Mega Events And The Legacy It Leaves Behind Tourism Essay

City contrivers around the universe get an chance for rapid urban development and regeneration at a big graduated table through mega-event planning. The Barcelona Olympics of 1991 saw a paramount displacement in mega-event planning, where metropolis contrivers focused on the bequest that the event leaves behind and its impact on the metropolis. The sustainable urban development of the metropolis of Barcelona catapulted it to one of the top metropoliss of Europe in a affair of twelvemonth.

Following the success of the Barcelona Games, mega-event organisations such as the IOC, Commonwealth Federation, FIFA etc. began concentrating on the bequest program of command metropoliss for finding winning commands for such mega-events. An apprehension of the effects of assorted bequest programs and its execution in bid-winning metropoliss is indispensable in explicating guild lines for measuring the success of the bequest programs.

The City of Delhi derived much of its bequest program from old command victors and developed its urban regeneration program for the metropolis. The purpose of this thesis is to look into the bequest program for urban regeneration intended for the metropolis of Delhi through the Commonwealth Games every bit good as the bequest that the event left behind. A comparing can therefore, be made to find the extent to which the urban regeneration program was implemented and how successful it was.

The Macmillan Dictionary defines:

Bequest:

somethingA suchA asA aA traditionA orA problemA thatA existsA asA aA resultA ofA somethingA thatA happenedA inA theA yesteryear.

somethingA thatA someoneA hasA achievedA thatA continuesA toA existsA afterA theyA stopA workingA orA dice.

The mega-event is by its nature big graduated table, organized by the societal elite in the host state or metropolis and undertakings secular values and rules through the creative activity of an official version of the metropolis or state ‘s history and modern-day individuality. Performance mega-events are typified in the twentieth century by the Olympics and stand for a populist cultural look of the accomplishments of the host metropolis or state ( Roche, 2000 ) . Reinvention of a Mega-event as accelerator of urban development became outstanding towards the late seventiess. Reasons for this were the turning consciousness of the pervasiveness of deindustrialization led metropolis contrivers to take action to excite new beginnings of employment and besides that urban regeneration by traditional production – based attacks became implausible. This lead to jump schemes that relied on service industries and ingestion to provide growing. ( R.Gold, M. Gold, 2007 )

Mega-events are used by metropolis contrivers to fast frontward the planning and executing procedure by get the better ofing jobs of urbanism. The recent host metropoliss of mega-events have used it to incorporate the societal break originating from rapid urbanisation and economic enlargement. Host metropoliss use these events to accomplish specific local and national ends. The 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games represented an chance to redevelop the metropolis utilizing a mix of public and private sector support that balanced the commercial and societal purposes. The ‘Fantasy City ‘ theoretical account ( aggressive commerce and tourer orientation ) of the Los Angeles Games were modified and the Barcelona attack emerged as an option to obtaining a post-Games regeneration bequest. Since 1992, ‘Legacy ‘ has assumed a considerable significance to the International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) – as its rating procedure has incorporated environmental and other societal dimensions – and is now steadfastly focused upon non-sport related results as a beginning of legitimation for hosting the Games. The Barcelona – divine alteration of the ‘commercial ‘ attack to hosting the Games was replicated by London – with the 2012 command making a combination of public and private support and partnerships to present the event and an ambitious societal, cultural and economic bequest. ( Poynter, 2009 ) . The Government of India besides gave a comprehensive bequest program to the Commonwealth Federation in order to win the command of the 2010 Commonwealth Games to Delhi, India over Hamilton, Canada. The survey of old Mega-events peculiarly the Olympics of Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000 and Athens 2004, their bequest program and execution, are cardinal to understanding and analysing the bequest program for Delhi post the Commonwealth Games of 2010.

The cardinal findings of the Greater London Authority on old editions of the Olympic Games of Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000 and Athens 2004 for measuring the Legacy of the London Olympics of 2012, are as follows:

Economic

Legacy Momentum

In the economic domain Legacy Momentum refers to the capacity of the metropolis and regional economic system to go on an upward growing way following the immediate post-Games downswing in economic activity. The capacity to accomplish impulse relates to several factors.

The Games must complement an already bing regeneration program that involves new stages beyond the Olympic event.

The knowledge-base derived from the readying and theatrical production of the event is non dispersed when the Games terminal but is utilised to advance farther invention with the metropolis and part.

3. The negative effects and skips from the Olympic-related

regeneration stage are addressed in subsequent urban development undertakings. Barcelona ( 1992 ) is the best illustration of a host metropolis accomplishing Legacy

Momentum.

The Mega Event and the City Economy

The impact of the Games on a metropolis economic system is both touchable and intangible. The intangible re-branding of a metropolis may hold subsequent touchable effects, particularly through inward investing and the sweetening of entrepreneurial assurance and expertness ( Barcelona 1992 ) . The Games provides a important accelerator for reclamation ; speed uping the completion of substructure undertakings ( Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996, Athens 2004 and more modestly Sydney 2000 ) but the host metropolis population emerges with a balance sheet of positives and negatives from a procedure of regeneration that happens to it instead than is shaped by it.

Social, Cultural and Lifestyle

Olympic Philosophy: Regeneration

The IOC commits “ to guarantee that the host metropoliss and their occupants are left with the

most positive bequest of locales, substructure, expertness and experience ”

Urban Renewal

All Cities pursue “ difficult ” bequest additions: substructure, the reorientation of metropolis infinites,

improved agreeableness, new types of land usage and economic activity. Barcelona is the

acknowledged success narrative here.

Planned-in bequest offsets “ white elephant ” syndrome in some instances The post-Games usage of substructure is an of import usher to the success of the Games, and in all instances legacy needs to be built into initial construct, design and bringing of Olympic installations ( edifices, but besides IT, administration, metropolis trade name direction, and station Games care contracts ) . Barcelona Olympic small town, Atlanta concern touristry, Sydney and Australian touristry and Athens conveyance systems provide declarative grounds.

The Green Bequest

The first ‘Green Games ‘ , and its Environmental Audit Legacy- Sydney was the first Games to be audited throughout by Greenpeace, who issued a elaborate and reasonably positive study. Any future Games ‘ environmental impact will be judged harmonizing to the Sydney benchmark, and hence cooperation with NGOs ( in information sharing, planning and executing every bit good as in set uping the rules for building, natural stuffs procurance, etc ) is critical.

Sustainability and poorness decrease

Environmental sensitiveness and sustainable development together form the ‘third

pillar ‘ of Olympism, as is to the full explained in the Olympic Agenda 21 papers of

1999. Sustainable development means prosecuting with the whole universe ‘s demands for

clean air and H2O, and making chances for personal and societal development

worldwide.

Difficult substructure and urban reclamation

aˆ? Housing, Olympic Village development ( Cashman 2006 )

aˆ? Transport connectivity and enhancement – greener, cleaner and more efficient ( Cashman 2006 ; Essex and Chalkey 1998 )

aˆ? Economic success ( Preuss 2004 ; Cashman 2006 )

aˆ? Telecommunications substructure

aˆ? Sporting installations allowing increased athleticss and other community activities/participation.

aˆ? The outward cloth of the metropolis – cleansing and rejuvenation

aˆ? Hotel and other tourer and leisure locales – including dark clip

Economy

Definition of a Good Bequest

While each of the past metropoliss can be seen to hold pursued many of these purposes,

typically each metropolis can be shown to hold emphasized in peculiar cases a

narrower scope of aspirations. It is the instance that typically metropoliss aim to incorporate Olympic-based reclamation alongside wider urban development dockets. ( Preuss 2004 ) .

Noteworthy differences in metropoliss ‘ get downing points

Adapted from McKay and Plumb ( 2001 )

The Barcelona Games ( 1992 ) are frequently cited as a theoretical account for London. These Games represented the regeneration of an full metropolis of three million people, instead than a narrower geographical country within a larger metropolis. It is besides deserving observing that the Barcelona Games were the most expensive of the recent Olympiads, as a effect of the large-scale regeneration plan.

The Atlanta Games ( 1996 ) were non peculiarly focused on regeneration. Spending was confined mostly to featuring installations ( no Olympic Village was built, for case ) , and the private support of the Games left a really limited bequest.

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The Sydney Games ( 2000 ) were less focused on regeneration than the London Olympics are: the Homebush country was regenerated by the Games, but the residential countries were in fact already wealthier than Sydney overall. Athens Some major regeneration undertakings ( 2004 ) included the Athens tube and route systems. Revival of Athens as a universe category tourer metropolis and averment of relationships with Europe were cardinal purposes.

Other Bequests

Typically, apart from featuring locales, there are four countries of development –

aˆ? Transportation system: route, rail, ropeway, air and assorted interconnectednesss, every bit good as policy and planning on parking, pedestrianisation and “ average displacement ” .

aˆ? Telecommunications substructure – chiefly to serve the universe ‘s media,

but in the hereafter possibly besides developing Olympic country for WiFi and/or other

connectivity for visitants

aˆ? Housing, particularly the Olympic small town urban kingdom and “ cultural

substructure ” – dark clip economic system, Cultural activities every bit good as ecological

and parkland undertakings.

There is typically some initial break locally, and related concerns about the long

and short term impact of such development on assorted costs, particularly on the

inflationary impact on rents and monetary values, non merely in the short term period of the

Games, when congested conveyance systems and the chance of hyperbolic eating house

monetary values can clash with local communities, but in the medium and longer term, where

substructure investing, particularly improved transport links ( every bit good as

reputational benefits for the metropolis ) can drive up belongings and rental monetary values either metropolis

broad or, as is more important, in certain privileged countries.

The Games are welcomed as a stimulation to and gas pedal of such investing and

developmental alteration in the metropolis, nevertheless ; transmutations taking to gentrification

and house price/rental rising prices can quickly bring forth divisions. As with any sort of

regeneration undertaking, the Games can lend to an elaboration of socioeconomic

differences, bring forthing new spacial distributions of wealth and wellbeing and gentrification effects which sometimes polarise local populations in renewing countries. For case, Barcelona is understood to be amongst the most successful metropoliss in footings of bequest. As portion of its successful development of its image and substructure towards going a cardinal European hub – and a renewed Centre for planetary touristry and civilization, the metropolis has besides seen ( as a effect ) monolithic house monetary value and rental rising prices ( 131 % between 1987-1992 ) , and the outgrowth of a big population of affluent international resident/visitors and belongings investors profiting from long term substructure investings more straight than some local populations, whose entree to lodging and occupations may non hold significantly improved.

Bequest of Sports Infrastructure

It is possible to place a scope of subsequent bequest uses for athleticss substructure.

The “ hereafter ” of the locale is an inaccurate appellation, since the short, 16 twenty-four hours

Olympic stage ( non including the trial and preparation events that may continue the

Games proper ) while finding many of the characteristics and cloth of the construction,

ideally ought non, entirely and definitively pre- or pro- scribe subsequent use.

Preuss ( 2004 ) suggests four chief “ follow up utilizations ” of Olympic installations, to which we

might add a farther “ usage ” , pulling on Cashman ‘s ( 2006 ) history of the importance

of memory and retrospection in informing the subsequent symbolic and soft

bequests of the Games:

Follow up use of Olympic Infrastructure ( Table below )

Beginning: adapted from Preuss, 2004 and Cashman 2005

The Requirements

There is no direct correlativity between such additions and the broad fluctuations in the cost of seting Games on, nevertheless ; such discrepancy is a map of determinations about how and which sporting and other substructure will and must be developed, revitalized or replaced in the peculiar host metropolis.

What the Cities Built: Sketching New and Existing Facilities

Clearly difficult bequest, every bit good as costs, are linked to the proportion of new building

undertaken for the Games. This work, extended as it is, represents less investing

than the big capital undertakings such as roads, rail links and land renewal taking

to cardinal bequest additions ( every bit good as monolithic cost – including cost overproductions ) .

However, it is the specifically Olympic edifices and in peculiar big bowls that

invite most guess about future use.

The grade of new substructure development undertaken by different citations varies

( Preuss 2004 ; Baim 2007 ; Essex and Chalkey 2003 ) . In portion this is a affair of

civilization, where specific athleticss and installations ( such as baseball in the UK ) are non

routinely apart of the host states ‘ featuring wonts. Existing development and

intended investing planning mostly form this facet of difficult bequest.

General Facilities Barcelona, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens ( Table below )

Beginning: Adapted from Preuss ( 2004 )

As Carbonnell ( 2005 ) suggests, pulling chiefly on the Barcelona experience,

For any metropolis, hosting the Olympic Games is both an honor and a challenge.

Much of the substructure required is impermanent in nature ; it merely serves a

intent for the continuance of the Games themselves. Barcelona took a really

distinct attack on this issue: the purpose was to set about ambitious

undertakings which would profit the metropolis as a whole, convinced that what was

good for the metropolis ‘s occupants would besides be good for the Olympic household

( Carbonell 2005 ) .

Suiting the needed Numberss of visitants to the host metropolis, and guaranting a

high quality and secure experience for all, over 16 yearss, is no little undertaking. However,

the graduated table of host metropoliss ‘ Olympic undertakings, particularly when believing in footings of

bequest, must besides, and chiefly, include consideration of the graduated table, extent and

quality ( in footings of bringing and planning for subsequent usage ) of the whole

refurbished cloth of the host metropolis, in and around the chief Olympic sites, but besides

beyond, up and down transport paths and down and through high-tech telecom and

IT substructure.

Indicative alterations in Land Use Associated with Olympic Construction ( Table below )

Beginning: Adapted from Preuss 2004

Barcelona

The Olympics were an accelerant to and concentrate for a figure of undertakings, some long

planned, others specific to fortunes pre-1992. The Games emerged within

transmutations affecting extended urban development ; of old fish markets, ground forces

barracks, a adult females ‘s prison and polluted waterfront areas3.

aˆ? The 1936-built bowl in Montjuic Park was refurbished and many new

locales were built.

aˆ? The Olympic Village necessitated a new arrangement of two rail lines that

separated downtown Barcelona from the coastline – once an industrial

country.

aˆ? The industrial subdivision was replaced with beaches, which after the redirection

of the metro line re-connected the metropolis to the sea.

aˆ? The sewerage system was besides modernised

aˆ? Four museums and a botanical garden were renovated in readying of the

Games.

aˆ? In 2004 Barcelona was the figure one tourer finish in Europe.

Perceivers of host metropoliss in the wake of the Olympiad are good used to observing the “ white elephants ” , the most common word picture of substructure

aˆ? One kilometer of beaches in forepart of the Olympic Village, with a series of wharfs protecting the sand from the dominant watercourse that flows in East-West way. The Olympic seaport with a capacity for 700 boats in the H2O and 300 ashore, with 75 % of public infinite ( bars, eating houses, commercial infinite etc ) .

aˆ? Seaport promenade. 30 metres broad prosaic seafront promenade with coffeehouse, eating house and other installations.

aˆ? Two towers 100 meters high for hotels and offices and other minor edifices.

aˆ? Highway. Part of the metropolis system of pealing roads, with high traffic strength ( 120,000 vehicles a twenty-four hours ) .

aˆ? Urban karyon. The basic thought was to associate the new residential country with the

traditional morphology of the metropolis.

aˆ? Some 2,000 lodging units were built to host 15,000 jocks and 17,000 dwellers.

aˆ? There was eventually an incorporate system of Parkss both for the usage of the communities populating about and in the nearby vicinity. developments which fail, in the medium or long term to happen suited subsequent use.

The survey of Olympic Villages throughout this century is the survey of the

history of thoughts about how to develop the metropolis, how to be after it and how to

manage it ( Munoz 1998 ) .

It is likely unwise to generalize from either extreme ; nevertheless, Barcelona is an

informative case of a mostly progressive and positively received renovation

and of inventive and sustained “ bequest impulse ” in the station Games periods.

As noted above in term of substructure, the Games surely offer some

betterments. Truno ( 1995 ) tracked both entree and installations in Barcelona preand

post- Games. If the figure of installings available in Barcelona in 1982 is compared with those available after 1992, it can be seen that the Olympic and non-

Olympic investing attempt resulted in an addition of 75.8 % every bit far as installings were concerned, and of 126.4 % in the instance of athleticss locales. Wholly, a entire surface country of about 300,000 square meters was involved ( Truno 1995 )

The figures for usage of new athleticss Centres created after the Games: in all the

installings which accept endorsers or members, there has been an

addition of 46,000 new users. ( Truno, 1995 )

P.T.O

Indicative positive bequest developments from Olympic small town development – Barcelona ( Table below )

Atlanta

Essex and Chalkey ( 1998 ) supply a utile sum-up of the Atlanta substructure.

aˆ? The centerpiece of the Games was the Olympic Stadium ( capacity of

85,000 ) constructed particularly for the event with private finance. After the

Games, it was converted to a 48,000 place baseball park for usage by the

Atlanta Braves baseball squad.

aˆ? Other new installations, such as the Aquatic Center, hoops gym, hockey

bowl and equestrian locale, were given to educational constitutions or

local governments. The chief Olympic Village ( 133 hour angle ) was located on the

campus of Georgia Technical College.

aˆ? The other chief infrastructural bequest to the metropolis was the Centennial Olympic

Park in cardinal Atlanta, which was intended to be a gathering topographic point for

visitants during the Games and subsequently to heighten the quality of life for local

occupants.

The Atlanta bequest is mostly understood to hold been committed to concern and commercial purposes – constructing the repute of the metropolis.

However as McKay and Plumb ( 2001 ) observe,

Atlanta mostly used bing installations to house jocks and as such did non

experience the mass residential building around its Olympic precinct.

The Olympics did, nevertheless, have a considerable influence on the location of

demand by assisting to make a more attractive interior metropolis residential

environment through betterments to transport installations, retail comfortss

and public countries, such as Parkss and prosaic paseos. The Atlanta

office market has continued to turn strongly since 1996, with more than

520,000 m.2 of office infinite absorbed across the metro country in 1998.

INDICATIVE CASE STUDY: Negative Impacts – Atlanta – adapted from

Newman ( 1999 )

aˆ? Economically deprived Afro-american countries of Atlanta were affected

most by the readyings for the Games.

aˆ? Residents were relocated from at least six public lodging undertakings

aˆ? For these persons the readyings for the Olympics were riotous

bing many “ the usage value of their places and vicinities ” .

aˆ? CODA ‘s vicinity revival programs failed, and merely those countries

closest to Olympic locales received significant support for revival.

Newman makes a utile point about inclinations relevant in peculiar to mega

event driven regeneration. He suggests that events such as the Olympics are portion of a procedure of reshaping land usage in the metropolis to do room for ‘urban spectacle and show ‘ at the disbursal of the everyday facets of day-to-day life for urban occupants. In public lodging undertakings and in low-income vicinities, many households were moved to do manner for the spectacle.

Newman concludes that:

The bequest of freshly constructed athleticss locales and the enhanced image of

Atlanta as a ‘world metropolis ‘ must be tempered by the continuance of a form of

traveling low-income occupants to do manner for growing.

The survey suggests that:

Merely the most dedicated attempts by concern leaders and metropolis authorities to

work with low-income citizens after the Games will alter the bequest of

mistrust the Olympics have helped to perpetuate.

Athinais

The chief characteristics of the Athens undertakings included an effort at revitalizing major

piece of lands of the metropolis precinct.

aˆ? Remediation of about 300 hour angle. of obsolete wasteland/quarries, and 250 hour angle.

of contaminated rubbish mopess, every bit good as 600 hour angle. of former ground forces cantonments – deindustrialization and de-militarisation of land usage

aˆ? Developing park, diversion and environmental instruction countries covering

250 hour angle. of urban infinite ( landscape gardening of 60 dry and seasonal river beds into

landscaped Parkss )

aˆ? The fusion and sweetening of major tourist/archaeological sites

aˆ? Enhancement of residential territories in the Centre and outskirts of the metropolis

aˆ? Conveyance

aˆ? Athens International Airport Regeneration

aˆ? Athens ring route and designed to take traffic from notoriously congested metropolis

aˆ? Athens Metro, with an purpose towards promoting bequest modal displacement –

necessary in a metropolis good known for congestion jobs

Sydney

The chief characteristics of the Sydney Olympic regeneration were:

aˆ? New athleticss installations ( inc. Olympic Stadium ) ,

aˆ? Telecommunications sweetenings,

aˆ? Land redress in Homebush Bay,

aˆ? Olympic Village built as new suburb ( Newington ) with lodging – the universe ‘s

largest solar powered colony,

aˆ? Green renovation: international benchmarking on waste decrease,

H2O re-use, usage of reclaimable stuffs,

aˆ? Further athleticss, retail, commercial and transport installations ; broadening of

pathwaies and new street furniture, aimed at smartening up cardinal Sydney

aˆ? Transport the major policy and be aftering purposes of the Sydney Games were to

guarantee public entree. This would hold besides contributed to the green

certificates of the Games. This was achieved practically by:

aˆ? Public conveyance being the lone agencies by which witnesss [ could ]

straight entree events at major Olympic sites ;

aˆ? Satellite auto parking locales established in “ park and drive ” type

strategies. ( see Cashman 2005: 200-1 )

aˆ? In add-on the Games served as accelerators for accelerator for enlargement of

Sydney airdrome including new rail nexus and Eastern Distributor route associating the

airdrome to the CBD ;

Cashman, observing in peculiar that there was a post-Games slack in enthusiasm for all things Olympic. He identifies a scope of factors that should go on to be tracked, proposing that ( as with Athens ) the bequest needs to maturate before some cardinal appraisals can be made.

These include:

aˆ? Media trailing and analysis of cultural issues – metropolis stigmatization, national

repute, attitudes to multicultural issues within Australia, attitudes to

disablement and athletics

aˆ? Business and economic results

aˆ? Impacts on Sport – elect public presentation and mundane engagement

aˆ? Ecological issues

The Olympic Village, Sydney

The purpose in constructing the Village was:

aˆ? to supply the best possible lodging and residential installations for all jocks

and squad functionaries

aˆ? to use the highest possible environmental criterions

aˆ? to supply a new suburb for post-Games usage

The site had antecedently been an butchery.

After the Games

aˆ? The Village was made into a residential country, a suburb of Newington

aˆ? Medium denseness lodging

aˆ? 850 three- and four-bedroom designer designed houses and 350 two- to

three-bedroom flats in 94 hectares.

Cashman offers some scrutiny of “ engagement ” . These figures are in

some sense more clear, nevertheless they do non uncover excessively much item about “ athleticss

engagement ” , instead giving accent to generalised Post Games bequest uses –

civic agreeableness every bit much as featuring locale however valuable societal assets.

Attendances at the Aquatic Centre in recent old ages in Sydney ( Table below )

Beginning: Cashman ( 2006 )

Overall Appraisal

Beginning: Greater London Authority ( 2007 )