This chapter aims to sketch the present public coach planning system and histrions model in Johor Bahru City context. Through illustration, it could assist to recognize differences between the bing system and the ideal public coach planning system which has been developed in Section 2.5.
3.2 Transport Planning in Johor Bahru City
In kernel, Johor Bahru City does hold a transit program. The thought for the program are formulated from national planning.and translated into the Johor Strucure Plan and later into more elaborate programs as presented in the territory local programs. However, to what widen does these programs show how the planning system for public coach service in Johor Bahru? It is hence necessary to understand Malaysian planning system and to see how transport policy and planning is translated from the top to bottom degree.
3.2.1 National Planning ( Five-year Plan )
Malaysia has been following a federal type parliamentary signifier of democracy in regard of authorities and disposal since independency. In footings of be aftering for national development, centralised planning has become the tradition of the state. Particularly since the origin of New Economic Plan, centralised national planning is taken really earnestly by the federal authorities. For this purpose “ Five-year Plan ” system has been followed really systematically. This “ Five-year Plan ” is the top degree of planning in Malaysia and involved legion bureaus ( Figure 3.1 ) . At the top of the hierarchy of planning bureaus are Parliament and Cabinet where the wide socio-economic ends and schemes are formulated. The following in the planning hierarchy is National Development Planning Committee ( NDPC ) which is responsible for steering the production of the five-year programs. Under the counsel and waies of NDPC, assorted cardinal authorities bureaus participate in the program readying. They are Treasury, Economic Planning Unit ( EPU ) , Implementation and Co-ordination Unit ( ICU ) , Socio-Economic Research Unit ( SERU ) , Federal Ministries and Departments, a scope of independent or semi-autonomous bureaus and statutory organic structures. Input signals from the States for the readying of the five-year programs come chiefly from State Economic Planning Units ( SEPUs ) and State Economic Development Corporations ( SEDCs ) .
In Malaysia, the readying for a new five-year program begins during the last twelvemonth of the old program period ( for an illustration: readying for the 2001-2005 Plan will get down in 2000 ) . In the beginning phase, EPU will direct out wide guidelines to all State authoritiess inquiring them to subject development undertaking for their several provinces for the following program period within three to four months. The State governments in bend send out waies to all District Military officers in their several provinces to fix and subject development undertaking proposals for the single territories. At the territory degree, there is a District Development Committee which operates under District Action Committee and is chaired by the District Officer. This Committee consists of all the territory degree caputs of the assorted authorities sections every bit good as the peoples representatives. This commission is responsible to fix and subject departmental undertaking proposals to District Action Committee. After size uping the proposals, the District Action Committee will so send on the combined territory program to the State authorization.
Figure 3.1: Major Bodies and Agencies Involved in the National Planning and Development Evaluation Process
Beginning: www.epu.gov.my ( 2010 )
At the State degree, there is besides the State Action Committee. The commission which consists of all the State Director of the assorted authorities and peoples representatives is chaired by Chief Minister. The commission together with SEPUs are responsible to farther scrutinise and measure the proposals. The concluding proposals will so be submitted to the Treasury and ICU of the federal authorities. The Federal Ministries so based on the proposals submitted will hold to fix their development plans in order to send on it to EPU. All the proposals are so arranged sector by sector through EPU and the fiscal allotment for each sector will be assessed by the Inter Agency Planning Group, so that precedences can be determined and schemes of optimum use of public fund can be ascertained. After the program is adjusted, it will be submitted to NDPC for reexamining and co-ordinating proposals and policies. The program will so be forwarded to National Action aCouncil ( NAC ) which is chaired by Prime Minister. NAC is responsible to set about an economic and societal rating of the combined programs, plans and undertakings. It besides has the power and privilege in regard of publishing policy directives and precedence finding before and during the readying of program. The Five-year Plan therefore prepared is so submitted to the cabinet and the Parliament severally for blessing and official acceptance. The procedure for bring forthing the National development program has been established since 1961 and is a bipartisan procedure affecting “ top-down ” and “ bottom-up ” flows of planning inputs ( Quazi, 1986 ) . Broad schemes which are formulated for conveyance sector in national degree are shown as followers:
Supply-driven attack will organize the footing for the enlargement of substructure capacities taking into consideration long-run demand, development undertakings and economic growing in order to guarantee the handiness of supply upon demand. This attack will be applied peculiarly to big substructure undertakings that are indivisible and necessitate long lead clip ;
Long-term integrated be aftering that incorporate a entire attack will be adopted in substructure planning to heighten co-ordination and guarantee a more orderly, systematic and comprehensive development and execution of substructure ;
The publicity of multimodalism in the conveyance sector will be actively pursued to heighten the interfacing of all manners of conveyance every bit good as related services in order to increase the efficiency of substructure installations and back uping services ;
Further enlargement of substructure installations to rural countries in order to heighten handiness in line with a more balanced and just distributive policy ; and
Continuous reappraisal and rigorous enforcement of public presentation criterions and proficient specifications for substructure undertakings in order to heighten productiveness, efficiency and quality of life ( Malaysia Government, 1996a ) .
These wide schemes will so supply a general counsel for province authoritiess to explicate their conveyance sector-base survey in the structural program.
3.2.2 Structure Plan
In the province degree of be aftering hierarchy, the State Department of Town and Country Planning is given the duty to fix the developments program ( construction program and local program ) .
Normally, the program should hold a clip skyline of 5 to 20 old ages and incorporate a cardinal diagram instead than a map and cover the non-metropolitan country. The aims of construction program are:
to guarantee that the proviso for development is realistic and consistent with national and regional policy ;
to supply the strategic policy model for planning and development control locally ;
to procure consistence between local programs for neighbouring countries ;
to put the wide model for be aftering at the local degree ; and
to find the location of action country programs.
The procedure of readying of the construction program is similar to the rational comprehensive planning system ( Figure 3.2 ) . State Department of Town and Country Planning will foremost find the survey country. Second, they will interpret the general proposals and wide policies established in the National Planning ( Five-year Plans ) into detailed sector-based surveies which includes the transit sector. Primary and secondary informations based on sector-based surveies will so be collected and analyzed. After analysis phase, be aftering section will fix the bill of exchange proficient study. The completed bill of exchange proficient study will be exhibited to the populace, and the populace is allowed to give their remarks and sentiments. The planning section will roll up the remarks given by the populace. However, the digest has been done in the mode to simply carry through the demands of the construction program.
After the exhibition period, the section has to fix a bill of exchange construction program. The completed bill of exchange construction program once more has to be published in local newspaper and exhibited to the populace. The populace is allowed to show their sentiments during the exhibition of the bill of exchange construction program. However, it is merely done in an administrative mode. The section has no committedness to be accountable and antiphonal to public sentiments. That means, the populace are treated merely as advisory organic structures with no power to act upon the determination. After the program is adjusted, it will be forwarded to State Planning Committee for blessing. This commission is chaired by Chief Minister of Johor State which is responsible to find the standards sing the preservation, utilizations and development of land in Johor State that should be based on national policy ; acts as an adviser to province authorities and helps in the publication of the program. Normally, if there is no other amendments, the program will so be approved and forwarded to State Government. Finally, State Government will gazette the program as statutory program in order to steer province development and planning.
Figure 3.2 Structure Plan Preparation Procedures
Calciferol: LJ -PSMMY Thesis1234.jpg
Beginning: Johor State Structure Plan 2020
Normally, after construction program has been prepared, it will interpret into more elaborate degree in local program. The local program will so be used as a counsel for bring forthing a more comprehensive public conveyance program, and once more this program will be transformed into operational programs such as public coach program.
3.2.3 The Local Plan
In the context of Johor Bahru City, the first of all time local program for the territory was gazetted in 2002. Therefore, this elaborate program has been used to help public coach program in Johor Bahru City and is being used to steer of the most daily planning determinations.
The procedure of readying of the local program is similar to that of the construction program as there are besides the readying of bill of exchange every bit good as exhibition period to promote the populace to take part in the procedure ( mention to Figure 3.2.1 ) . Unlike the construction program, there is a more proficient facet to the study as it is more item oriented and involves the readying of the proficient study. The local program recognizes the lineations provided in the construction program and its statutory nature and translates it into a more physical item layout to help the planning procedure. This is peculiar of import as it acts as a comprehensive usher particularly in the context of public coach planning as it proposes the proviso of paths every bit good as all the substructures related to bus services such as coach Stationss.
Figure 3.2 1 Structure Plan Preparation Procedures
Beginning: Johor Bahru Districl Local Plan 2002- 2020
In general, local program provides a usher for conveyance contrivers in the formation of a public coach transit program every bit good as helping the coach coach operators in the in their day-to-day operational program. The readying of public coach program in Johor Bahru City will be described in the following subdivision.
3.3 Public coach Planning Process in Johor Bahru City
In Johor Bahru City, short-run public coach program is carried out by coach operators themselves. This short-run public coach program will find day-to-day operation tactics for coach operators to supply coach services within the country of Johor Bahru City. Normally, coach operators will establish on the Johor Bahru District Local Plan to explicate their short-run public coach program. This short-run program has the aims to supply new coach path services, to better the degree of service, etc. within a period of three old ages ( personal interview with En. Che Joha, 2010 ) .
In Johor Bahru City, the sections which are related to public conveyance planning are really ill-defined. Although there is a Road Transport Act, 1987 ( Act 333 ) and Commercial Vehicles Licensing Board Act, 1987 ( Act 334 ) , they do non province clearly which section is responsible to fix the public conveyance program and how public conveyance program should be carried out ( Wahab, 1991 ) . At the same clip, Johor Bahru City still does non hold a individual conveyance section to cover with public coach planning. Presently, there are three sections involved in the system which are Unit Traffic of Johor Bahru City Council, Commercial Vehicles Licensing Board and Road Work Department. Normally, Road Work Department is responsible for the planning, design, building, direction and care of route in Johor Bahru City. If there is a new route provided by Road Work Department to associate the cardinal concern territory with new lodging estates, coach operator ( their appropriate staff members, contrivers, applied scientists, schedulers, etc. ) foremost has to fix the short-run public coach program in order to subject to Unit Traffic of Johor Bahru City Council for blessing. This short-run public coach program should include the proposed new coach paths, agenda of frequences, hours of operation, menu alterations, etc. Unit Traffic of Johor Bahru City Council will so size up, buttocks and measure whether the proposed services is suited for bettering the quality of public transit services in Johor Bahru City. If the proposal is in line with the public conveyance policy stated in construction program and the paths proposed comply with the bing local program, it will be approved by Unit Traffic of Johor Bahru City Council.
Notwithstanding, the entry has to be forwarded to Commercial Vehicles Licensing Board for their concluding determination. The Board has the undermentioned duties ( Ab. Rahman, 1987 ) :
to see all applications for licenses for public conveyance services ;
to attach conditions to licenses and license holders, such as menu rates, path agendas, Michigans, figure of riders for public transit services, etc. ;
to call off and revoke of licenses issued if the conditions attached to the licenses are non adhered to, or when licenses are non use for the intent under which it was issued ;
to repair the period of licenses ;
to do alterations to the conditions attached to licenses such as names, operational country, etc. ; six. to regenerate of licenses ;
to see application for extra riders and replacing of vehicles ; and
to explicate proposals for the betterment of the transit system, from clip to clip.
Normally, the Board may attach conditions[ 1 ]to any license granted if they think fit. If the contents of short-run public coach program are complied with the demands given by the Board, coach operator will obtained the Licensing Permit to run in that new country. On the contrary, if the program could non carry through the conditions imposed, the application may be refused by the Board. However, the applier may subject their entreaty to Minister. If the entreaty is approved by the Minister, the applier may obtain the license, otherwise the applier has to feed back the application if the entreaty is non approved. After applier has obtained the Licensing Permit, he will run and implement the new system. Thereafter, route conveyance officers and constabularies are responsible to look into and supervise the services provided. If coach operators fail to follow with any of the conditions attached to the license, the holder of the license shall be guilty of an offense[ 2 ]. Furthermore, if the license holder could non supply an efficient conveyance service in conformity with the footings and conditions of the license, the Board has the power to decline for reclamation of license ( Act 334, Section 21 ( 3 ) , p. 145 ) .
The applier for the grant or reclamation of a license who is aggrieved by the determination or any conditions imposed by the Board, may appeal[ 3 ]to the Minister. The Minister so may name a commission of two or more individuals to see an entreaty. There shall be no unwritten hearing of the entreaty and the commission will merely based on the footing of the paperss associating to the entreaty to make the opinion. The determination of the Minister shall be adhering and shall be concluding and conclusive ( Act 334, Section 29 ( 3 ) , p. 148 ) . It is the general procedure of doing public coach program in Johor Bahru City ( Figure 3.3 ) .
In the context of public coach service be aftering procedure in Johor Bahru City, the national and construction programs are available for mention and the local program serves as a tool for steering conveyance operators to fix their day-to-day operational programs. However, the function of the Commercial Vehicle Licensing Board as the concluding determination shaper is slightly problematic and allow the whole procedure of be aftering irrelevant.
Figure 3.3: The General Public bus Plan-Making Process in Johor Bahru City
Calciferol: LJ -PSMMY ThesisPublic coach program doing process.jpg
Beginning: Alteration from personal interview with En. Che Joha ( 2010 )
3.4 The Actors Model in Johor Bahru City Context
Base on the old subdivision, assorted participants are involved in the metropolis ‘s public coach planning procedure. They are proficient histrions, community histrions, political histrions, private operators and users.
3.4.1 Technical Actors
In Johor Bahru City, proficient histrions who involve in the preparation of public coach program comprise two classs. They are salaried civil retainers and conveyance experts in foreign consulting houses. Since conveyance programs are formulated through two tier degrees of programs, once more the salaried civil retainers can be divided into two classs. In local degrees, they are the authorities functionaries in the Traffic Unit of Johor Bahru City Council. They are responsible for the planning and proviso of public transit installations such as coach and cab bases, terminuss and other related installations ; the planning and administration of coach paths within the metropolis and the environing residential countries to better the public transit services ; and all activities for bettering the quality of public transit services to accomplish a `modal split ‘ suited for Johor Bahru City ( Ab. Rahman, 1987 ) . Whilst, in national degree, they are the authorities functionaries in EPU and Federal or State Town and Country Planning Department. In EPU, they are responsible for organizing the plans and activities of the ministries, looking at the overall development in the state, distribution of resources every bit good as monitoring advancement and accomplishment in visible radiation of the wide National Policies ( Ab. Rahman, 1987 ) . They are responsible besides for puting the way and policy for the authorities on the conveyance facet and accountable to the authorities non the populace. In Federal or State Town and Country Planning Department, proficient histrions act an adviser to both the federal and province disposals who do non hold the staff or capableness. These proficient histrions would utilize their scientific attacks to fix the programs in order to ease the politicians. However, they work within a closed system because they believe that public involvement can be found easy through right scientific processs.
Another type of proficient histrions are transport experts in foreign consulting houses. They are responsible to assist authorities functionaries in EPU and Federal or State Town and Country Planning Department to fix the programs. In Malaysia, most of the programs have been prepared by foreign consulting houses on contract to international development establishments. These programs have been criticised as “ adviser programs ” which do non explicitly adopt authorities policy ( World Bank quoted in Malcolm, 1976, p. 107 ) .
3.4.2 Community Actors
There are different citizen or community organisations that are interested in authorities policies particularly those that affect their involvements. Equally long as a certain conveyance policy arouses their involvements, these groups will subject positions to the authorities to take some lobbying schemes. In Johor Bahru City, there is a community histrion or force per unit area group: Johor Bus Operator Association ( JBOA ) ( Figure 3.4 ) which has already been set up since the 1950s. It acts as a representative channel for coach operators to show their concern involvements and to supply information to authorities during plan-making procedure ( personal interview with En. Che Joha, 2010 ) .
Notwithstanding, it is non really good organised and since the association merely concerns with their concern involvements, it is hence JBOA could non move as a proper channel to assist users or the populace to show their voice. Hence, Johor Bahru City still does non hold any force per unit area groups to help users to voice out their involvements.
Figure 3.4: Administration of Johor Bus Operator Association ( JBOA )
Beginning: Personal Interview with En. Che Joha ( 2010 )
3.4.3 Political Actors
In the province context, political histrions are headed by a Chief Minister with a State Executive Council consisting non more than nine members appointed from among the authorities members of the State Assembly, and three ex-officio members ( State Secretary, State Financial Officer and State Legal Adviser ) ( Rani, 1979 ) . These political histrions are the highest policy decision-making organic structure at the province degree. During the plan-making procedure, the State Chief Minister will play a leading function as president of the State Action Committee comprising of both State Security and Development Committees with the State Development Officer as its secretary. The inclusion of all the State Executive Council members in the State Action Committee, members of parliament and State assemblymen in a District Action Committee is designed to enable local politicians to be officially and straight involved in the plan-making procedure. They are expected to supervise, take part in treatment, contribute towards deciding jobs, co-ordinate their attempts as representatives of the people with those of authorities sections, and guarantee the smooth execution of development plans and undertakings in conformity with province and national planning aims ( Rani, 1979 ) . In Johor Bahru City context, even though important issues can be better identified through the engagement of agreeableness groups and the general populace in the plan-making procedure, political histrions are more volitionally to convey in the inputs and remarks given by advisers alternatively of by the populace throughout the whole procedure. This is because most of the political histrions have non much expertness or cognition on conveyance service and hence they have ever relied upon the consultancy system for giving them advice.
3.4.4 Private Operators
In Johor Bahru City, private operators play an of import function in short-run public coach planning. They would supply the input and information to technicians during the program readying procedure. They would besides suggest some recommendations, for an illustration: new coach path is proposed by conveyance operators for entry to Unit Traffic of Johor Bahru City Council for obtaining the blessing. Normally, Unit Traffic would see their positions and involvements in order to keep stable and uninterrupted conveyance services proviso. After the entry is approved by Unit Traffic, it will be passed to Commercial Vehicles Licensing Board. The intent is for obtaining the Licensing Permit in order for them to run the new service. Now, there are five chief private coach companies operated in Johor Bahru City which provide 58 coach paths in the metropolis and around 62 % of the coach paths are served in the country of Johor Bahru City Council. They are Handal Indah Sdn Bhd, Syarikat Pengangkutan Maju Berhad, Transit Link Sdn Bhd, Syarikat Pengangkutan S & A ; S Sdn Bhd. and Triton Sdn Bhd.
In Johor Bahru City, although there is a statutory demand for public engagement prior to or during the formation of bill of exchange program, the populace are involved at the really last phase of the plan-making procedure when all the major determinations have been made. That means, the populace merely could voice out their positions during the exhibition of the bill of exchange programs. This is because the centralised authorities is willing to keep back information from the populace and they have ever relied upon the consultancy system for giving them advice. This will take to ineffectiveness in information airing. As a consequence, the populace do non hold any chance to take part in the early phase of the plan-making procedure.
However, critics and remarks could be submitted to authorities during the exhibition of the bill of exchange programs. It is criticized that although the populace could subject their sentiments and involvements to be aftering section, there is no duty for them to explicate to the public why the sentiments and involvements are non accepted. Therefore, the populace are merely treated as a advisory organic structure, but non determination organizing spouses. The populace still can non play an active function in every phases in plan-making procedure and do non hold power to deal and negotiate with the power holders ( Table 3.1 ) . If the planning procedure does non see the populace or users ‘ involvements, the suggested policies will non reflect the existent involvements of the whole society. This will further diminish the quality of the public coach services provided and cause users to endure.
Table 3.1: Comparison of Actors Model in United Kingdom And Malaysia ( Johor Bahru )
Actors Model – Grant ( 1977 )
Actors Model – Johor Bahru Context
Technical Actors – salaried officers in the planning section
Technical Actors – salaried civil retainers, conveyance experts in foreign consulting house and conveyance professionals
Community Actors – local organisations, business communities or force per unit area groups in affected countries
Community Actors – members of citizen groups or concern organisation, Johor Bus Operator Association
Political Actors – political parties members in council
Political Actors – Chief Minister with a State Executive Council consisting non more than nine members appointed from among thegovernment members of the State Assembly, and three ex-officio members, etc.
Private Operators aa‚¬ ” Handal Indah Sdn Bhd, Syarikat Pengangkutan Maju Berhad, Syarikat Kenderaan S & A ; S Sdn Bhd, Transit Link, Triton Sdn Bhd and City Link Sdn Bhd.
Users – can non play an active function in the every phases in plan-making procedure and do non hold power to deal and negotiate with the powerholders
3.4.6 The Interaction Among Major Actors in Public coach Planning in Johor Bahru City
Among these major histrions who are involved in public coach planning system in Johor Bahru City, political histrions and proficient histrions are the most of import histrions. These histrions involve in the planning and monitoring phases in the public coach system. However, their relationship are non so closed since proficient histrions ever use their scientific attacks to support the programs and unwilling to alter their policies. Conflict might take topographic point between these histrions particularly when the determination is determined base on political histrions ‘ involvements. The 2nd most of import histrions in the system are the coach operators. Since coach operators have the duty to supply coach services to the populace, they have to work closely with proficient histrions and political histrions in order to obtain the licensing license. Their relationship is near, even sometimes they have some controversial issues in footings of concern involvements. This is because all public coach services in Johor Bahru City are operated by private coach companies which their chief involvement is viability. That means a private coach company ‘s income must transcend operating costs and that sufficient financess have to be made available to allow any future investing.
Like coach operators, JBOA, the lone community histrions in Johor Bahru City besides has interaction with proficient histrions and political histrions. The association besides has a stopping point and upper limit relationship with coach operators since their common involvements are to protect concern involvements. They will fall in forces to contend for the common end, if it is affected. The association is formed for the intents of interchanging positions and positions among the private coach companies on a general public conveyance policy affairs every bit good as sharing experience in public coach planning, operation and direction. They will consolidate their place on public conveyance issues before have a treatment with the political histrions.
Notwithstanding, since the association has the characteristic which is merely concerned with coach operators concern involvements, hence Johor Bahru City still does non hold any representative channels to assist the populace to show their positions. In add-on, political histrions are dependent upon consultancy system to give them advice throughout the whole procedure. The populace will merely play a inactive function during the readying of programs. They do non hold any chance to affect themselves in the early phase in plan-making procedure. They are besides the most unorganised group and do non hold the power to deal and negotiate with the power holders. The relationship between the populace and others histrions is minimum and in struggle since interaction is limited among these major histrions. Consequently, what have been made and recommended in the public coach program could non reflect the existent involvements of the whole community and will diminish the quality of the program.
After the treatment of the public coach planning system in Johor Bahru City, we find that the visual aspects and features of the present system are slightly different from the ideal instance. This gives us some intimations that the present system might hold some jobs, and these jobs might perchance impact the quality of the public coach services provided. However, opinion on whether the present system is uneffective or inefficient shall non be given until we besides look at the users ‘ sentiments on the populace coach services provided. In Chapter Four, the current public coach public presentation degree in Johor Bahru City will be investigated.