This chapter reviews the literature in the context of this survey. Related literature in this chapter is focused on cross boundary line touristry in touristry surveies, socio demographic features, tourers ‘ motive and tourers ‘ satisfaction.
First, this chapter reviews the literature on cross boundary line touristry. Second, this chapter discusses old research on socio-demographic characteristic and analysing the relationship between socio-demographic characteristic and tourers ‘ travel form. Third, this chapter will reexamine the literature on tourers ‘ motive and the relationship between tourers ‘ motive and pick of finish. eventually, this chapter reviews the literature on tourers ‘ satisfaction and identifies the relationship among tourers ‘ satisfaction and properties of finishs.
2.1 Cross boundary line touristry
Harmonizing to Mark P. Hampton ( 2009 ) , there is no in agreement definition of cross-border touristry, but here, and following Timothy and Butler ( 1995 ) , it is proposed that a twenty-four hours trip ( whether leisure, concern, VFR or food market shopping ) is a signifier of touristry if it crosses an international boundary line. On the other manus, Praman Tepsongkroh ( 2007 ) , cited from Witt & A ; Witt ( 1992 ) stated that cross-border touristry can be modeled from the neo-classical economic sciences theoretical demand model based on single tourist/consumer sing adjacent states with the intent of straight devouring goods and services which are cheaper in that state and/or are unavailable in the state of beginning. Border-crossing points that join next states normally become urtications of international economic activity ( Kenneth, R. Lord, Sanjay Putrevu and H. G. Parsa, 2004 ) . Consumers populating within a manageable thrust of the boundary line cross to the adjacent state for such diverse activities as shopping, amusement, sightseeing, work-related travel, or simply the chance of a different or less-traveled path between two points.
In add-on, it is suggested that any on the job definition of cross boundary line touristry besides requires an component of geographical propinquity such as seen between the US and Canada, or Singapore and Malaysia or Malaysia and Thailand ( Hampton, M.P. , 2009 ) . In other words, cross boundary line touristry requires a common boundary line. Besides that, the easiness of cross boundary line linkages is important. As tourers are permitted to traverse the boundary line easy, the growing of touristry on both sides is greatly promoted, and touristic countries finally abut the boundary on both sides ( Ahmad Puad, M. S. & A ; Badaruddin, M. & A ; Kong-Yew, W, 2005 ) . Mark P. Hampton ( 2009 ) reported that France ‘s success in pulling 76 million international reachings in 2005 due to the easiness of boundary line traversing with neighbouring EU states. Furthermore, Timothy ( 1995 ) said that the degree of attraction of boundary line countries for tourers depends on a figure of factors including the natural, societal, cultural environment near the boundary line and the grade of freedom or trouble in traversing it.
Harmonizing to Praman Tepsongkroh ( 2007 ) , transverse boundary line touristry provides interesting positions across subjects. Matinez ( 1994 ) looked at the cross-border interaction in footings of form of human motion between next states. His appraisal of the interaction fell into four portion typology. First, anomic border districts are the 1s where daily communicating and interaction are about wholly absent. Second, coexisting border districts are those where the frontier is somewhat unfastened to minimum degrees of interaction. Third, mutualist border districts are characterized by willingness between next states to set up cross-frontier webs and partnerships. Finally, integrated border districts are found where all important political and economic barriers have been abolished, ensuing in free flow of goods and people ( Matinez, 1994 ) . Therefore, from Matinez ‘s ( 1994 ) position, it can be said that boundaries are normally viewed as barriers to interaction, both perceptually and in world. In many instances, they may be regarded as lines of contact and cooperation between similar or dissimilar cultural, economic, and societal systems.
Timothy ( 2001 ) defined some of the connexions between boundaries and touristry, which are treble typology of spacial relationships between boundary lines and tourers, as shown in the undermentioned state of affairss:
( a ) The boundary line is distant from tourer countries
( B ) A tourer zone exists next to the boundary on merely one side
( degree Celsius ) Tourist zones that extend across, or meet at, boundary lines
Harmonizing to Timothy ( 2001 ) , in the first instance, the frontier maps as a barrier or simple line of theodolite. Therefore, the influence of the boundary line depends mostly on its grade of permeableness. This is a common phenomenon for boundary lines of many states holding a good relationship with the next provinces. In the 2nd instance, in add-on to being attracted to the tourist-oriented side, some people will be attracted to see the other side as good, which presents chances for touristry development to slop over into the non-tourist side of the boundary line. In the 3rd case, there may be communicating and cooperation between the two sides so that the full nature of cultural attractive force system operates as one entity, or conversely, the boundary line may move as a important barrier wholly ( Timothy, 2001 ) .
Cross boundary line touristry is influenced by governmental policy and socio-economic factors such as trade pacts, gross revenues revenue enhancement discounts, rising prices, exchange rates, shopping penchants and many other factors ( Tepsongkroh, P. , 2007 ) . Border-related policies, differences in administrative constructions on opposite sides, and the physical barrier creates by boundary lines can impact many facets of touristry, including travel motives and determination devising, substructure development, selling and publicity and topographic point image ( Timothy, 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Praman Tepsongkroh ( 2007 ) , such obstructions can impede the flow of tourers and can assist to determine the physical and socio-economic development of touristry in the finish parts elsewhere, every bit good as at the Thai and Malayan boundary line.
Socio demographic features
Harmonizing to Thirathanaphak, C. & A ; Akethammasiri, K. and Chainimit, P. ( 2009 ) , socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural indexs are normally used in touristry research to profile tourers by age, gender, income, matrimonial position, businesss, instruction or cultural background. These indexs are easy to place and utilize in selling determinations ( Yavuz, 1994 ) . Furthermore, harmonizing to Handler, I ( 2009 ) , he said that Pearce, ( 2005 ) ; Kotler, ( 2006 ) , Middleton & A ; Clarke, ( 2007 ) ; Dickman, ( 1999 ) stated that one of the most common ways to split tourers is by demographic factors, i.e. age, gender, instruction, business, outgo or their geographic location. Furthermore, harmonizing to Suleiman, J.S & A ; Mohamed, B. ( 2011 ) , by and large socio-demographic variables such as age, income, nationality and instruction have been considered as comparatively useable, since they are easy to mensurate ( Lawson, 1994 ) and they are identified as appropriate determiners of tourer behaviour ( Kastenholz, 2002 ; Baloglu & A ; Brinberg, 1997 ; Gitelson & A ; Kerstetter, 1990 ) .
In add-on, harmonizing to Beerli, A. & A ; Martin, D. ( 2003 ) , the persons ‘ personal features, such as gender, age, business, instruction and societal category, are internal inputs that influence the perceptual experiences of topographic points. When Walmsley and Jenkins ( 1993 ) studied the sensed image of different tourer resorts in Australia, they found that the image of some topographic points differed depending on visitant ‘s gender and age. Besides that, Baloglu and McCleary ( 1999 ) found that an person ‘s age and degree of instruction influenced the sensed image of assorted tourer finishs.
Harmonizing to Aswin Sangpikul, ( 2008 ) , the literature reappraisal indicates that there may be a combination of socio-demographic variables that influence tourers ‘ behaviours. However, the consequences of old surveies imply that different sample groups may hold different socio-demographic factors act uponing their travel-related behaviours ( Sangpikul, A. , 2008 ) . Furthermore, harmonizing to Jang, S.C. & A ; Yu, L. & A ; Pearson, T.E. ( 2003 ) , the socio-demographic profiles and trip-related features of the visitants enable touristry sellers to understand who they are and how they behave on travel.
Relationship between socio-demographic features and tourer travel form
Socio-demographic variables are the primary factors that influence people ‘s travel-related behaviour ( Zimmer et al. , Jang et al. , Jang and Wu, 2006 ) . These variables may include age, gender, instruction, income, economic position and wellness position. Zimmer et Al. ( 1995 ) revealed that age, income and instruction emerged as the chief variables that explain engagement versus non-participation in travel activities. Their survey indicated that income and instruction influenced travellers when taking nearby or farther-away finishs, with travellers who were better educated and who had more disposable income being more likely to go further from place. These consequences were echoed by Sirisukul ( 1998 ) , who found that Thai people with a higher instruction and higher incomes were more likely to be motivated to take part in leisure activities than those who were less educated and earned less income.
Silberberg ( 1995 ) identified the cultural/heritage tourer as one who: earned more money and spent more money while on holiday ; was more extremely educated than the general populace ; was more likely to be female than male and tended to be in older age classs. Furthermore, Kerstetter, Confer and Graefe ( 2001 ) found that tourers with an involvement in sing heritage or cultural sites tend to remain longer, pass more per trip, are more extremely educated and have a higher mean one-year income than the general tourers.
In add-on, Brining ( 1995 ) found that adult females adopted safer attacks than work forces when it came to doing hazardous consumer determinations. Barsky & A ; Labagh ( 1997 ) besides reported a lower hazard leaning amongst adult females than work forces.
Besides that, Anderson ( 1993 ) stated that tourers ‘ ages are closely associated with the significance tourers attached to trades and to the purpose trades served for the proprietors. Harmonizing to Littrell ( 1990 ) showed that immature tourers frequently valued trades that reminded them of exciting shopping brushs and active touristry experiences, while older tourers preferred trade points that would convey them aesthetic pleasance through their contemplation at place.
Furthermore, a survey of tourer dark markets in Taiwan carried out by Hsieh and Chang ( 2004 ) found that female visitants tend to come with friends or households instead than entirely or individual visitants passing more clip and money compared to married 1s.
Tourists ‘ Motivation
Harmonizing to French, et Al. ( 2000 ) , a focal point on motive provides a complex position of assorted factors to excite the travel demands for touristry and embraces both interior demands and wants. These demands and wants reflect perceptual experiences, cultural conditioning and acquisition. Copper, Shepherd and Westlak ( 1996 ) presented Murphys theoretical account looking at psychological factors which influence demands ( motives, perceptual experiences and outlooks ) , and how these demanded standards are linked by mediators in the market topographic point ( travel bureaus and circuit operators ) with the supply of tourer installations. Many different classs of motives have an of import influence on travel decision-making ; they are as follows ( Tepsongkroh, P. , 2007 ) :
Motivation as a intent and ground for travel: holidaies ( vacations, sing friends and relations ) , concern ( Gallic, et al. , 2000 )
Motivation as persons demands and wants: Maslow ‘s physiological demands, security demands, societal demands and self-esteem demands ( Hall, 1998 ) .
Maslows Physiological Needs
Figure 1: Maslow ‘s physiological demands
Motivation as satisfaction through tourer activities ( Gallic, et al. , 2000 ) .
Physical incentives are related to rest, athleticss, diversion and those straight connected with a individual ‘s wellness such as watering place and baths. These incentives all have one characteristic in common, the decrease of tenseness through activities related to physical factors.
Cultural incentives are identified by the desires of the traveller to larn about other states and their art, music, dances, traditions and faiths.
Interpersonal incentives include a desire to run into new people, see friends or relations.
Status and prestigiousness incentives are related to the desire for acknowledgment, attending, power and grasp, every bit good as the desire to heighten sexual attraction.
Motivations as pull and push factor ; cultural experience, pleasure-seeking/fantasy, and relaxation ( Kozak, 2002 ) .
Motivation as the unity of the original factors such as relaxation, societal and rational facets ( Ryan, 1998 ) .
Motivation as of import to tourist information: feelings of pleasance, exhilaration, relaxation ( push factors ) , and tourist attractive forces like sunlight, friendly people, and civilization ( pull factors ) ( Goossens, 2000 ) .
Harmonizing to Kau & A ; Lim ( 2005 ) , understanding tourers ‘ holiday motivations, i.e. why people travel, is an issue that has been researched extensively. By finding the motives that influence people ‘s travel wonts and finish choice would enable one to foretell their hereafter travel forms, thereby assistance in developing more appropriate selling schemes to pull them ( McGuiggan et al. , 1995 ) . Besides that, harmonizing to Sangpikul, A ( 2007 ) , a common and utile theory used to analyze tourer motives is the theory of push and pull motive as stated by Dann, ( 1977 ) ; Crompton, ( 1979 ) ; Yuan and Mcdonald, ( 1990 ) ; Klenosky, ( 2002 ) . Furthermore, Skourtis, G. & A ; Andreou, D. & A ; Koniordos, M. & A ; Assiouras, I. ( 2009 ) cited from Dann ( 1997 ) , the push factors for a holiday are socio-psychological motivations explicating the desire for travel, while the pull factors are motivations aroused by the finish explicating the finish pick.
Harmonizing to Kau, A. K. & A ; Lim, P. S. ( 2005 ) , holiday motivations can be classified loosely into two chief classs, ‘push ‘ and ‘pull ‘ factors as cited by Crompton, ( 1979 ) ; Dann, ( 1981 ) . Push factors can be described as ‘internally generated thrusts, doing the tourer to seek for marks in objects, state of affairss and events that contain the promise of cut downing prevailing thrusts ‘ ( Gnoth, 1997 ) . Pull factors, on the other manus, are those that ’emerge as a consequence of the attraction of a finish as it is perceived by those with leaning to go ‘ and include ‘both touchable resources, such as beaches, diversion installations and cultural attractive forces and travellers ‘ perceptual experiences and outlook and selling image ( Uysal and Jurowski, 1994 ) . Push factors have been regarded as utile in explicating the desire for travel, while pull motives have been used to explicate the pick of travel, finish ( Crompton, 1979 ) .
Harmonizing to Sangikul, A. ( 2008 ) , he said that push factors have been thought utile for explicating the desire to travel on a holiday, while pull factors help explicate the pick of finish as reported by Crompton, ( 1979 ) . Therefore, Sangikul, A. ( 2008 ) said that understanding what motivate people ‘s travel behaviour and finish choice is important to foretelling their travel determinations and future travel forms as cited by Cha et al. , ( 1995 ) ; Jang and Cai, ( 2002 ) ; Klenosky, ( 2002 ) ; Jang Wu, ( 2006 ) . Additionally, knowledge about tourer motive enables touristry sellers to better satisfy travellers ‘ demands and supply better merchandises and services matching to their demands ( Crompton, 1979 ; Jang and Cai, 2002 ; Jang and Wu, 2006 ; Sangikul, 2008 ) .
Relationship between tourers ‘ motive and pick of finishs
Pizam, Neuman and Reichel ( 1979 ) uncover relationships amongst certain motives and picks related to the trip or finish. Harmonizing to Prebensen ( 2006 ) , motive and the pick of vacation type or activities have been shown to be significantly related. Besides that, Moscardo, Morrison, Pearce, Lang and O’Leary ( 1995 ) stated that activities are seen as the critical nexus between tourer motives and finish pick. Furthermore, harmonizing to Lien ( 2010 ) , activities affect tourers ‘ pick of finish through travel motives. Specifically, activities create a motive of going to a finish and the motive turns into purchase behaviour known as pick of the finish.
John and Susan ( 1999 ) proposed that there are six motivations, i.e. physical, emotional, personal, personal development, position and cultural motivations. Harmonizing to lien ( 2010 ) , he said that the impact between motive and activities can be explained in a different manner. Specifically, with physical motive, persons prefer to go finishs where have activities which can fulfill their demands of relaxation or sunburns. Besides that, as for emotional motive, people may take part in activities that can fulfill their demands for enjoyment of love affair, phantasy and religious fulfilment.
Prebensen ( 2007 ) mentioned in the survey that in the procedure of devouring or bring forthing ( Holt, 1995 ) a journey, tourers besides experience fresh state of affairss, which might ensue in different pick forms. Therefore, motives may take to buying behaviour, which is finish taking behaviour ( Lien, 2010 ) . Persons who have different motives may take the same finishs and they participate similar or different types of activities to fulfill their demands.
Tourists ‘ Satisfaction
Traditional literature within consumer behaviour pinpoints that client satisfaction is the consequence or the concluding measure of a psychological procedure from demand acknowledgment to rating of experient merchandises ( Peter and Olson, 1996 ) . Besides that, harmonizing to Oliver ( 1997 ) , satisfaction is defined as a judgement that a merchandise or service characteristic, or the merchandise or service itself, provides a enjoyable degree of consumption-related fulfilment. In add-on, satisfaction besides can be defined as an overall rating of a purchase ( Fornell, 1992 ) . Furthermore, harmonizing to Raktida Siri ( 2009 ) , Engel et Al. ( 1995 ) stated that satisfaction was an result experience that at least met or exceeded outlooks.
Harmonizing to Hui, J. ( 2002 ) ; Kozak & A ; Rimmington, ( 2000 ) , tourist satisfaction is of import to successful finish selling because it influences the pick of the finish, the ingestion of merchandises and services and the determination to return. Therefore, understanding tourer satisfaction is of extreme of import for the touristry industry, particularly because of its consequence on their future economic system ( Petrick, 2003 ) . Satisfied tourers tend to pass on their positive experience to others ( word of oral cavity ) and they tend to purchase merchandise repeatedly ( Barsky, 1992 ; Beeho and Prentice, 1997 ; Hallowell, 1996 ; Kozak and Rimmington, 2000 ; Pizam, 1994 ; Ross, 1993 ) .
Raktida Siri ( 2009 ) , cited from Meng et Al. ( 2006 ) concluded that there were nine theories on client satisfaction: anticipation disconfirmation, assimilation or cognitive disagreement, contrast, assimilation contrast, equity, ascription, comparing degree, generalized negatively and value perceptual experience. Furthermore, among these nine theories, outlook disconfirmation theoretical account was accepted the most. Oliver ( 1980 ) , cited from Kandampully ( 200 ) introduced an Expectancy Disconfirmation Model, which was a procedure of comparing between an outlook and an experience. Satisfaction would happen if the experience met outlook.
Harmonizing to Hui, J. ( 2002 ) , he said that Chon and Olsen ( 1991 ) discovered a goodness of fit correlativity between tourers ‘ outlooks about their finish and tourers ‘ satisfaction. Then, after tourer has bought the travel service merchandises, if the rating of their experience of the travel merchandise is better than their outlooks, they will be satisfied with their travel experience.
Besides that, harmonizing to Prebensen ( 2004 ) , by including tourer travel motivations and picks of activities at the finish every bit good as perceptual experience of merchandises into the construct of satisfaction, a better apprehension of why people become satisfied in add-on to how satisfied they are is possible to place, which farther includes a better understanding refering why people intent to urge and re-buy the trip.
Relationship between tourers ‘ satisfaction and finish properties
Huh ( 2002 ) stated that there is a demand to look into the relationship between finish properties and tourers ‘ satisfaction from the tourer ‘s position in order to derive an in-depth apprehension of tourers ‘ properties and behaviour after they visit a tourer finish. Harmonizing to Fornell ( 1992 ) , tourists express satisfaction or dissatisfaction after they buy touristry merchandises and services. If tourers are satisfied with the merchandises or finishs, so they will hold the motive to purchase or see once more or they will urge them to their friends or relations.
Thirathanaphak & A ; Akethammasiri and Chainimit ( 2009 ) , cited from Kozak and Rimington ( 2000 ) reported the findings of a survey to find finish attributes critical to the overall satisfaction degrees of tourers. Pizam, Neuman and Reichel ( 1978 ) stated that it is of import to mensurate consumer satisfaction with each property of the finish, because consumer dissatisfaction or satisfaction with one of the properties leads to dissatisfaction or satisfaction with the overall finish. Furthermore, Rust, Zahorik and Keininghan ( 1993 ) explained that the comparative importance of each property to the overall feeling should be investigated because either dissatisfaction or satisfaction can be the consequence of measuring assorted positive and negative experiences.
Glason ( 1994 ) provides an overview of the features of visitants to Oxford, their impacts, and the direction responses to day of the month. In general, around 80 % of tourers who visited this finish were satisfied. Over 80 % of the tourers who visited Oxford said that they would wish to do a return visit. The tourers peculiarly enjoyed the architecture, which together with the traditions of the university and colleges creates an attractive physical environment and atmosphere. The shopping installations were besides good like, and local people were regarded as friendly.
Qu and Li ( 1997 ) conducted research on the features and satisfaction degrees of Mainland Chinese when they visited Hong Kong. It was found that they were satisfied with most properties of Hong Kong and 84 % of the respondents indicated their willingness to revisit at that place. Tourism substructure and installations were deemed to be sufficient and convenient ; Hong Kong occupants ‘ attitudes were indicated to be friendly ; service provided in eating houses, stores and hotels were said to be good and the environment was quite clean and tidy. However, they were dissatisfied with the monetary values charged for shopping and adjustment.
Besides that, Kau and Lim ( 2005 ) conducted a research on bunch of Chinese tourers to Singapore. It was found that the degrees of satisfaction of the assorted bunchs with respect to assorted properties offered by Singapore would be different. Similarly, they would besides differ with regard to their overall satisfaction, likeliness of urging Singapore to others and their likeliness of revisiting.
Furthermore, harmonizing to Praman Tepsongkroh ( 2007 ) , he stated that the tourer ‘s demographic features, disposable income, calling, age and instruction are besides important factors that shape the tourer ‘s determination. Once a determination is made and the journey starts, the tourer experiences the finish attributes which he or she may be satisfied or frailty versa. The degrees of satisfaction of tourer depend mostly on the finish ‘s properties such as installations and services, every bit good as other elements. Finally a revisit is anticipated, once more depending mostly on the experience at the attractive forces encountered by the tourer.