Womans were challenged with showing themselves in a patriarchal system that by and large refused to allow virtue to women’s positions. Cultural and political events during these centuries increased attending to women’s issues such as instruction reform. Though modern feminism was non-existent.
The societal construction adult females limited chances for engagement ; they served mostly as directors of their families. Womans were expected to concentrate on practical domestic chases and activities that encouraged the improvement of their households. and more peculiarly. their hubbies. Education for adult females was non supported—harmful to the traditional female virtuousnesss of artlessness and morality. Womans who spoke out against the patriarchal system of gender functions. or any unfairness. ran the hazard of being exiled from their communities. or worse ; vocal single adult females in peculiar were the marks of witch-hunts.
The 17th century adult females continued to play a important. though non acknowledged. function in economic and political constructions through their chiefly domestic activities.They frequently acted as counsellors in the place. “tempering” their husbands’ words and actions. Womans were discouraged from straight showing political positions counter to their husbands’ or to loosely reprobate established systems ; however. many adult females were able to do public their private positions through the head covering of personal. spiritual Hagiographas.
The 17th century represents a absorbing period of English history. pulling the attending of whole coevalss of historiographers. This disruptive age saw three major events that had a deep impact on England’ s political every bit good as societal life—the English Revolution. the Restoration of the Stuarts in 1660 and the Glorious Revolution in 1688. Amidst the convulsion of the events. people’s mundane lives unfolded. While it was men’s preoccupation to maintain the country’s political and economic personal businesss traveling. adult females had an indispensable. though far less public. portion to play. This paper aims at supplying an lineation of the seventeenth-century English matrimony. viewed from the woman’s position. It touches upon subjects such as reasoning matrimonies. basic matrimony values. responsibilities of a married adult female and possibilities of divorce. Attention is paid to the countries in which the seventeenth-century world was different from today’s.
In seventeenth-century England. matrimony and sexual ethical motives played a far more of import societal function than presents. A household centred around a married twosome represented the basic societal. economic and political unit. In the Stuart period. a husband’s “rule” over his married woman. kids and retainers was seen as an analogy to the king’s reign over his people—a manifestation of a hierarchy constituted by God. A adult female was regarded as the ‘weaker vessel’ ( a phrase taken from the New Testament ) —a animal physically. intellectually. morally and even spiritually inferior to a adult male ; hence. the adult male had a right to rule her ( Fraser 1981: 1 ) .
In a society strongly influenced by Puritan values. sexual unity and the position of a married individual gave a adult female reputability and societal prestigiousness. This. together with the fact that it was really hard for adult females to happen ways of doing an independent life. intend that procuring a hubby was a affair of great importance. Theoretically. it was possible for two people to get married really immature. The minimal legal age was 12 old ages for adult females and 14 old ages for work forces. In add-on. it was possible for the twosome to acquire engaged at the age of 7. with the right to interrupt off the battle on making the minimal age of consent ( Stone 1965: 652 ) . However. early matrimonies were instead rare—the mean age of the honeymooners was about 25 old ages.
Interestingly. the basic demand for a lawfully valid matrimony was non a formal consecration in a church. but the completion of a matrimony contract. normally called ‘spousals’ . Spousals were an act in which the bride and groom said their vows in the present tense—‘per verba de prasenti’ ( Ingram 1987: 126 ) . In a bulk of instances. this process was accompanied by a church ceremonial ( banns ) . Yet if the matrimony was concluded without informants and non consecrated in a church. it had the same legal cogency. This pattern had existed in England since the 12th century and lasted boulder clay 1753. Not holding to travel through a church ceremonial made it possible for lovers to get married in secret. without the cognition of their parents. In this manner. they could get away the dynastic scheming of their households.