City contrivers around the universe get an chance for rapid urban development and regeneration at a big graduated table through mega-event planning. The Barcelona Olympics of 1991 saw a paramount displacement in mega-event planning, where metropolis contrivers focused on the bequest that the event leaves behind and its impact on the metropolis. The sustainable urban development of the metropolis of Barcelona catapulted it to one of the top metropoliss of Europe in a affair of twelvemonth.
Following the success of the Barcelona Games, mega-event organisations such as the IOC, Commonwealth Federation, FIFA etc. began concentrating on the bequest program of command metropoliss for finding winning commands for such mega-events. An apprehension of the effects of assorted bequest programs and its execution in bid-winning metropoliss is indispensable in explicating guild lines for measuring the success of the bequest programs.
The City of Delhi derived much of its bequest program from old command victors and developed its urban regeneration program for the metropolis. The purpose of this thesis is to look into the bequest program for urban regeneration intended for the metropolis of Delhi through the Commonwealth Games every bit good as the bequest that the event left behind. A comparing can therefore, be made to find the extent to which the urban regeneration program was implemented and how successful it was.
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The mega-event is by its nature big graduated table, organized by the societal elite in the host state or metropolis and undertakings secular values and rules through the creative activity of an official version of the metropolis or state ‘s history and modern-day individuality. Performance mega-events are typified in the twentieth century by the Olympics and stand for a populist cultural look of the accomplishments of the host metropolis or state ( Roche, 2000 ) . Reinvention of a Mega-event as accelerator of urban development became outstanding towards the late seventiess. Reasons for this were the turning consciousness of the pervasiveness of deindustrialization led metropolis contrivers to take action to excite new beginnings of employment and besides that urban regeneration by traditional production – based attacks became implausible. This lead to jump schemes that relied on service industries and ingestion to provide growing. ( R.Gold, M. Gold, 2007 )
Mega-events are used by metropolis contrivers to fast frontward the planning and executing procedure by get the better ofing jobs of urbanism. The recent host metropoliss of mega-events have used it to incorporate the societal break originating from rapid urbanisation and economic enlargement. Host metropoliss use these events to accomplish specific local and national ends. The 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games represented an chance to redevelop the metropolis utilizing a mix of public and private sector support that balanced the commercial and societal purposes. The ‘Fantasy City ‘ theoretical account ( aggressive commerce and tourer orientation ) of the Los Angeles Games were modified and the Barcelona attack emerged as an option to obtaining a post-Games regeneration bequest. Since 1992, ‘Legacy ‘ has assumed a considerable significance to the International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) – as its rating procedure has incorporated environmental and other societal dimensions – and is now steadfastly focused upon non-sport related results as a beginning of legitimation for hosting the Games. The Barcelona – divine alteration of the ‘commercial ‘ attack to hosting the Games was replicated by London – with the 2012 command making a combination of public and private support and partnerships to present the event and an ambitious societal, cultural and economic bequest. ( Poynter, 2009 ) . The Government of India besides gave a comprehensive bequest program to the Commonwealth Federation in order to win the command of the 2010 Commonwealth Games to Delhi, India over Hamilton, Canada. The survey of old Mega-events peculiarly the Olympics of Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000 and Athens 2004, their bequest program and execution, are cardinal to understanding and analysing the bequest program for Delhi post the Commonwealth Games of 2010.
The cardinal findings of the Greater London Authority on old editions of the Olympic Games of Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000 and Athens 2004 for measuring the Legacy of the London Olympics of 2012, are as follows:
In the economic domain Legacy Momentum refers to the capacity of the metropolis and regional economic system to go on an upward growing way following the immediate post-Games downswing in economic activity. The capacity to accomplish impulse relates to several factors.
The Games must complement an already bing regeneration program that involves new stages beyond the Olympic event.
The knowledge-base derived from the readying and theatrical production of the event is non dispersed when the Games terminal but is utilised to advance farther invention with the metropolis and part.
3. The negative effects and skips from the Olympic-related
regeneration stage are addressed in subsequent urban development undertakings. Barcelona ( 1992 ) is the best illustration of a host metropolis accomplishing Legacy
The Mega Event and the City Economy
The impact of the Games on a metropolis economic system is both touchable and intangible. The intangible re-branding of a metropolis may hold subsequent touchable effects, particularly through inward investing and the sweetening of entrepreneurial assurance and expertness ( Barcelona 1992 ) . The Games provides a important accelerator for reclamation ; speed uping the completion of substructure undertakings ( Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996, Athens 2004 and more modestly Sydney 2000 ) but the host metropolis population emerges with a balance sheet of positives and negatives from a procedure of regeneration that happens to it instead than is shaped by it.
Social, Cultural and Lifestyle
Olympic Philosophy: Regeneration
The IOC commits “ to guarantee that the host metropoliss and their occupants are left with the
most positive bequest of locales, substructure, expertness and experience ”
All Cities pursue “ difficult ” bequest additions: substructure, the reorientation of metropolis infinites,
improved agreeableness, new types of land usage and economic activity. Barcelona is the
acknowledged success narrative here.
Planned-in bequest offsets “ white elephant ” syndrome in some instances The post-Games usage of substructure is an of import usher to the success of the Games, and in all instances legacy needs to be built into initial construct, design and bringing of Olympic installations ( edifices, but besides IT, administration, metropolis trade name direction, and station Games care contracts ) . Barcelona Olympic small town, Atlanta concern touristry, Sydney and Australian touristry and Athens conveyance systems provide declarative grounds.
The Green Bequest
The first ‘Green Games ‘ , and its Environmental Audit Legacy- Sydney was the first Games to be audited throughout by Greenpeace, who issued a elaborate and reasonably positive study. Any future Games ‘ environmental impact will be judged harmonizing to the Sydney benchmark, and hence cooperation with NGOs ( in information sharing, planning and executing every bit good as in set uping the rules for building, natural stuffs procurance, etc ) is critical.
Sustainability and poorness decrease
Environmental sensitiveness and sustainable development together form the ‘third
pillar ‘ of Olympism, as is to the full explained in the Olympic Agenda 21 papers of
1999. Sustainable development means prosecuting with the whole universe ‘s demands for
clean air and H2O, and making chances for personal and societal development
Difficult substructure and urban reclamation
aˆ? Housing, Olympic Village development ( Cashman 2006 )
aˆ? Transport connectivity and enhancement – greener, cleaner and more efficient ( Cashman 2006 ; Essex and Chalkey 1998 )
aˆ? Economic success ( Preuss 2004 ; Cashman 2006 )
aˆ? Telecommunications substructure
aˆ? Sporting installations allowing increased athleticss and other community activities/participation.
aˆ? The outward cloth of the metropolis – cleansing and rejuvenation
aˆ? Hotel and other tourer and leisure locales – including dark clip
Definition of a Good Bequest
While each of the past metropoliss can be seen to hold pursued many of these purposes,
typically each metropolis can be shown to hold emphasized in peculiar cases a
narrower scope of aspirations. It is the instance that typically metropoliss aim to incorporate Olympic-based reclamation alongside wider urban development dockets. ( Preuss 2004 ) .
Noteworthy differences in metropoliss ‘ get downing points
Adapted from McKay and Plumb ( 2001 )
The Barcelona Games ( 1992 ) are frequently cited as a theoretical account for London. These Games represented the regeneration of an full metropolis of three million people, instead than a narrower geographical country within a larger metropolis. It is besides deserving observing that the Barcelona Games were the most expensive of the recent Olympiads, as a effect of the large-scale regeneration plan.
The Atlanta Games ( 1996 ) were non peculiarly focused on regeneration. Spending was confined mostly to featuring installations ( no Olympic Village was built, for case ) , and the private support of the Games left a really limited bequest.
The Sydney Games ( 2000 ) were less focused on regeneration than the London Olympics are: the Homebush country was regenerated by the Games, but the residential countries were in fact already wealthier than Sydney overall. Athens Some major regeneration undertakings ( 2004 ) included the Athens tube and route systems. Revival of Athens as a universe category tourer metropolis and averment of relationships with Europe were cardinal purposes.
Typically, apart from featuring locales, there are four countries of development –
aˆ? Transportation system: route, rail, ropeway, air and assorted interconnectednesss, every bit good as policy and planning on parking, pedestrianisation and “ average displacement ” .
aˆ? Telecommunications substructure – chiefly to serve the universe ‘s media,
but in the hereafter possibly besides developing Olympic country for WiFi and/or other
connectivity for visitants
aˆ? Housing, particularly the Olympic small town urban kingdom and “ cultural
substructure ” – dark clip economic system, Cultural activities every bit good as ecological
and parkland undertakings.
There is typically some initial break locally, and related concerns about the long
and short term impact of such development on assorted costs, particularly on the
inflationary impact on rents and monetary values, non merely in the short term period of the
Games, when congested conveyance systems and the chance of hyperbolic eating house
monetary values can clash with local communities, but in the medium and longer term, where
substructure investing, particularly improved transport links ( every bit good as
reputational benefits for the metropolis ) can drive up belongings and rental monetary values either metropolis
broad or, as is more important, in certain privileged countries.
The Games are welcomed as a stimulation to and gas pedal of such investing and
developmental alteration in the metropolis, nevertheless ; transmutations taking to gentrification
and house price/rental rising prices can quickly bring forth divisions. As with any sort of
regeneration undertaking, the Games can lend to an elaboration of socioeconomic
differences, bring forthing new spacial distributions of wealth and wellbeing and gentrification effects which sometimes polarise local populations in renewing countries. For case, Barcelona is understood to be amongst the most successful metropoliss in footings of bequest. As portion of its successful development of its image and substructure towards going a cardinal European hub – and a renewed Centre for planetary touristry and civilization, the metropolis has besides seen ( as a effect ) monolithic house monetary value and rental rising prices ( 131 % between 1987-1992 ) , and the outgrowth of a big population of affluent international resident/visitors and belongings investors profiting from long term substructure investings more straight than some local populations, whose entree to lodging and occupations may non hold significantly improved.
Bequest of Sports Infrastructure
It is possible to place a scope of subsequent bequest uses for athleticss substructure.
The “ hereafter ” of the locale is an inaccurate appellation, since the short, 16 twenty-four hours
Olympic stage ( non including the trial and preparation events that may continue the
Games proper ) while finding many of the characteristics and cloth of the construction,
ideally ought non, entirely and definitively pre- or pro- scribe subsequent use.
Preuss ( 2004 ) suggests four chief “ follow up utilizations ” of Olympic installations, to which we
might add a farther “ usage ” , pulling on Cashman ‘s ( 2006 ) history of the importance
of memory and retrospection in informing the subsequent symbolic and soft
bequests of the Games:
Follow up use of Olympic Infrastructure ( Table below )
Beginning: adapted from Preuss, 2004 and Cashman 2005
There is no direct correlativity between such additions and the broad fluctuations in the cost of seting Games on, nevertheless ; such discrepancy is a map of determinations about how and which sporting and other substructure will and must be developed, revitalized or replaced in the peculiar host metropolis.
What the Cities Built: Sketching New and Existing Facilities
Clearly difficult bequest, every bit good as costs, are linked to the proportion of new building
undertaken for the Games. This work, extended as it is, represents less investing
than the big capital undertakings such as roads, rail links and land renewal taking
to cardinal bequest additions ( every bit good as monolithic cost – including cost overproductions ) .
However, it is the specifically Olympic edifices and in peculiar big bowls that
invite most guess about future use.
The grade of new substructure development undertaken by different citations varies
( Preuss 2004 ; Baim 2007 ; Essex and Chalkey 2003 ) . In portion this is a affair of
civilization, where specific athleticss and installations ( such as baseball in the UK ) are non
routinely apart of the host states ‘ featuring wonts. Existing development and
intended investing planning mostly form this facet of difficult bequest.
General Facilities Barcelona, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens ( Table below )
Beginning: Adapted from Preuss ( 2004 )
As Carbonnell ( 2005 ) suggests, pulling chiefly on the Barcelona experience,
For any metropolis, hosting the Olympic Games is both an honor and a challenge.
Much of the substructure required is impermanent in nature ; it merely serves a
intent for the continuance of the Games themselves. Barcelona took a really
distinct attack on this issue: the purpose was to set about ambitious
undertakings which would profit the metropolis as a whole, convinced that what was
good for the metropolis ‘s occupants would besides be good for the Olympic household
( Carbonell 2005 ) .
Suiting the needed Numberss of visitants to the host metropolis, and guaranting a
high quality and secure experience for all, over 16 yearss, is no little undertaking. However,
the graduated table of host metropoliss ‘ Olympic undertakings, particularly when believing in footings of
bequest, must besides, and chiefly, include consideration of the graduated table, extent and
quality ( in footings of bringing and planning for subsequent usage ) of the whole
refurbished cloth of the host metropolis, in and around the chief Olympic sites, but besides
beyond, up and down transport paths and down and through high-tech telecom and
Indicative alterations in Land Use Associated with Olympic Construction ( Table below )
Beginning: Adapted from Preuss 2004
The Olympics were an accelerant to and concentrate for a figure of undertakings, some long
planned, others specific to fortunes pre-1992. The Games emerged within
transmutations affecting extended urban development ; of old fish markets, ground forces
barracks, a adult females ‘s prison and polluted waterfront areas3.
aˆ? The 1936-built bowl in Montjuic Park was refurbished and many new
locales were built.
aˆ? The Olympic Village necessitated a new arrangement of two rail lines that
separated downtown Barcelona from the coastline – once an industrial
aˆ? The industrial subdivision was replaced with beaches, which after the redirection
of the metro line re-connected the metropolis to the sea.
aˆ? The sewerage system was besides modernised
aˆ? Four museums and a botanical garden were renovated in readying of the
aˆ? In 2004 Barcelona was the figure one tourer finish in Europe.
Perceivers of host metropoliss in the wake of the Olympiad are good used to observing the “ white elephants ” , the most common word picture of substructure
aˆ? One kilometer of beaches in forepart of the Olympic Village, with a series of wharfs protecting the sand from the dominant watercourse that flows in East-West way. The Olympic seaport with a capacity for 700 boats in the H2O and 300 ashore, with 75 % of public infinite ( bars, eating houses, commercial infinite etc ) .
aˆ? Seaport promenade. 30 metres broad prosaic seafront promenade with coffeehouse, eating house and other installations.
aˆ? Two towers 100 meters high for hotels and offices and other minor edifices.
aˆ? Highway. Part of the metropolis system of pealing roads, with high traffic strength ( 120,000 vehicles a twenty-four hours ) .
aˆ? Urban karyon. The basic thought was to associate the new residential country with the
traditional morphology of the metropolis.
aˆ? Some 2,000 lodging units were built to host 15,000 jocks and 17,000 dwellers.
aˆ? There was eventually an incorporate system of Parkss both for the usage of the communities populating about and in the nearby vicinity. developments which fail, in the medium or long term to happen suited subsequent use.
The survey of Olympic Villages throughout this century is the survey of the
history of thoughts about how to develop the metropolis, how to be after it and how to
manage it ( Munoz 1998 ) .
It is likely unwise to generalize from either extreme ; nevertheless, Barcelona is an
informative case of a mostly progressive and positively received renovation
and of inventive and sustained “ bequest impulse ” in the station Games periods.
As noted above in term of substructure, the Games surely offer some
betterments. Truno ( 1995 ) tracked both entree and installations in Barcelona preand
post- Games. If the figure of installings available in Barcelona in 1982 is compared with those available after 1992, it can be seen that the Olympic and non-
Olympic investing attempt resulted in an addition of 75.8 % every bit far as installings were concerned, and of 126.4 % in the instance of athleticss locales. Wholly, a entire surface country of about 300,000 square meters was involved ( Truno 1995 )
The figures for usage of new athleticss Centres created after the Games: in all the
installings which accept endorsers or members, there has been an
addition of 46,000 new users. ( Truno, 1995 )
Indicative positive bequest developments from Olympic small town development – Barcelona ( Table below )
Essex and Chalkey ( 1998 ) supply a utile sum-up of the Atlanta substructure.
aˆ? The centerpiece of the Games was the Olympic Stadium ( capacity of
85,000 ) constructed particularly for the event with private finance. After the
Games, it was converted to a 48,000 place baseball park for usage by the
Atlanta Braves baseball squad.
aˆ? Other new installations, such as the Aquatic Center, hoops gym, hockey
bowl and equestrian locale, were given to educational constitutions or
local governments. The chief Olympic Village ( 133 hour angle ) was located on the
campus of Georgia Technical College.
aˆ? The other chief infrastructural bequest to the metropolis was the Centennial Olympic
Park in cardinal Atlanta, which was intended to be a gathering topographic point for
visitants during the Games and subsequently to heighten the quality of life for local
The Atlanta bequest is mostly understood to hold been committed to concern and commercial purposes – constructing the repute of the metropolis.
However as McKay and Plumb ( 2001 ) observe,
Atlanta mostly used bing installations to house jocks and as such did non
experience the mass residential building around its Olympic precinct.
The Olympics did, nevertheless, have a considerable influence on the location of
demand by assisting to make a more attractive interior metropolis residential
environment through betterments to transport installations, retail comfortss
and public countries, such as Parkss and prosaic paseos. The Atlanta
office market has continued to turn strongly since 1996, with more than
520,000 m.2 of office infinite absorbed across the metro country in 1998.
INDICATIVE CASE STUDY: Negative Impacts – Atlanta – adapted from
Newman ( 1999 )
aˆ? Economically deprived Afro-american countries of Atlanta were affected
most by the readyings for the Games.
aˆ? Residents were relocated from at least six public lodging undertakings
aˆ? For these persons the readyings for the Olympics were riotous
bing many “ the usage value of their places and vicinities ” .
aˆ? CODA ‘s vicinity revival programs failed, and merely those countries
closest to Olympic locales received significant support for revival.
Newman makes a utile point about inclinations relevant in peculiar to mega
event driven regeneration. He suggests that events such as the Olympics are portion of a procedure of reshaping land usage in the metropolis to do room for ‘urban spectacle and show ‘ at the disbursal of the everyday facets of day-to-day life for urban occupants. In public lodging undertakings and in low-income vicinities, many households were moved to do manner for the spectacle.
Newman concludes that:
The bequest of freshly constructed athleticss locales and the enhanced image of
Atlanta as a ‘world metropolis ‘ must be tempered by the continuance of a form of
traveling low-income occupants to do manner for growing.
The survey suggests that:
Merely the most dedicated attempts by concern leaders and metropolis authorities to
work with low-income citizens after the Games will alter the bequest of
mistrust the Olympics have helped to perpetuate.
The chief characteristics of the Athens undertakings included an effort at revitalizing major
piece of lands of the metropolis precinct.
aˆ? Remediation of about 300 hour angle. of obsolete wasteland/quarries, and 250 hour angle.
of contaminated rubbish mopess, every bit good as 600 hour angle. of former ground forces cantonments – deindustrialization and de-militarisation of land usage
aˆ? Developing park, diversion and environmental instruction countries covering
250 hour angle. of urban infinite ( landscape gardening of 60 dry and seasonal river beds into
landscaped Parkss )
aˆ? The fusion and sweetening of major tourist/archaeological sites
aˆ? Enhancement of residential territories in the Centre and outskirts of the metropolis
aˆ? Athens International Airport Regeneration
aˆ? Athens ring route and designed to take traffic from notoriously congested metropolis
aˆ? Athens Metro, with an purpose towards promoting bequest modal displacement –
necessary in a metropolis good known for congestion jobs
The chief characteristics of the Sydney Olympic regeneration were:
aˆ? New athleticss installations ( inc. Olympic Stadium ) ,
aˆ? Telecommunications sweetenings,
aˆ? Land redress in Homebush Bay,
aˆ? Olympic Village built as new suburb ( Newington ) with lodging – the universe ‘s
largest solar powered colony,
aˆ? Green renovation: international benchmarking on waste decrease,
H2O re-use, usage of reclaimable stuffs,
aˆ? Further athleticss, retail, commercial and transport installations ; broadening of
pathwaies and new street furniture, aimed at smartening up cardinal Sydney
aˆ? Transport the major policy and be aftering purposes of the Sydney Games were to
guarantee public entree. This would hold besides contributed to the green
certificates of the Games. This was achieved practically by:
aˆ? Public conveyance being the lone agencies by which witnesss [ could ]
straight entree events at major Olympic sites ;
aˆ? Satellite auto parking locales established in “ park and drive ” type
strategies. ( see Cashman 2005: 200-1 )
aˆ? In add-on the Games served as accelerators for accelerator for enlargement of
Sydney airdrome including new rail nexus and Eastern Distributor route associating the
airdrome to the CBD ;
Cashman, observing in peculiar that there was a post-Games slack in enthusiasm for all things Olympic. He identifies a scope of factors that should go on to be tracked, proposing that ( as with Athens ) the bequest needs to maturate before some cardinal appraisals can be made.
aˆ? Media trailing and analysis of cultural issues – metropolis stigmatization, national
repute, attitudes to multicultural issues within Australia, attitudes to
disablement and athletics
aˆ? Business and economic results
aˆ? Impacts on Sport – elect public presentation and mundane engagement
aˆ? Ecological issues
The Olympic Village, Sydney
The purpose in constructing the Village was:
aˆ? to supply the best possible lodging and residential installations for all jocks
and squad functionaries
aˆ? to use the highest possible environmental criterions
aˆ? to supply a new suburb for post-Games usage
The site had antecedently been an butchery.
After the Games
aˆ? The Village was made into a residential country, a suburb of Newington
aˆ? Medium denseness lodging
aˆ? 850 three- and four-bedroom designer designed houses and 350 two- to
three-bedroom flats in 94 hectares.
Cashman offers some scrutiny of “ engagement ” . These figures are in
some sense more clear, nevertheless they do non uncover excessively much item about “ athleticss
engagement ” , instead giving accent to generalised Post Games bequest uses –
civic agreeableness every bit much as featuring locale however valuable societal assets.
Attendances at the Aquatic Centre in recent old ages in Sydney ( Table below )
Beginning: Cashman ( 2006 )
Beginning: Greater London Authority ( 2007 )