Abstract The survey seeks to set up the general tendency of the drug job and critically analyse schemes used to turn to the job ; efforts to place the function that chirrup can play in making consciousness of the danger that drug maltreatment can convey to the society in general and within Nigerian campuses in peculiar. The findings of this survey will help in measuring whether these schemes have the potency to assist the authorities in controling the drug job among the young persons. with a position to coming up with a more comprehensive Programme for turn toing the job in schools.
Many university undergraduates in Nigeria who do non hold entree to internet via computing machine now do so through smart phones such as iPhones. BlackBerrys. tablets. etc. . have Twitter histories and are active users. Drug maltreatment among the undergraduates has endangered their lives. This is doing a batch of concern. and it has been identified as a major cause of some of the jobs experienced even in Nigerian secondary schools. Nigeria. with the other developing African states. has been caught up with the indiscriminate usage. maltreatment and dependance on drugs of assorted types. Within the university campuses. drug maltreatment is going an increasing job.
The history of the human race has besides been the history of drug maltreatment. In itself. the usage of drugs does non represent an immorality. Drugs. decently administered. have been a medical approval. For illustration. herbs. roots. bark foliages and workss have been used to alleviate hurting and assist control diseases. However. over the past few decennaries. the usage of illegal drugs has spread at an unprecedented rate and has reached every portion of the universe. Harmonizing to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime ( UNODC ) study ( 2005 ) . some 200 million people. or 5 per centum of the entire world’s population aged 15 – 64 have used drugs at least one time in the last 12 months an implied 15 million people more than the 2004 estimation. The study goes on to state that. no state has been immune to the annihilating effects of drug maltreatment. Harmonizing to the World Drug Report ( 2005 ) . the usage of illicit drugs has increased throughout the universe in recent old ages.
The study further provinces that a major universe tendency is the increasing handiness of many sorts of drugs to an of all time widening socio-economic spectrum of consumers. The study argues that the chief job of drugs at planetary degree continue to be opiates ( notably heroine ) followed by cocaine. For illustration. for most of Europe and Asia. opiates continued to be the chief job drugs. accounting for 62 per centum of all intervention in 2003. Reports from a sum of 95 states indicated that drug ictuss increased quadruple in 2003. and more than half of these were from hemp. A study released by the United Nations Drug Control Program ( UNDCP ) in 2004 estimated that 3. 3 to 4. 1 per centum of the planetary population consumes drugs. but more worrisome is that harmonizing to the UNDCP executive manager. those who are hooked are the younger coevals. In Pakistan for illustration. it was reported that the portion of those who started heroine usage at 15 – 20 old ages has doubled to about 24 per centum of those surveyed.
Every state in the universe. developed or developing. incurs significant costs as a consequence of amendss caused by substance maltreatment ( World Drug Report. 2005 ) . The World Health Organization ( WHO ) estimates that 1. 1 billion people. stand foring a 3rd of the universe population above the age of 15 old ages. usage baccy. chiefly in the signifier of the coffin nails. Of these tobacco users. 800 million. 700 million of them males. live in developing states ( WHO. 2004 ) . While smoking rates have been worsening in the developed universe. they have increased in the development states by every bit much as 50 per centum. particularly in Asia and in the Pacific part. over the last decennary. Addiction to baccy is hence a major job in the development states. Harmonizing to the same study. baccy causes four million deceases yearly. non including infant morbidity and mortality.
Despite obliteration attempts in states in Africa. the part still remains a major provider of some drugs such as hemp. which is one of the most widely abused drugs. Since the early 19 1880ss. Africa has been sing an escalating job with drug maltreatment and trafficking. All the piece. Africa’s function in the planetary drugs supply concatenation is increasing. Already the continent is the 2nd largest part for hemp production. trafficking and ingestion. accounting for 26 per centum of planetary ictuss of this drug in 2001 ( UNODC. 2004 ) . The largest sums acquired in this period were in Kenya. Nigeria. and the Republic of South Africa. while Morocco is said to be one of the chief manufacturers of Cannabis rosin.
The state of affairs described above is true in developed states that have been experimenting with such drugs for a long period. However. developing states are non exempted from the dangers. All states. Nigeria inclusive. are vulnerable. It has been noted that Nigeria is one of the developing states in Africa that has recently been sing rapid addition in production. distribution and ingestion of multiple drugs of dependance ( Acuda and Yambo 1983 ; World Health Organization. 1995 ; Daily Nation. March 2. 2006 ) .
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Drug maltreatment amongst the young person in Nigeria has become a serious job impacting all the people of the state. Addiction leads many people. immature people outstanding amongst them. into downward spiral of hopelessness that in some instances ends fatally. They range from glue- whiffing street kids and teenage to hardcore diacetylmorphine and cocaine nuts. Drug maltreatment is sometimes responsible for Acts of the Apostless of force that lead to devastation of belongings in schools. surging wellness attention costs. evil patterns inside and outside the campuses and broken households. It is a job which affects us all as parents. kids. instructors. authorities functionaries. taxpayers and workers. This evil must be stop and the easy method to follow is through consciousness creative activity through societal web peculiarly by twirping at your friends or followings of the dangers posed by drug maltreatment.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The overall intent of this survey is to happen out the current tendency of drug maltreatment among the undergraduate pupils in Nigeria and analyze the schemes used to turn to the job. with the societal media site. Twitter in position. The ultimate purpose is to suggest a programme to assist control the job. The specific aims of the survey are as follows. To:
a ) Examine the function of chirrup in making consciousness about drug maltreatment among Nigeria young person. B ) Identify and measure schemes used among undergraduate to turn to drug maltreatment. their effectivity and defects. degree Celsius ) Propose schemes that could assist control drug maltreatment among the young persons.
The survey attempted to reply the undermentioned inquiries:
RQ1. What is the computing machine literacy degree of UNILAG pupils?
RQ2. How open are pupils to chitter?
RQ3. What is the extent of drug maltreatment among young persons?
RQ4. What are the chief causes of drug maltreatment among the young persons?
RQ5. How frequently are pupils exposed to drug maltreatment consciousness on chirrup? And what function could chitter play in making consciousness of the dangers of drug maltreatment among the young persons in Nigeria?
The literature presented in this chapter deals with research findings on The Role of Twitter in Creating Awareness about Drug Abuse among Nigerian Youth. All the literature is descried and explained in order to construct a theoretical background for the survey. Drug maltreatment. besides known as Substance maltreatment. is a patterned usage of a substance ( drug ) in which the user consumes the substance in sums or with methods neither approved nor advised by medical professionals. Substance abuse/drug maltreatment is non limited to mood-altering or psycho-active drugs. If an activity is performed utilizing the objects against the regulations and policies of the affair ( as in steroids for public presentation sweetening in athleticss ) . it is besides called substance maltreatment.
Therefore. mood-altering and psychotropic substances are non the lone types of drugs abused. Using illicit drugs – narcotics. stimulations. sedatives ( depressants ) . psychedelic drugs. hemp. even gums and pigments. are besides considered to be classified as drug/substance maltreatment. Substance maltreatment frequently includes jobs with impulse control and unprompted behavior In the modern medical profession. the three most used diagnostic tools in the universe. the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM ) . the World Health Organization’s International Statistical Classification of Diseases and ICRIS Medical organisation Related Health Problems.
Some of the drugs most frequently associated with this term include intoxicant. pep pills. and barbiturates. benzodiazepines ( peculiarly alprazolam. Ativan. and clonazepam. cocaine. Quaalude. and opioids. Use of these drugs may take to condemnable punishment in add-on to possible physical. societal. and psychological injury. both strongly depending on local legal power. There are many instances in which condemnable or antisocial behaviour occur when the individual is under the influence of a drug. Long term personality alterations in persons may happen every bit good.
The theoretical frame work considered to outdo suit this research are ; Exposure Theory: This Theory merely deals with how one chooses to expose himself to some peculiar media content. It can be divided into three phases which are Selective exposure. Selective attending and Selective keeping theory. The Selective exposure means you simple select the sort of content you open yourself to e. g. Most pupils prefer to expose themselves to amusement intelligence instead than political intelligence. Now even after exposing yourself to a peculiar sort of content. it’s non everything you listen to. In the amusement intelligence they might be speaking about manner and the music industry and you choose to listen to merely the manner intelligence. that is you selectively seting your attending to the manner intelligence and for the selective keeping you chose to retrieve a few things mentioned in the manner intelligence.
Every other thing said is regarded as noise to you. How this theory relates to our subject is fundamentally that non everyone exposes themselves to the chirrup societal web and even amongst those who are utilizing chirrup non everyone gets to see the messages on drug maltreatment consciousness and for those who do see the messages merely a few choose to retain what they saw and move upon it. On selective exposure you have to be following the grips that tweet on drug maltreatment. and for the selective attending good if you’re following the grip non all their tweets will catch your attending and the few that catch your attending and you choose to move upon is the 1 you selectively retain.
1964 Propounded by B. Berelson and G. A. Steiner
Percept is the procedure by which we interpret centripetal informations which comes to us through our five senses. It involves larning. updating position. and interacting with the observed. This theory fundamentally trades with the audience’s positions and perceptual experience towards the information he merely received. It’s safe to state that after the exposure theory the following theory is perceptual experience in the sense that after being exposed to a message and retaining it what comes after is ‘How do you decrypt the message’ . A group of people can listen to a Christian plan on Television. but the manner an atheist would comprehend the message would be different from how a Moslem or an Ifa worshipper would decrypt it. In the instance of chirrup this theory besides comes into drama. whereas people’s positions on drug maltreatment differ.
Some people think drug maltreatment refers to the maltreatment of merely difficult drugs burying that drug maltreatment can besides affect prescribed drugs excessively like analgesics. There are a few grips on chirrup eg. @ UnilagAmebor @ Yada360 @ Afrohow etc who frequently tweet about the detrimental effects mistreating drugs could hold on an person. and for every tweet. each chirrup user has their ain different manner of comprehending it. There was a clip @ yada360 tweeted a image demoing the lungs of a tobacco user and captioned it “ Keep smoke if you want your lungs to stop up like this” . Some users saw the tweet as a menace tweet. while others saw it as an advice and a few merely saw it as merely another tweet speaking about smoke and they paid it no attending.
Participants and process
The demand to quantify human behavioral attitude is ever necessary in societal scientific disciplines statistics and there are assorted ways in which this can be done ; study. content analysis. experiment and historical methods. The Survey in this survey was analytic. because the subject under survey is twitter and the function it plays in making drug maltreatment consciousness among Nigerian young persons. This study seeks to find the relationships between chirrup. Nigerian young persons. and drug maltreatment consciousness. The systematic random trying method was used to choose a sample of 20 respondents from each degree of the full-time undergraduate pupils of the Mass Communication Department of University of Lagos. with Diploma pupils inclusive conveying the entire sample size to 100respondents. The instrument was personally administered and there was the absence of bullying from any quarters which accounted for 100 % return rate. The respondents were unfastened to their sentiments. The questionnaires were filled and collected on the topographic point. There were multiple pick inquiries in the questionnaire.
The major findings of the survey are analyzed against the background of the 4 research inquiries. The consequences of the demographic enquiries revealed by respondents are between the ages of 16-29. All of them are full-time undergraduates from 100-400 degree including diploma pupils of Mass Communication section. ( UNILAG ) .
RQ1. What is the computing machine literacy degree of UNILAG pupils? To find the degree of literacy among pupils of mass communicating UNILAG ; respondents were made to reply three inquiries ; “Are you computing machine literate? ” ” how do you entree the cyberspace? ” . and “what societal media do you utilize? ”
DISCUSSION. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This survey has been able to corroborate that most Nigerian Youths. particularly Undergraduates in Nigerian Universities use societal media. In Africa. Nigeria is one of the foremost states that maintain a strong online presence. One of the most popular societal media sites among them is Twitter. They use Twitter chiefly for socialisation intents. This societal media site is a good platform to distribute information about the destructive effects of drug maltreatment. It is a good forum to acquire to the young person and educate them refering Drug maltreatment. peculiarly the immoralities that it leads to. and the different ways they can avoid or handle this job. The fact that a batch of young persons really tweet about utilizing difficult drugs is unfortunate. More alarming is that some chirrup users see it as a agency of deriving some signifier of repute. These people or histories are termed ‘twitter overlords’ . The deduction of this is that a batch of people following these histories try to make the same. therefore the rhythm goes on.
Based on the findings of this research. we have put together a few recommendations that should ease the effectual usage of Twitter in making Drug Abuse consciousness among Nigerian Youth.
1. Chirrup is one of the most popular media of socialisation which is used largely by the young person ; this medium should be used extensively by corporate organic structures In charge of the control of drugs and drug use by twirping about the danger of utilizing drugs without a doctor’s prescription.
2. Use facts and non scare-tactics to educate young person. Education is a cardinal constituent of any program to alter suicidal behaviour. In order for it to be effectual. instruction must be wholly factual and non merely rational. Many of these young persons are non moralists. so seeking to do them ‘do good’ might non assist much. We should get down to concentrate awareness runs on information which is scientifically accurate.
3. The usage of ocular and hearable presentation of stuffs. enlarged print. voice foils and chalkboards or somersault charts which could be used as Avatars on chirrup. or ‘twitpicced’ by bureaus in charge of Drug Control.
4. The degree of consciousness about drug maltreatment in the developed states can non be compared to the state of affairs in Nigeria ; these developed states make usage of chirrup to educate their young person with assorted grips which continually tweet and direct messages about the deduction of drug maltreatment. Handles like @ NIDA on American Twitter is a good illustration.
5. Even the mass media in Nigeria has non helped much in making consciousness about the threat of mistreating drugs. South African media dedicate their grips to drug maltreatment consciousness creative activity. Such grips as @ rhinobliz tweeted “As South Africa. lets unite to contend the flagellum of Drug maltreatment. Our young person are blowing their lives on day-to-day footing # advancingSA”
6. NDLEA and other drug bureaus like NAFDAC should concentrate on young person on chirrup by twirping often on the dangers.
7. Drug maltreatment should be given the same intervention or promotion as HIV. AIDS Cancer and other deathly diseases.
8. Governments. schools and NGO’s should keep on-line presence and station issues refering the effects of drugs. The president of South Africa @ JacobZuma has tweets refering drug maltreatment and its dangers. They should besides supervise on-line content. as a batch of adolescents have the inclination to ‘twitpic’ . twirp about or ‘instagram’ difficult drugs before they use them.
9. Parents and defenders should ever do out clip for their children/wards and edify them on the ailments of drug maltreatment. They should besides be cognizant of the group of people they move with. and how they use the cyberspace. It is suprising the wealth of destructive information a individual can be exposed to on the cyberspace. 10. Government bureaus like Nigerian Immigration and Customs should guarantee tight boundary line security. to minimise smuggling of drugs. These bureaus should besides keep on-line presence. particularly on chirrup. as they are apt to acquire information through to a batch of users on it.