are about 4,800 small towns in Serbia today. The mean age of dwellers of most small towns is around 60 old ages. Each 4th small town in Serbia is disappearing. More than 200 small towns do non hold a individual dweller who is younger than 20. That is why the mortality rate is invariably increasing. It should be pointed out that Serbia is come ining the phase of deep demographic old age at the beginning of this millenary: 22 territories out of 29 in entire record a negative birth rate. Within the last 30 old ages, approximately 80 municipalities have undergone an intensive procedure of demographic emptying. An undistinguished addition in figure of dwellers in clip intervals between two Censuss is entirely the consequence of mechanical influx of dwellers and non of it natural growing. Accelerated lessening of rural population ( depopulation of rural countries ) , which surpassed the kineticss of decrease of agricultural population ( de-agrarisation ) is the largest structural development job of Serbian society. On the other manus, the velocity under which the figure of dwellers of Belgrade, Novi Sad, and Nis has been turning in the same period has increased for more than 50 % . If such a tendency continues, a larger portion of the district of Serbia could turn into a true demographic aˆzdesert ” in the hereafter.[ 2 ]
Out of 465 inhabited topographic points in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in entire, 415 are rural colonies. There are 43.3 % , i.e. 879,697 out of 2,031,992 dwellers in entire who live in those colonies. An mean Vojvodina rural colony has about 2,200 dwellers and 22.94 % of them are older than 60. A distressing fact is that 87 % of 415 colonies in entire record a negative birth rate. It is negative in 38 out of 45 municipalities in sum, which together with migratory inclinations of the population from small towns into urban colonies points to a necessity to see possible solutions of those jobs.[ 3 ]
Demographic state of affairs in Serbia and Vojvodina is exceptionally unfavorable. The ratings of demographic inclinations for the hereafter decennaries made by many analysts are even more pessimistic. This points to the demand for amplification of a comprehensive, incorporate, complex, and besides extremely differentiated programme of demographic reclamation of the Republic of Serbia. When it comes to rural countries, it is necessary to develop a new development scheme for agribusiness and rural countries, the cardinal component of which should be the construct of incorporate rural development.
Agribusiness is still the basic economic activity and the chief beginning of grosss. However, it is characterised by low productiveness and fight, a high degree of extended production with low grosss per family. In add-on to low grosss of agricultural manufacturers, foreign direct investings in agribusiness make below 1 % of the sum. The purchase power of consumers is besides exceptionally low. Beside the above-named, important features of rural countries in Vojvodina besides include a low degree of variegation of economic activities and high unemployment rate. That is why there is the demand for auxiliary beginnings of grosss. Development of rural touristry is one of the possibilities for variegation of economic activities and generating of auxiliary grosss – which is besides the topic of this paper. There is natural attraction for such development, but there is no well-designed societal activity. For illustration, out of 415 rural colonies in Vojvodina merely 17 have partially developed some signifiers of rural touristry.[ 4 ]
Rural touristry: Development chance or manner tendency?
Within the last few old ages, there have been more and more articles in the universe and domestic specialised bibliography about the development of rural touristry. Is it a development chance or a manner tendency? Harmonizing to bulk of theorists, rural touristry represents the development challenge. It should be the activities that persons who live in rural countries and want to get auxiliary grosss and better their economic place should cover with. The involvement should besides be shown by local communities, Vojvodina and even the Republic of Serbia as a whole. However, declaratory committedness entirely is non sufficient for successful covering with rural touristry but it besides requires cognition and concrete steps and activities. Tourist offer has to be of high quality when it comes to adjustment, quality of repasts and offered contents. It is necessary to include in the offer different recreational, cultural, and other activities. Users of services should be informed about cultural-historical heritage of the part. The offer has to be attractive in order to pull tourers from the state and from abroad. It should be taken into history that rural tourer is besides an active tourer, viz. hobbyist who requires a full comfort. That is why the offer has to be good designed, promoted at domestic and international market with good usage of direction and selling accomplishments. In conformity with the above, it is besides necessary to organize equal instruction and professional attack. All those who are interested in this economic activity ( persons, rural families, local communities ) need to be educated.
Restrictions in development of rural touristry
The bing restrictions need to be eliminated in order to better the development of rural touristry. The most important restrictions include:
A big spread between declaratory committednesss and world ;
Insufficient investings in human and physical resources ;
Underdevelopment of associations in this field ;
Poor connexions and development of substructure ;
Absence of touristic substructure ;
Lack of stores with traditional Vojvodina merchandises ( keepsakes ) ;
Old and single-member families ;
Low degree of instruction of rural population and low degree of including into touristic offer ;
Underdeveloped tourer trade name of the merchandise and part ;
Insufficient distinction of merchandises compared to competition ;
Absence of finish direction administration ;
Inadequate publicity of touristic potencies ;
Small figure of adjustment capacities, unfavorable construction and low quality ;
Poor touristic signalization ;
Insufficient attention for the environment ;
Absence of quality undertakings and programs for touristry in municipalities.
In 2005, the Law on Tourism regulated the significance and regulations in the field of rural touristry for the first clip in Serbia. Until so, the Law did cognize recognise that signifier of entrepreneurship and that was why there were no equal ordinances. The Law used to be extremely broad because it allowed private individuals to supply adjustment and repasts for capacities up to thirty suites and to supply catering services to tourers who were accommodated at other topographic points and to picnic departers without enforcing any duties related to sanitary-hygiene ordinances. Despite that fact, there were still a really little figure of tourer enterprisers in Vojvodina who organised rural touristry in the spirit of that jurisprudence. There is more obvious inclination for enterprisers in rural countries to cover merely with administration of certain sections of touristic activities such as rental of suites, organizing of different events, catering ( lone repasts ) . That is why no adequate records have been kept on rural touristic families or control of the offer and its quality. A new Law on Tourism, which was enacted in 2009, defined more exactly that field of touristry. As the Law has set it forth, a individual covering with rural touristry is the 1 who provides services of adjustment and repasts in rural touristic family. Physical individuals can supply services of fixing and functioning of nutrient and drinks that it has chiefly made himself/herself.
A new Law besides sets forth observing of the minimal proficient and health-sanitary conditions. It has been besides determined that the competent local self-government authorization shall maintain record on rural touristic families and submit quarterly studies to the Register of Tourism. This should place the overall offer of rural touristry and enable an equal control that should lend to increase of quality.
The Strategy of development of touristry of the Republic of Serbia lays down the projections for making of all signifiers of touristry in the period until the twelvemonth 2015. The estimations are that the figure of nightlong corsets in rural countries of the Republic of Serbia will increase from 408,580 ( registered in 2004 ) to 1 million ( in 2015 ) . Projections are that 15 % of that figure will be nightlong corsets of foreign tourers. Vojvodina should see its opportunity in those prognosiss and to trip available human and material resources through increased investings.
Honestly speech production, it should be said that there are promoting inclinations in Serbia and in Vojvodina. The procedure of puting in development of rural touristry, chiefly in human and physical resources has started. For illustration, the Department of Agro-tourism and rural development was opened at the Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad in 2008. At the Faculty of Science and Mathematics in Novi Sad, the pupils attend lectures in international economic system and rural touristry within the survey programme of Tourism and Catering while at the Faculty of Agriculture in Zemun there is the topic titled Economicss of rural touristry. Such inventions in university instruction incapacitate experts for professional dealing with this profession and for instruction of those who are interested in this activity. Education should be carried out:[ 5 ]
From small town to small town ;
Wholly free of charge for all interested individuals ;
During the period of the twelvemonth when there are no agricultural activities.
Particular attending should be directed towards instruction of the immature who could make up one’s mind to cover with this activity professionally and on a long-run footing.
In add-on to puting into human capital, which is going the cardinal component of addition of competitory advantage at the international market[ 6 ]in all, intending besides in this field of economic activities, there are besides initial stairss in puting into physical resources ( redevelopment of the bing and edifice of new installations ) . Harmonizing to the available informations of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia, the financess for redevelopment of traditional rural families and for promotional and educational activities have been allocated on a regular footing since 2006. For illustration, in the period from 2006 to 2008 ( three old ages ) 91,580,215 dinars were spent in entire for that intent in Serbia, 13.3 % of which were realised in Vojvodina ( Fig. 1 ) .
Fig. 1. Available and accomplished financess in Serbia and Vojvodina ( period from 2006 to 2010 )
Beginning: Budget support of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia to the development of rural touristry, computation made by writers.
Out of the financess that have been realised in Vojvodina, 84.36 per centums refer to renewal of traditional rural families ( redevelopment of the bing installations ) . Much lower per centum ( 15.64 % ) refers to promotional and educational activities ( Fig. 2 ) .
Fig. 2. Structure of accomplished fiscal resources for the development of rural touristry in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina ( period from 2006 to 2008 )
Beginning: Lapp as for Fig. 1.
Looking at informations per territories in Vojvodina ( Fig. 3 ) it can be concluded that financess that have been realised are the largest in the South Backa District ( 48 % ) , followed by West Backa ( 24 % ) and South Banat District ( 14 % ) . The sum of accomplished financess for the part of Backa makes 74 % . Such a high per centum of financess compared to 26 % that have been realised in entire in Srem and Banat can be explained by the being of typical autochthonous agricultural families in this part that are called “ salas ” . The renewed and renovated “ salas ” farmsteads have become a alone rural touristic merchandise that is positioned on the touristic market of Serbia, completed with recreational contents and together with cultural-historical heritage, multiculturalism and imposts and it will shortly be the instance with the market of Europe as good.
Fig. 3. Fundss used for development of rural touristry in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina per territories
Beginning: Lapp as for Fig. 1 and 2
Definition and significance of “ salas ” farmsteads
“ Salas ” farmsteads are specific planning and architectural units that are typical for the Pannonian field. They are alone home grounds in the fringe parts of urban and rural colonies. “ Salas ” farmsteads are non merely specific creative activities of popular edifice tradition but they besides represent a specific manner of life and conducting of economic activities. The largest figure of “ salas ” farmsteads have been preserved in the country of north Backa and they represent the hallmark of Vojvodina in the sense of cultural heritage.
The word “ salas ” is of Magyar beginning and it describes a farmstead with all necessary edifices, cowss and tools for rational cultivation of land.[ 7 ]“ Salas ” farmsteads are largely built in the Centre of big agricultural surfaces for the intent of easier land cultivating. Some households populating at those farmsteads used to hold houses both in a small town and in a town, but aged household members and kids who attended school chiefly used them. They seldom went to a small town or town, chiefly in order to cover with specific undertakings, sell agricultural green goods or go to different jubilations and events. Peoples who lived at such farms used to be friends to each other and they used to garner on occasion most frequently upon completion of agricultural plants and during winter.
Economic significance of “ salas ” farmsteads was besides high since they supplied the surrounding towns and small towns with merchandises from carnal genteelness activities and field harvests. The significance is besides confirmed by the informations that there were several 1000s of “ salas ” farmsteads throughout Vojvodina in the period between the two World Wars. “ Salas ” farmsteads lost that important function in Vojvodina agribusiness and the life of the environing towns in peculiar during the old ages after the World War II, in parallel with modernization of agricultural production and execution of agricultural reforms. Many “ salas ” farmsteads were re-arranged and adapted to a new manner of life in that period so that they lost their genuineness.
Harmonizing to one categorization several types of “ salas ” farmsteads can be singled out:[ 8 ]
First group consists of stray “ salas ” farmsteads that were at a distance one from another and that had a big economic pace widening into a field. They used to be the most typical “ salas ” farmsteads.
Second group occurred by the center of the nineteenth century based on division of household land onto smaller land secret plans. The proprietor of each land secret plan built a “ salas ” farmstead on his/her ain land. Those “ salas ” farmsteads are more dumbly distributed since the land secret plans are smaller and distributed without any order.
Third group of “ salas ” farmsteads was built along the old roads and set near one to another.
Fourth group are “ salas ” farmsteads distributed in a street formation. Building of “ salas ” farmsteads at smaller land secret plans resulted with the fact that they were distributed more dumbly and in the street formation.
Fifth group are landholders ‘ estates that were much more richly equipped.
Sixth group are modern “ salas ” farmsteads that were built in a modern-day manner and much better equipped.
“ Salas ” farmsteads in the country between the Danube and Tisa, from Titel, Novi Sad and Backa Palanka up north to Sombor and Subotica have been preserved the best in footings of defying the clip. Most of those “ salas ” farmsteads day of the month back to the 18th and first half of the nineteenth century. Although their visual aspect and intent have been changed up to a important extent, the critical belongingss of specific lodging, old tools, dishes, costumes, and some imposts have been preserved.
Although they represent the hallmark of Vojvodina, “ salas ” farmsteads have ne’er been sufficiently used in touristic presentation. However, during the recent period in analogue with the tendency of return to nature, “ salas ” farmsteads have started coming back to the touristic scene. The consciousness of their significance for civilization and tradition of Vojvodina is turning and the work on their revivals through touristic energizing Begins.
Marketing scheme of touristry of Vojvodina ( 2009 ) presents the consequences of the canvass conducted among different stakeholders in touristry ( touristic and other touristry related economic system, public and para-public organic structures in touristry, associations, etc. ) . The researches have shown, inter alia, that “ salas ” farmsteads are one of the most recognizable trade names of Vojvodina. Even 36 % of the interviewed stated “ salas ” farmsteads as touristic merchandises no. 1 in Vojvodina. When it comes to promotional symbol or motto, most of the interviewed stated they could non recognize even one. However, 7 % of the entire figure of the interviewed stated “ salas ” farmstead as promotional symbol or motto, 4 % stated good wheel and helianthus, 4 % stated artistic presentation of the Pannonian house, 4 % stated the Vojvodina house, which points to recognisability of rural symbols and “ salas ” farmsteads.
“ Salas ” farmsteads – diverse touristic offer
Although there are several 100s of “ salas ” farmsteads today at which people live and work, merely 48 “ salas ” farmsteads have been identified based on the conducted researches that are unfastened as tourer finishs ( Table 1 ) . Those are “ salas ” farmsteads that are promoted via the Internet presentations or that are included in tourer offers of municipalities they belong to. Some of them dispose with complete offer for an interesting, peaceable, comfy vacation in a rural environment, far off from urban noise and rich with cultural and athleticss contents. Others represent ideal topographic points for administration of different educational workshops, literary and artistic settlements, and supplying kids and grownups the possibility to bask in nature.
Table 1. List of “ salas ” farmsteads with tourer offer contents
Art salas ViA?inka
HF, S, AA
HF, AA, S
aˆzSlano Kopovo ”
HF, S, AA
Dida Hornjakov salas
Salas A?uze Svorcana
EC ; CM
Salas kod Zuka
Salas ToA?e Zeremskog
S, HF, AA
Salas Dimitrija MiodragoviA‡a
Vinska kuA‡a AA?anski
Salas aˆzFiliA‡ ”
Beginning: Research of the writers
Note: iˆ?HF – hunting and fishing ; AA – engagement in agricultural activities ; S – athletics
iˆ?iˆ? EC- ethno aggregation ; AC – art settlement ; CM – visits to cultural-historical memorials ; EW – educational workshops
The followers can be concluded based on the conducted researches:
Out of 48 “ salas ” farmstead in entire, 6 dispose with a complete offer ( adjustment, repasts and some signifiers of diversion and cultural contents )
Four “ salas ” farmstead dispose with adjustment capacities without organized repasts and with some signifiers of cultural activities
Four “ salas ” farmstead provide merely providing services ( repasts without adjustment )
Other “ salas ” farmsteads provide adjustment services, repasts and athleticss or cultural activities.
For illustration, based on the collected information for merely two “ salas ” farmsteads ( others do non maintain regular records ) , it comes out that the use rate of adjustment capacities varies and depends on the season. Based on the informations obtained from the archives of Salas 137 for the period from November 2006 to July 2007, it can be concluded that the highest use rate of adjustment capacities was in May ( 88.76 % ) and July ( 86.22 % ) and that the lowest was in February ( 44.70 % ) . This confirms the thesis that the largest turnover of invitees is registered in spring and summer months ( Table 2 ) . A important influx of tourers in May and July is conditioned by events that are organised in Novi Sad at that clip – International Agricultural Fair is organised in May and Music Festival EXIT is organised in July.
Table 2. Number of nightlong corsets and utilisation rate of adjustment capacities
Number of nightlong corsets
Use rate ( % )
Beginning: Archive of Salas 137, harmonizing to Kosic, 2010
If we look at the available informations of the 2nd “ salas ” refering the figure of tourers and nightlong corsets in the period from 2000 to 2004 ( Table 3 ) , we can detect that those Numberss are increasing. So we can merely presume ( because of the modest information ) that the involvement in these type of farmsteads is higher each twelvemonth.
Table 3. Number of tourer and nightlong corsets in the period from 2000 to 2004.
Number of tourers
Number of nightlong corsets
Average length of stay
Use rate ( % )
Beginning: Archive of Majkin Salas, harmonizing to Kosic, 2010
Supplying of catering services, viz. consummation of nutrient and drinks makes a important section of the offer aimed at pulling tourers to rural finishs, in add-on to adjustment, cultural and recreational activities. In specialized bibliography, this method of selling of agricultural-food green goods is called the unseeable export. The kernel of this term is the arrangement of merchandises through repasts provided to foreign tourers. In add-on to merchandises made by conventional methods, the consciousness on significance and relevancy of merchandises made by organic methods is acquiring more and more developed ( although still at a really slow gait ) .[ 9 ]Owners of “ salas ” farmsteads could organize organic production of nutrient, which would better the quality of their offer even more, in peculiar for foreign tourers. That would besides lend to increase of grosss of families – through organising of organic nutrient production, on the one manus, and higher quality repasts for tourers, on the other manus. Through unseeable export the grosss are besides increased due to decrease of costs of conveyance, hive awaying, distribution, etc. “ Salas ” farmstead are suited for such signifier of organising of agricultural production.
Based on the obtained research consequences we can come up with the undermentioned decisions:
Rural countries in Vojvodina are economically and demographically devastated ;
It is necessary to happen auxiliary beginnings of grosss for rural families ;
Rural touristry could be one of those beginnings ;
There are many restrictions to more intensive development of rural touristry ;
Some encouraging inclinations can be noted ;
The significance of rural touristry is recognised in the Strategy of development of touristry of Serbia
A new Law on Tourism has been enacted that regulates this field ;
Investings in human and physical resources are go uping mildly ;
“ Salas ” farmstead have the prima function in development of rural touristry in Vojvodina
Quality of the contents and diverseness of offer is acquiring higher ;
Development of rural touristry enables the unseeable export of nutrient and increased foreign currency influx ;
Rural touristry in Serbia and Vojvodina has got a development position.