The touristry industry has become a powerful engine for the economic system in many states. The impact of touristry on society is besides related to different sorts of tourers and a assortment of host societies. Hence, their particular involvement is, in peculiar, based on their perceptual experience. Therefore, the present research will concentrate on the perceptual experience international tourers which will impact on the choice of their finish toward heritage touristry in order to set up the selling scheme for the World Heritage sites in Thailand. This survey will utilize the ancient capital metropoliss, in which, one time have been a long tally comfortable epoch land of Thailand to exemplify as the heritage touristry. Quantitative and qualitative informations obtained from questionnaires and an in-depth interview with a president of a universe historical park will be the chief beginnings of input for analysis.
This chapter starts by sketching the subject and major concepts of the research. It is besides supplying the ground why this research needs to look into how the Tourism Authority of Thailand can increase the figure of travelers to Thailand, particularly to the heritage sites. The chapter will supply the background information which is related to the sum-up of the old research and so follow by the research aims and research aims and the proposed value on the current survey.
Thailand besides known as the “ Land of Smiles ” reflects on the cordial reception and friendly nature of the state as a tourer finish. Peleggi ( 1996 ) provinces Thailand is a state provided with rich civilization, history and public museums with valuable archeological aggregations. Furthermore, Baedekere ( 1997 ) elaborated that Thailand is a “ must travel finish ” for everyone who has involvement in Asiatic civilization, looking for beautiful landscapes and pleasant clime in Thailand ( Wongkerd, 2003 ) .
Since touristry represents one of the most dynamic economic sectors of the universe. The touristry industry has besides increased significantly in the development states, particularly in Southeast Asian and Pacific states. Harmonizing to the World Tourist Organisation ( WTO ) , touristry tendencies in Asia and the Pacific were merely 2nd after Europe as the most visited parts in the universe. As a consequence, cultural touristry is the fastest turning section of the touristry industry because there is a tendency which increases specialization among tourers. ( This tendency is apparent in the rise in the volume of tourers who seek escapade, civilization, history, archeology and interaction with local people ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) .
As Thailand enters the twenty-first century, the touristry industry continues to play an of import portion and besides contributes to the growing of economic and societal development. It has been reported that touristry makes up 6.7 % of the Thai economic system and 7 % to the work force of Thailand. Thailand is besides good known for the digesting cordial reception of its people, its ancient civilization and natural environment on offer to visitants. Hence, the figure of tourers has steadily increased over the last 10 old ages. “ The Tourism Authority of Thailand ( TAT ) has stated that Thailand is the countless tourer finish as it ‘s cultural, it ‘s natural, alien and historical site ” ( TAT, 2009 ) . Thailand was ranked 11th in International touristry grosss ( US $ 15.6 billion ) and eighteenth in international reachings with 14.5 million visitants in 2007 ( Tourismroi, 2008 ) , ( See Appendix 1 ) . Furthermore, Thailand besides wins four Go Asia awards honoring best service provided for travel to Asia at ITB Berlin 2010 ( The World ‘s Leading Travel Trade Show ) , World ‘s best tourer state in eight back-to-back old ages and Thailand has won the Swedish Grand Travel Award 2010 ( Tatnews, 2010 ) .
This research will spread out constructs and benefits for the touristry industry particularly in the World Heritage sites in Thailand. It will supply indispensable information which will better the services provided non merely for international visitants but besides domestic tourers. However, with the planetary crisis, the lifting cost of gasolene and the instability of political sense in Thailand can impact the diminishing the figure of flights and visitants. These issues have become more ambitious for the touristry industry in Thailand in order to vie with others, in peculiarly, its neighbouring states like Vietnam and Laos.
Thailand Tourism Marketing Plan
Rittchainuwat et Al. ( 2001 ) province that it is hard to acquire rid of a negative image but it is easier in order to increase tourers ‘ positive attitudes. The governments who are straight in charge with the touristry industry such as the Thai authorities and Tourism authorization of Thailand need to do an attempt to make positive images through promotional schemes. In add-on, Chon and Sigh ( 1994 ) besides explained that the authorities should be trying to alter its tourer image by advancing the cultural, natural attractive forces and cheap shopping in Thailand instead than its sexual attractive forces.
However, confronting a diminution of tourer reachings ensuing from the planetary economic downswing, 2009 grippe pan epidemic and the instability of internal political state of affairs following the twelvemonth of 2008 to 2010 hold a important impact as ab initio feared. Harmonizing to Thailand Tourism Report ( pr-inside, 2009 ) , the figure of international visitants has fallen down 3 % from 14.58 million in 2008 to 14.4 million in 2009 and the entire gross besides decreased by 2.8 % in the twelvemonth of 2009. Therefore, these state of affairss forced Tai authorities to concentrate on stimulating demand and boosting exports in the travel industry.
Therefore, the Tourism Authority of Thailand ( TAT ) expects the touristry sector to retrieve every bit shortly as possible. In June, 2010 the TAT has set a budget 1.6-billion-baht, with 600 million tical aiming in domestic touristry and 1 billion tical for international markets ( Bangkok Post, 2010 ) . The touristry authorization of Thailand ( TAT ) has launched a selling motto “ Amazing Siam ” for advancing Thailand internationally in 1997. Furthermore, in order to respond to the touristry crisis in 2009, TAT so re-launched the motto once more as “ Amazing Thailand, Amazing Value ” ( Tat intelligence, 2009 ) . Therefore, this plan will assist to increase the state ‘s tourer image and excite the figure of tourers in order to assist the downswing of the touristry industry in Thailand.
1.2 Research Aim and Aims
Since the touristry industry is a really of import sector for bring forthing immense gross for Thailand. Therefore, it is necessary to find the relationship between visitants ‘ perceptual experience and the image of Thailand. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the perceptual experience through the image of Thailand which will impact the travelers ‘ finish pick. Furthermore, this survey will besides step frontward by analyzing the perceptual experience of tourers refering the World Heritage sites as one of their finishs. Therefore, the consequence of this survey will urge a suited scheme in order to run into tourer ‘s outlook for the future touristry in Thailand.
In order to stipulate the research inquiry, the research aims can be defined as
The chief research aim is to find the perceptual experience of Tourists through the image of Thailand. This research survey besides examines the travel features, tourers ‘ outlook when they are traveling to Thailand and the socio- demographic features which affect the finish pick prior to sing heritage sites in Thailand in order to supply greater selling penetration. Furthermore, the research will analyze whether the construct of “ heritage touristry ” is popular among the tourers. It besides profiles tourers who travel to Thailand in correlating to their ground for traveling and, peculiarly, to socio-demographic available. The findings will enables the designation of the cardinal component, i.e. the major motive and socio-demographic differences involved between the heritage tourers and other activity engagement groups in order to understand consumers ‘ travel perceptual experience and pick of finish. Subsequently, this will be indispensable informations to develop appropriate selling schemes to bring forth greater benefit for the touristry industry and the World Heritage sites in Thailand.
1.3 Value of the survey
A batch of research is conducted on the survey of perceptual experience of visitants refering to the trip property of the finish. However, there are seldom surveies of literature touristry sing the heritage site, peculiarly in Thailand
This research will be helpful for the touristry sector and sellers to derive a better apprehension of the visitants peculiarly in Thailand. It besides can assist to develop schemes which will assist the Tourism industry in a long concern growing.
Administration of the survey
The construction of this survey is divided in six chief parts which will explicate as follows.
Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter provides debut to the current survey. It is explicating the importance of the research aims and research aims. A background of the subject and some of old research and value of the survey will be given in this chapter.
Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal
The 2nd of import portion is a literature reappraisal. This chapter will supply a better understanding about the subject. Furthermore, this chapter will give item and demo the development of the research which have been taken in the subject. This development will assist to clear up and build this research which leads to the research theoretical account and hypothesis preparation.
Chapter 3: Conceptual Development and Hypothesis preparation
The 3rd chapter is based on the literature reappraisal which will be included in the conceptual theoretical account for this undertaking. In add-on, the preparation of hypothesis will besides be explained.
Chapter 4: Research Design and Methodology
In this chapter will give inside informations of how the research is designed and how methodological analysis will be used in order to transport out the full research.
Chapter 5: Consequences and Analysis
The consequence and analysis chapter will be discussed the findings and consequences after carry oning statistical analyses by utilizing the statistical tool like SPSS plan. The consequences will be shown, analysed and discussed in this phase.
Chapter 6: Decision and Deduction
The last chapter includes the treatments and deduction of the survey. The restriction of the survey, the farther survey and decision for the full research will besides be included in chapter six.
This chapter is taking to give an overview of related theories and perceptual experiences those affect to tourism industry. The reappraisal besides includes the construct of good image, the image of Thailand and heritage touristry and besides provide construct which antecedently has been developed by different research workers who set abouting the research survey in similar attack.
How Perception Affect Tourism
The term perceptual experience of the touristry industry is, by and large, can be viewed in two facets. The first 1 is the mental image created by selling and media. Another facet of image can be developed by the consumers. In general, the finish will market itself every bit much as possible in order to carry the traveler to purchase a trip at that place ( Tuohino, 2002 cited from Henkel et Al, 2006 ) . Travelers go to the finish in order to devour the merchandises, services and sing to those offering at the finish. Travelers will organize their perceptual experiences related to their outlook which are based on their former experience, friends, the cyberspace, selling and travel agent information ( Kotkew, Bowen & A ; Markens, 2006 ) . Therefore, if merchandises or services in peculiar finish exceed traveler outlook, which means they are satisfied. On the other manus, travelers are dissatisfied when their outlooks are non met ( Mcdowall, 2010 ) .
Harmonizing to Crompton ( 1979 ) , people travel for four different grounds: personal concern travel ; corporate concern travel ; sing relations and friends ; and for pleasance holiday. Therefore, tourers have stereotyped image of different perceptual experience and travel locations, so it is of import for touristry sellers to advance the finish image to increase the figure of tourers ( Sirgy & A ; Su, 2000 ) . Furthermore, the person ‘s cultural belonging and heritage does non merely impact the manner people experience and construe the merchandises and services supplied to them, but it besides influence their determination devising in respect to picks of holidaies and finishs. Furthermore, clients have different perceptual experience and single demands, which hold different values to a finish. The aggregation of client information is a manner to detect the client demands and their values. Therefore, clients benefit the finish in the manner of client ‘s gustatory sensations and penchants which can straight lend to marketing new merchandise and services in touristry industry ( Reportforu, 2010 ) .
Fakeye and Crompton ( 1991 ) , has outlined the tourer ‘s image formation procedure ( see Figure 1 ) . It can be explained from this Figure that the consumer ‘s organic images and the induced image of tourer finish can be obtained from elsewhere, i.e. literature, friends or relations. These messages play a important function and act upon the rating of alternate travel finishs and eventually in doing a determination about the finish they will see ( cited from Henkel et Al, 2006 ) . Hu & A ; Ritchi ( 1993 ) stated that the more tourers think that the finish will fulfill their holiday desires, the more likely the visitants will take the finishs.
Figure 1: Faye and Crompton ‘s Tourist ‘s Image Formation Process ( Tuohino, 2002 ) .
Conceptualization of good image
It was described by the old survey on finish image that a finish ‘s image could lend to the destination-making procedure. During this procedure, travellers build a finish image based on the enlightening and persuasive information such as friends, intelligence and travel bureau ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) . Therefore, an effectual finish image scheme will be really of import in order to do the peculiar finish distinction from other states.
Cromton ( 1979 ) provinces that non all images can be influenced to traveller determination doing procedure. The research examines the relationships between the property of a finish and decision-making procedure of tourers. Therefore, understanding the evaluative of finish characteristic image related to finish pick is needed in touristry selling. Furthermore, Kotler and Barich ( 1991 ) states that consumer will organize an image based on benefit or value that they expect to acquire from those merchandises or services. Sheth, Newman, and Gross ( 1991 ) suggested that marketing pick behavior is a multidimensional phenomenon affecting multiple values: functional, societal, emotional, epistemological, and conditional ( see Appendix 1 ) . The survey besides states that these seven of import factors are act uponing market pick behavior.
Based on the theory and selling image construct, the good image theoretical account was developed by Tappachai and Waryszak is shown as below.
Figure 2: Beneficial image theoretical account ( Tapachai & A ; Waryszak, 2000 )
Figure 2 shows traveler ingestion values which are in the good image theoretical account. These five ingestion values including functional feature of the finishs, Social perceptual experience about the finish, emotional of traveler through the finish, epistemic of the finish which traveler can derive new experience from the finish and conditional such as handiness to other states that will assist visitant to make up one’s mind about their finishs ( Tapachai & A ; Waryzak, 2000, cited from Henkel et Al, 2006 ) . By utilizing Thailand as an illustration to depict the theoretical account above, Thailand ‘s functional values are intriguing deal shopping, assortment of nutrient and beautiful scenery site. The societal ingestion will be a finish that suited for all ages of people. The emotional value is about a topographic point of to loosen up and quiet. An epistemological value is a beautiful civilization in Thailand and eventually the conditional value is chiefly about the location which traveler can easy entree to other states.
Harmonizing to Echtner & A ; Ritchie ( 1993 ) , the finish image refers to impute base or holistic ( imagination ) , with each constituent incorporating functional ( touchable ) or psychological ( intangible or abstract ) feature ( Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1993 ) . The properties positions are including tourers ‘ perceptual experiences through the features of the holiday finish such as beautiful architecture and edifices, legion cultural, historical attractive forces and psychological feature like safe topographic point to visit and besides friendly people. Furthermore, the holistic position of the finish relates to destination image in footings of physical characteristic such as beaches, mountain, likewise the psychological are the finish ‘s ambiance or temper ( Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1993 cited from Henkel et Al ) .
Rod Davies ( 2003 ) explained that every finish have its ain trade name image. Besides, the factors like cost and convenience play an of import function in decision-making of the finish. However, the strongest influence and incentive is the image of the touristry finish ( Davies, 2003 ) . Therefore, images are the trade name individuality which tourer can be perceived. In add-on, images can be both addition and diminish the choice of the finish by traveler ( Henkel et al ) . However, Bigne et Al. ( 2001 ) argued that image is non merely influences the finish pick, but besides has an influence on the rating of the finish after the holiday. It can be explained that whether or non traveller will return to the finish ( Bigne et al, 2001 cited from Henkel et Al ) . Furthermore, a high positive image of peculiar finish is more likely to be chosen by tourer in the procedure of decision-making ( Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1993 ) . In decision, image play an of import function for tourer satisfaction and the preconceive image of finish will act upon tourist determination on their holiday finish.
The image of Thailand
Destination image can be both positive and negative image, if two finishs have about offering the same features for traveler perceptual experience. Therefore, the more positive image of a finish topographic point, the more likely that traveler will travel at that place ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) .
Thailand is non merely positioning as a “ land of smiling ” as a consequence of friendly people and a safe topographic point finish, but besides considerable as cultural, natural and historical attractive forces. Due to the survey of Yau and Chan on the image of Southeast Asian, Thailand has been perceived as a sensible monetary value, beautiful beaches and assorted attractive forces ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) . In add-on, Tapachai & A ; Waryszak conduct a survey about benefit image feature of Thailand and grouped the consequences of research showed that the functional properties of inexpensive shopping, assortment of nutrient, friendly people and historical sites every bit good as the epistemological property of sing rich civilization in Thailand ( Henkel et al, 2006 ) . Furthermore, the research between Tourism Authority in Thailand ( TAT ) and Siam University showed the consequence that there was a positive image as a natural and historical travel finish ( Henkel et al. , 2006 ) . This positive image can be reflected by the award winning finish from different states, for illustration, International Tourisms Bourse Berlin ( ITB ) , awarded the four go Asia Awards honoring best service provides for travel to Asia in 2010, the Swedish expansive travel award has ranked Thailand as the “ World Best Tourist Country ”
However, Thailand has besides suffered from a negative image because of harlotry, pollution which led to the diminution of tourer attractive forces ( Rittichainuwat et al. , 2001 ) . Prideaux et Al ( 2004 ) has besides stated that the image of Thailand is an titillating finish. In add-on, the image of Thailand besides related to international intelligence coverage by stating that Thailand is a topographic point of harlotry. These negative images can, evidently, affect visitants and might do them make non desire to see Thailand. This besides leads to the cause of some wellness and moral issues in Thailand ( Henkel et al. , 2001 ) . However, the Tourism Authority of Thailand ( TAT ) ne’er promotes Thailand as a sex touristry finish ( Prideaux et al. , 2004 ) . Suwanmoli ‘s survey about international media coverage of harlotry in Thailand, the consequence found that foreign newsmans normally report the negative side such AIDS and harlotry because this sort of intelligence really easy acquire attending from populaces. Furthermore, Suwanmoli explained that there are a high figure of every bit many as 2.8 million cocottes working in Thailand ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) . Therefore, the authorities should be concerned of this issue in order to minimise the pandemic deaths and harlotry. Alternatively, Tai authorities must actively seek to cut down the images of negative such as sex touristry through positive image selling of other touristry merchandises and seeking to diminish the illegal activities such as harlotry within the state ( Henkel et al, 2006 ) .
Finally, Thailand ‘s image has suffered from a decline of tourer attractive forces, pollution, traffic jam, deficiency of new tourer attractive forces and the image of sex touristry. Additionally, Ahmed states that “ one time a negative image is established in the heads of possible travelers, even a full scope of selling activities can non wholly change by reversal it ” . Thus, Marketers merely be able to make little to extinguish the negative image. In contrast, seller can countervail the negative perceptual experience by making positive images through promotional schemes, including advertisement, set uping the events, and hosting international conventions and exhibitions ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) .
The huge bulk of literature on heritage, apart from the philosophical and rational, has concerned itself with heritage touristry, a sector that has grown globally and besides created the gross and employment for “ undeveloped states ” ( Misiura, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to The World Tourism Organisation ( 1992 ) defines heritage touristry as “ an submergence in the natural history, human heritage, humanistic disciplines, doctrine and intuitions of another part or state ” ( Laws & A ; Pan, 2004 ) . Furthermore, Rowan and Baram ( 2004 ) describe heritage touristry as a consumerist phenomenon and hence selling of this phenomenon is bound to be driven by capitalist inclinations. ( cited from Chabra, 2009 ) . Therefore, the nucleus of heritage selling is to happen out what the client privation and present it. Particularly, in relation to construct environment, i.e. , the selling activity should be design to excite demand and fulfill the client but non to the hurt of that which needs to continue for future coevals ( Misiura, 2006, p.2 ) .
Yale ( 1991 ) , explains that the heritage touristry is a centred on what we inherited from “ historic edifices, to art plants, to beautiful scenery ” . Ashworth ‘s ( 2000 ) defined the “ comodification ” and the “ past ” in heritage touristry which is based on the commoditized, edifice, memories and experiences of the yesteryear ( cited from Grace Yan et Al ) . From the demand facet, the heritage touristry is about happening something which is associating between the present and the past and traveller emotional experiences ( Richards 1997 and Prentice 1993 ) . However, Poria et Al. ( 2001 ) argued that the relationship of heritage touristry should be based on the person and the heritage presented instead than on specific site properties. In add-on, they described heritage touristry as “ a subgroup of touristry, in which the chief motive for sing a site is based on the topographic point ‘s heritage features harmonizing to tourers ‘ perceptual experience of their ain heritage ” ( Poria et al. , 2001, p. 1048 ) . Besides, in order to unite both supply and demand by explicating that “ heritage touristry relies on the strength of both the push and pull factors of the resources located in country in order to appeal to the possible tourers ” ( Apostolakis ( 2003, p. 800 ) Cited from Grace Yan et Al ) .
Heritage visitant, seek to happen the different benefits from trips.. Poria et Al. ( 2004 ) pointed out that the grounds for sing heritage sites for travelers can be grouped topographic points in to three classs which are under the headers of “ heritage experience ” , “ acquisition ” . These explain that there are people with a strong involvement in “ emotionally involved ” with a “ sense of belonging to the site ” . In contrast, for some tourers, heritage touristry is more than an educational or recreational experience. This farther suggested by Martin et Al. ( 2004, p.131 ) , “ finding the potency of heritage touristry and the possible impact and the selling way needed to pull these visitants will be less bad if the nature of the tourer is better understood ”
World Heritage is the programme administered by the UNESCO, the programme aims to catalogue, name, and conserve sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity and to raise consciousness of how to keep the sites to last for future coevalss of humanity ( Thaiwh, 2010 ) . In Thailand, there are World Heritage sites of Ayutthaya, Sukhothai, Si Satchanalai and Kamphaengphet states. There are rich heritage and brilliant architecture that make them as The World Heritage sites which are listed in 1991 by UNESCO ( UNESCO, 1992 ) .
Therefore, the selling of heritage, particularly heritage touristry will lend the benefit in order to function the merchandises and services to clients associate to those World heritage sites in Thailand. It can be seen that strategic planning has been used within many organisations. The successful travel and touristry must non merely understand who the clients are but besides cognize how to market them in order to fulfill the demands of their clients. In add-on, touristry administrations should place group of clients with homogenous features and behaviours and seek to accommodate their offer to the alone demands and desires of the section members. Heritage selling, hence, is both direction doctrine and as set of concern techniques. It is really of import to recognize that the direction of touristry will be uneffective without an apprehension of the manner tourists consumers make determinations and act in relation to the ingestion of touristry merchandises. This research non merely provides an chance for people to carry through their single demands, but transcending their outlooks and guaranting that it benefits greatly toward the World Heritage sites in Thailand ( Reportforu, 2010 ) .
The literature reviewed has provided general information about the perceptual experience of the tourers through the image of Thailand and Thailand ‘s image dimensions. However, the reappraisal has besides identified both positive and negative image which affected to tourers ‘ finish pick. It is deserving observing that the constructs described in old articles, diaries and text book, are refering and believed to hold a direct consequence on to the research theoretical account which is proposed in the current probe. Therefore, the proposed research theoretical account and hypotheses preparation will be discussed in following chapter.
3. Conceptual Development and Hypothesis preparation
In this conceptual development and hypothesis chapter aims to clear up the relationship between offering finish characteristic and perceptual experience of traveler through the image of Thailand toward the heritage site finish. Furthermore, the survey will specify whether peculiar perceptual experience will hold a relationship with the tourer decision-making in order to do a finish pick. This research will supply the Tourism Authority of Thailand ( TAT ) to understand how perceptual experience of tourers will impact the tourer finish. Therefore, the TAT can be able to establish alternate publicity schemes for peculiar finish which are need to be considered. Therefore, the research theoretical account and preparation of hypothesis which are resulted from the literature reappraisal in chapter two will be explained as below.
3.2 Research Framework
In order to understand how tourers taking their finish, relationship of independent variable which are the factors like offering features and tourer perceptual experience through the image in Thailand consequence on traveller finish pick. Besides, the moderator variable such a demographic are used to find the consequence on tourer finish pick. Therefore, the research theoretical account has been constructed every bit shown as below.
H1: There is a important relationship between the offering characteristic and finish pick in Thailand
H2: There is a important relationship between tourers ‘ perceptual experience through the image of Thailand and finish pick.
H3: There is a important correlativity of demographics of tourers through the finish pick?
3.3 Hypothesis Formulation
Harmonizing to the research theoretical account and bing hypotheses in literature reappraisal were formulated and clarified. Later, the hypotheses will be tested for the important relationships analysis.
3.3.1 Concept 1: How the trip offering features consequence the
RQ1: How of import of the trip features are travelers anticipating when
H1: There is a important relationship between the offering characteristic and
finish pick in Thailand
Traveller go to the finish in order to devour the merchandises, services and experiences that the finish ‘s offer. Travelers will organize their experience related to their outlook which are based on their former experience, friends, the cyberspace, selling and travel agent information ( Kotkew, Bowen & A ; Markens, 2006 ) . In add-on, the survey of Cromton ( 1979 ) provinces that non all image can be influenced in traveller determination doing procedure. The research examines the relation between the property of a finish and decision-making procedure of tourers. Therefore, understanding the evaluative of finish characteristic image related to finish pick is needed in touristry selling. Therefore, this research will happen out the relationship between the offering characteristic and finish pick.
3.3.2 Concept 2: What are tourers ‘ perceptual experiences through the images of Thailand?
RQ2: What are tourists perceptual experiences through the images of Thailand?
H2: There is a important relationship between tourers ‘ perceptual experience through the
image of Thailand and finish pick.
The 2nd major hypothesis is about the image perceived by visitants in order to do the finish within Thailand. Destination image can be both positive and negative image, if two finishs have about the same offering features. Therefore, the more positive image of a finish topographic point, the more likely that traveller will travel at that place ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) . Due to the survey of Yau and Chan on the image of Southeast Asian, Thailand has been perceived as a sensible monetary value, beautiful beaches and assorted attractive forces ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) . In add-on, Tapachai & A ; Waryszak conduct a survey about benefit image feature of Thailand and grouped the consequences of research showed that the functional properties of inexpensive shopping, assortment of nutrient, friendly people and historical sites every bit good as the epistemological property of sing rich civilization in Thailand ( Henkel et al, 2006 ) . However, Thailand besides has a negative image because of harlotry, pollution and diminution of tourer attractive forces ( Rittichainuwat et al. , 2001 ) . Prideaux et Al. ( 2004 ) states that the image of Thailand is an titillating finish. In add-on, the image of Thailand besides related with international intelligence coverage stating that Thailand is a topographic point of harlotry and besides the image of sex touristry might do some visitants non come to Thailand and do some wellness and moral issues in Thailand ( Henkel et al. , 2001 ) . Therefore, the current research assume that the positive and negative image could be influence of the relationship between the perceptual experience of image and finish pick.
3.3.3 Concept 3: How demographic features are consequence on the
finish pick in Thailand?
RQ3: How demographic features are consequence on the finish pick
H3: There is a important correlativity of demographics of tourers through the
The last factor that moderate the relation is demographic features, Rittichanuwat ( 2001 ) , demonstrated that perceptual experience of Thailand has a related to different in demographic. For illustration, individual and immature traveler perceived Thailand less interesting than married and big tourers in footings of safe topographic point to go and good value for culinary arts. In contrast, individual and teenager travelers had more positive through the escapade activities and scenic natural rubber-necking. This could be examined the demographic features in order to section the whole market into group which are consequence on the traveling to the World Heritage site in Thailand. ( e.g. : gender, age, instruction degree, business and family one-year income ) .
In amount, the above hypotheses will specify whether relationship will take tourers in order to do their finish pick.
Taking into consideration of the old research, a conceptual theoretical account was created and hypotheses were developed. In following chapter will explicate the research design and methodological analysis in order to demo how to transport out the research and so the consequences and analysis chapter will demo the hypotheses proving.
4. Research Design and Methodology
This chapter provided a elaborate overview of the research design which usage for reference to inquiries and the methodological analysis used for the research. In this portion will explicate the research instrument used sampling, fieldwork programs and types of informations. Finally, to reason the chapter will give a brief drumhead on statistical methods used for analyzing informations which has been collected and will lucubrate the consequences in the following followers chapters.
Research Design and Methodology
“ A research design is merely the model or program for a survey, used as usher in roll uping and analysing informations. It is the design that is followed in finishing a survey ” ( Churchill, 1999, p98 ) . In add-on, there are two basic types of research designs available which are classified in footings of the research objectives: exploratory and conclusive. ( Malhotra, 2009 )
Therefore, the design of this survey included exploratory and descriptive research.
Exploratory research can be used when direction realised that a job has non been clearly defined. ( Malhotra,2009 ) . In this survey research will trust on secondary research such as reappraisal available of literature and touristry industry informations. In add-on, qualitative attacks such an in-depth interview with the president of the Word Heritage Sites in Kamphaengphet states in order to happen out more formal attacks through in-depth interviews. Therefore, both attacks can supply important penetration into a given state of affairs. Although the consequences of qualitative research can give some indicant as to the “ why ” , “ how ” and “ when ” something occurs, it can non state us “ how frequently ” or “ how many. ” ( Wikipedia, 2010 )
Conclusive research design After addition apprehension of the current state of affairs from explorative research, the conclusive research was designed to do the direction determination, proving hypotheses and besides analyzing relationships between factors act uponing the perceptual experience through image and finish pick in Thailand. Furthermore, the descriptive research was used to depict the trip features and find those relationships. Due to clip restriction, a selected group of respondents were measured at one clip and the data-collection used in this study was the study conducted by questionnaire.
Figure 3: Research Design
Beginning: Malhotra, 2009 p.96
4.2 Secondary Research Methodology
Secondary informations are informations collected antecedently for some intents instead than the job in manus ( Malhotra, 2009 ) . Sing to roll up informations about current touristry state of affairs job, two types of the secondary research were collected. The first 1 is the internal secondary informations from the Tourism Authority of Thailand ‘s study provided the background of the administration and cardinal informations about the touristry industry in Thailand. The 2nd 1 is the external secondary informations, literatures have been reviewed. The information was receives from many beginnings including the information that provided simple background of demographic informations of international tourer reachings in Thailand.
By obtaining information from the secondary informations which could be able to assist the survey in order to understand the touristry industry in Thailand and besides can specify the research job that will develop an attack to the job. In add-on, Journal articles, newspaper, the web sites and books provide cognition in specifying the variables for the conceptual model development, hypotheses preparation and questionnaire design. Even though, the secondary informations can salvage clip and besides provided a batch of information but it still lack of truth and might non be plenty for the current survey, therefore, the farther demand for primary informations may necessitate.
Table 4.1: Secondary Research
Percept of tourers
Sirgy & A ; Su, 2000
Tourists have stereotyped image of different perceptual experience and travel location
The finish will market itself every bit much as possible in order to carry the traveler to purchase a trip at that place
Customers benefit the finish in the manner of client ‘s gustatory sensations and penchants which can straight lend to marketing new merchandise and services in touristry industry
understanding the evaluative of finish characteristic image related to finish pick is needed
Fakeye and Crompton, 1991
Consumer ‘s organic images and the induced image of tourer finish can be obtained from literature, friends or relations.
travelers build a finish image based on the enlightening and persuasive information such as friends, intelligence and travel bureau
4.3 Primary Research
Primary informations is the informations undertaken by the research worker for peculiar job under the current survey ( Malhotra, 2009 ) . The major research method in this study was used by questionnaire study. Questionnaire is utile information required by a individual to react to the inquiry in a preset order ( Saunders et Al, 2003 ) . Furthermore, questionnaire can be help to understand who the consumers are, how they behave and why they behave in that manner ( Malhotra and Peterson, 2006 ) . In this survey, by utilizing the questionnaire study choosing a big sample was conducted to back up the literature in order to acquire a deeper apprehension of variables of taking the finish. Furthermore, studies were chosen in order to derive penetrations into the traveller perceptual experience through the image of Thailand.
Furthermore, after the analysis of the questionnaire informations, qualitative research is adapted in the farther phases which will be used a series of semi-structures interviews in order to research and explicate findings obtained through the study ( Saunders et Al, 2003 ) . The in-depth interviews were conducted which enabled to “ bring out deeper penetrations about underlying motivations ” and “ it is possible to acquire at existent issues when the subject is cpmplex ” ( Malhotra, 2009 ) . Therefore, the interview was conducted with the president of the president of the World heritage site in Kamphaengphet state in order to clear up the inquiry in subdivision C ( See appendix XXX ) which will concentrate on the universe heritage site.
4.3.1 Method Choice
As the method by roll uping the study informations, the research worker conducted chiefly on the electronic interviews by utilizing the cyberspace study. The cyberspace study is a questionnaire posted on the web site which is self-administered by the respondents ( Malhotra, 2009 ) . The inquiries are showed on the screen and respondents will reply by snaping on the icon provided. The website “ Survey doodad ” or “ www.surveygizmo.com ” is used in this current research. Being use the cyberspace study can be able to acquire the respond at the same time and rapidly which can be analysed about in the existent clip ( Malhotra, 2009 ) .
Due to budget and clip restriction, a convenience simple random trying ( SRS ) attack is used in this survey. The studies were selected based on direct inquiring. “ A sample is a subgroup of the elements of the big population selected for engagement in the survey. ” ( Malhotra, 2009 ) . Furthermore, a sweet sand verbena technique is used in order to email the questionnaire to the respondents and let them to send on to farther respondents ( Churchill, 1995 ) . In this study, the sample group was selected indiscriminately from the international people.
In order to cipher the sample size, the statistical method was chosen. The sample size was calculated as follows:
2500 * N * Z2
n = _______________________
[ 25 ( N-1 ) ] + [ 2500 * Z2 ]
Where n = sample size required
N = population size
Z = figure of standard mistakes
The entire population size ( N ) is 14.5 million which are derived from the estimated of UNWTO ( World Tourism Barometer ) in 2008. In this undertaking, the most normally used 95 % assurance degree is applied.
When the variables are taken, the consequence from the expression could be as follow:
2,500 * 14,500,000 * 1.962
n = ______________________________________
25 ( 14,000,000 -1 ) + ( 2,500 * 1.962 )
n = 384
Due to be and clip restraints, 62.5 % of the entire sample size was taken into consideration, hence adding up to 240 respondents could be collected in carry oning the study.
Harmonizing to the trying techniques was being used used in this study is Simple Random Sampling ( SRS ) in which each sample in the entire population has an equal chance in choosing ( Malhotra, 2009 ) . Therefore, the ways of administering the questionnaires were conducted chiefly by online based study.
4.3.3 Operationalisation of the variables and questionnaire
A questionnaire can be used and assist the research worker standardise the informations aggregation procedure, it besides increase velocity, truth of recoding ( Malhotra and Peterson, 2006 ) . Questionnaire officially sets out the manner in which research inquiries of involvement should be asked ( Proctor, 2000 ; p.156 ) . The questionnaire usually provided three parts ; the first portion is debut in order to steer the respondent for the research. Following portion is the organic structure which provides the information for replying the research inquiry. The last subdivision is provided the general inquiry like a demographic inquiry e.g. age, gender, family one-year income ( Proctor, 2000 ) .
The questionnaire was based on hypotheses and research theoretical account ( see chapter 3 ) . It consists of 15 inquiries divided in four chief subdivisions in four pages. The study included, the debut and intent of survey, literature was used to happen out the variables for the questionnaire. Besides, the questionnaire organic structure was designed with multiple pick and dichotomous inquiries with all the graduated tables referred as “ 7 Point Likert Scale ” . In add-on, the likert graduated table will let the respondents to bespeak how strongly they are agree or disagree with a statement related to the stimulation object ( Malhotra and Peterson, 2006 ) .
The questionnaire is divided into the undermentioned four subdivisions every bit explain as below.
The first subdivision is about the general debut of trip feature and the general factors with 21 property feature which have been demonstrated in old research ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) . The property of features have been adapted from the former survey for mensurating the relation between the perceptual experiences of respondents and the finish pick.
The 2nd subdivision covered the interested degree of the participants towards their finish pick within Thailand.
This subdivision is for the tourer who has been to Thailand earlier in order to acquire the information for farther discuss toward the universe heritage site in Thailand.
The concluding subdivision is the personal information which will depict about the respondent demographic and cleavage of the participants e.g. gender, age, matrimonial position, instruction degree, business and family one-year income.
From the above account about the variables adapted from literatures. The operationalisation of the variables will be given in the undermentioned tabular array.
Table 4.2: Operationalisation of Concepts
Attribute characteristic through the image of Thailand
Author ( s )
Factor 1: Sociable and environmental jobs
Herding in large metropoliss
Numerous bars, dark nines, male and female comrade
Prideaux et al. , 2004
Henkel et Al, 2006
Inefficient local conveyance
Factor 2: Safe travel finish
High criterions for sanitation and cleanliness
Stable political state of affairs
Safe topographic point to go
Rittichainuwat, 2001 Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1993
Factor 3: Adventure activities and scenic natural beauty
Assortment of activities ( coral observation, diving, canoeing )
Opportunity for escapade ( jungle Tourss, rafting )
Scenic and natural beauty
Factor 4: Rich civilization
Numerous cultural and historical attractive forces
Rittichainuwat, 2001 Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1993
Henkel et Al, 2006
Beautiful architecture and edifices
Tapachai & A ; Waryzak, 2000
Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1993
Henkel et Al, 2006
Interesting imposts and civilization
Rittichainuwat, 2001 Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1993
Henkel et Al, 2006
Factor 5: Good-value culinary art and hotels
Assortment of culinary arts
Tapachai & A ; Waryzak, 2000
Henkel et Al, 2006
Handiness of international-standard adjustments
Value for money spent
Factor 6: Easy entree
Handiness of tourist-information centres
Easy entree ( entry to state )
Factor 7: Good shopping
Many stylish brand-name merchandises in promenades and shops
Good deal shopping
Tapachai & A ; Waryzak, 2000
Henkel et Al, 2006
Before distribute the study, the research worker conducted the pre-test with 20 respondents in order to look into the sentences of the questionnaire were made simple and easy to understand. Besides, it gives the chance for research worker to extinguish the jobs within the questionnaire like give voicing, inquiries, signifier and layout. Furthermore, pretesting “ is the trial of questionnaire on a little sample of respondents for the intent of bettering the questionnaire by placing and extinguishing possible jobs before utilizing it in the existent study ” ( Malhotra and Peterson, 2006, p.307 )
4.3.4 Fieldwork program
The information was collected between the 1st and the 20th of August, 2010. The 240 respondents were selected indiscriminately and internationally. The study was chiefly on-line by sent through contact e-mail and on-line societal web tool such as facebook in order to acquire a higher response rate. In add-on, on-line study allowed the research worker to utilize a sweet sand verbena attack in order to email the questionnaire to the respondents and so send on the online questionnaire to farther respondents. Furthermore, the survey collected the information from both gender with different age group and assorted businesss. Such a simple random trying ( SRS ) can be able to give an equal chance for everyone and besides removed the prejudice from the survey.
4.3.5 Analytic issues
In the information analysis, analytical methods were used to garner the informations and analyze the consequences. Hypothesiss were tested with assorted statistic attacks. In order to analyze the basic statistics, descriptive statistics has been used. Furthermore, one-sample T trials were applied to show the demographic profile of respondents and besides examine the factors when taking finish.
To analyze and obtain a better apprehension of the relationship between independent and dependent variables, the arrested development analysis has been used to measure the independent and dependent variables. A arrested development attack was used to prove the hypotheses and it besides really utile for identify and predict the information values. Furthermore, arrested development coefficient can be used for step of how good a forecaster of the arrested development is likely to be ( Saunder, 2003 )
The research design and methodological analysis has given inside informations of how the research design and how methodological analysis are used in order to transport out the full research. The following chapter will be the consequences from the informations collected and this will be aid to analysis of the research hypothesis.