Management Information System Sample Essay

The range and intent of MIS is better understood if each portion of the term is defined. Therefore.

Management: -It has been defined in a assortment of ways. but for our intents it comprises the procedures of activities that describe what directors do in their organisation. program. form. novice. and command operations. They plan by puting schemes and ends and choosing the best class of action to accomplish the program. They organize the undertakings necessary for the operational program. put these undertakings up into homogenous groups. and assign authorization deputation. They control the public presentation of the work by puting public presentation criterions and avoiding divergences from the criterions.

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Because determination devising is such a cardinal requirement to each of the foregoing processes. the occupation of an MIS becomes that of easing determinations necessary for be aftering. forming. and commanding the work and maps of the concern.

Information: -Data must be distinguished from information. and this differentiation is clear and of import for our intents. Datas are facts and figures that are non presently being used in a determination procedure and normally take the signifier of historical records that are recorded and filed without immediate purpose to recover for determination devising.

Information consists of informations that have been retrieved. processed. or otherwise used for enlightening or illation intents. statement. or as a footing for prediction or determination devising.

Systems: – A system can be described merely as a set of elements joined together for a common aim. A subsystem is portion of a larger system with which we are concerned. All systems are parts of larger systems. For our intents the organisation is the system and the parts ( divisions. sections. maps. units. etc. ) are the subsystems.

WHAT IS AN Information System

An information system can be any organized combination of people. hardware. package. communications webs. and informations resources that collects. transforms. and disseminates information in an organisation.

Hardware: Peoples have relied of information systems to pass on with each other utilizing a assortment of physical devices

Software: information processing instructions and processs
Networks: Communicationss channels
Data resources: stored informations

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

Business professionals rely on many types of information systems that use a assortment of information engineerings. For illustration. some information systems use simple manual ( paper and pencil ) hardware devices and informal ( word of oral cavity ) communications channels. However. in this text. we well concentrate on computing machine based information systems that use computing machine hardware and package. the cyberspace and other telecommunications webs. computer-based informations resource direction techniques. and many other computer-based information engineerings to transform informations resources into an eternal assortment of information merchandises for consumers and concern professionals.

Information SYSTEM FRAMEWORK FOR BUSINESS PROFESSIONALS

The field of information systems encompasses many complex engineerings. abstract behavioural constructs. and specialised applications in countless concern and non concern countries. As a director or concern professional you do non hold to absorb all of this cognition.

•Foundation constructs: cardinal behavioral. proficient. concern. and managerial constructs about the constituents and functions of information systems.
•Information engineerings: major constructs. developments. and direction issues in information technology- that is. hardware. package. webs. informations resource direction. and many internet-based engineerings. •Business applications: the major utilizations of information systems for the operations. direction. and competitory advantage of a concern. including electronic concern. commercialism. coaction and determination devising utilizing the cyberspace. intranets. and extranets. •Development procedures: how concern professionals and information specializers program. develop and implement information systems to run into concern chances utilizing several application development attacks. •Management challenges: the challenges of efficaciously and ethically pull offing information engineerings. schemes and security at the terminal user. endeavor and planetary degrees of a concern.

THE FUNDAMENTAL ROLES OF I S APPLICATIONS IN BUSINESS

•Support concern procedures: As a consumer. you have to cover on a regular basis with the information systems that support the concern procedures and operations at the many retail shops where you shop. For illustration. most retail shops now use computer-based information systems to assist them enter client purchases. maintain path of stock list. wage employees. purchase new ware. and evaluate gross revenues tendencies. Shop operations would crunch to a arrest without the support of such information systems •Support determination devising: Information systems besides help shop directors and other concern professionals make better determinations and effort to derive a competitory advantage. For illustration. determinations on what lines of ware demand to be added or discontinued. or on what sort of investing they require. are typically made after an analysis provided by computer-based information systems.

This non merely supports the determination devising of shop directors. purchasers and others. but besides helps them look for ways to derive an advantage over other retail merchants in the competition ofr clients. •Support competitory advantage: Deriving a strategic advantage over rivals requires advanced usage of information engineering. For illustration. shop direction might do a determination to put in touch-screen booths in all of their shops. with links to their e-commerce web site for on-line shopping. This might pull new clients and construct client trueness because of the easiness of shopping and purchasing ware provided by such information systems. Therefore. strategic information systems can assist supply merchandises and services that give a concern a comparative advantage over its rivals.

WHAT IS A System

System is a group of interconnected constituents working together toward a common end by accepting inputs and bring forthing end products in an organized transmutation procedure.

Components or maps
Such a system has three basic interacting constituents or maps

•Input: It involves capturing and piecing elements that enter the system to be processed. For illustration. natural stuffs. energy. informations and human attempt must be secured and organized for processing. •Processing: It involves transmutation processes that convert input into end product. Examples are a fabrication procedure. the human external respiration procedure. or mathematical computations. •Output: It involves reassigning elements that have been produced by a transmutation procedure to their ultimate finish. For illustration. finished merchandises. human services. and direction information must be transmitted to their human users.

Concept of system:
The system construct becomes even more utile by including two extra constituents: feedback and control. A System with feedback and control constituents is sometimes called a Cybernetic system that is a self-monitoring. self-acting system. •Feedback: It is informations about the public presentation of a system. For illustration. informations about gross revenues public presentation is feedback to a gross revenues director. •Control: It involves monitoring and measuring feedback to find whether a system is traveling toward the accomplishment of its end. The control function them makes necessary accommodations to a systems input and processing constituents to guarantee that it produces proper end product. For illustration. a gross revenues director exercisings contro when transfering sales representatives to new gross revenues districts after measuring feedback about their gross revenues public presentation.

SIX MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS

Information SYSTEMS

OPERATION SUPPORT SYSTEMS MANAGEMENTSUPPORT SYSTEMS
Transaction treating system Management information system Process control system Decision support system Enterprise coaction system Executive information system

Operation Support Systems
TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEM ( TPS )
TPS are the basic concern system that serve the operational degree of the organisation. A dealing processing system is a computerized system that performs and records the day-to-day minutess necessary to carry on the concern. Examples are gross revenues order entry. hotel reserve system. paysheet and transportation. TPS supplies informations to the company’s general leger system. which is responsible for keeping records of the house. PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM:

Process control systems proctor and command physical procedures. for illustration. a crude oil refinery uses electronic detectors linked to computing machines to continually supervise the chemical procedures and do instant accommodations that control the refinery procedure.

ENTERPRISE COLLOBORATION SYSTEMS: ( ECS )
ECS enhances squad and work group communications and productiveness and are sometimes called as office mechanization systems.

Management support systems

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM ( MIS )
MIS serve the direction degree of organisation. supplying directors with studies and. in some instances. with on-line entree to the organization’s current public presentation and historical records. MIS chiefly serve the maps of planning. commanding. and determination devising at the direction degree. By and large they depend on implicit in dealing treating systems for their informations.

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS ( DSS )
DSS aid directors make determinations that are alone. quickly altering. and non easy specified in progress. They address jobs where the processs for geting at a solution may non be to the full pre defined in progress. Although DSS use internal information from TPS and MIS. they frequently bring in information from external beginnings. such as current stock monetary values or merchandise monetary values of rivals. In short DSS is the information system a organization’s direction degree that combine informations and sophisticated analytical theoretical accounts or informations analysis tools to back up semi structured and unstructured determination devising.

EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEM ( ESS )
ESS serve the strategic degree of the organisation. They address non everyday determinations necessitating judgement. rating. and insight because there is no agreed on process for geting at a solution. ESS create a generalised computer science and communications environment instead than supplying any fixed application or specific capableness. They filter. compress. and track critical informations. stressing the decrease of clip and attempt required to obtain information utile to executives. ESS is the information system at the organisation strategic degree designed to turn to unstructured determination doing through advanced communicating and artworks.

Structure of MIS

Components OF MIS
The constituents of MIS are as follows
Peoples: people are required for the operation of all information systems. these people include end users and IS specializers. terminal users are people who use an information system or the information it produces. IS specializers are those who develop and operate information systems. Difficult Ware: the construct of difficult ware includes all physical devices and stuffs used in information processing. Soft Ware: it includes all sets of information processing instructions. Examples are system package. application package. processs. Datas: informations are more than the natural stuffs of information systems. Datas can take many signifiers like traditional alpha numeral informations. composed of Numberss and alphabets. the data resources of IS are typically organized. stored. and accessed by assortment of informations resource direction. Net Work: net work consists of computing machines. communicating processors. and other devices inter connected by communications media and controlled by communications package.

Scope of Information System in an Administration

1. Meeting planetary challenges
The fast growing in international trade and the outgrowth of a planetary economic system call for information systems that can back up both bring forthing and selling goods in many different states.

2. Increasing Quality
The cardinal alterations in the organisation behavior. develop new concern theoretical accounts. and extinguish the inefficiencies of antique organisational constructions which increase the quality.

3. Associating section whose maps are different
Information engineerings such as cyberspace. intranets and extranets enable the development of inter organizational information systems and web organisational constructions.

4. Capturing Opportunities in Market
The usage of information engineering to plan. bring forth. present. and keep new merchandises harmonizing to tendencies. 5. Enhancing Productivity of Labour.
6. Supporting Corporate Stratergy

Need of Information in Business Management
Data and Information
Data ( aggregation of natural facts ) are by and large in the signifier of names. axial rotation nos. times. day of the months. images. etc. Informtion are informations which have been converted or organized into a more utile or meaningful signifier for direct use of world. This information helps in determination devising procedure

Information in an Administration can be in any one of the signifiers – 1. As Document
2. As Transaction
3. As Reports
4. As Questions
5. As Storage Records

Need for Information in Decision doing
1. Specify the job
2. Analyzing the job
3. Develop alternate solutions
4. Choose the best solution
5. Convert the determination in to an effectual action

IS RESOURCES
Peoples resources include end users like Kepler’s clients. employees. concern spouses. and proprietor Clark Kepler. and the IS specializers they must engage and contract with to develop and keep their computing machine web and web site.

Data resources would include files and database of informations about their clients. merchandises. gross revenues. and stock list and other concern information.

Clark Kepler’s Information System Resources

•A Field is a grouping of characters that represent a feature of a individual. topographic point. thing or event. For illustration. an employee’s name field. •A Record is a aggregation of interconnected Fieldss. For illustration. an employee’s paysheet record might dwell of a name field. a societal security figure field. a section field. and a salary field. •A File is a aggregation of interconnected records. For illustration. a paysheet file might dwell of the paysheet records of all employees of a house. •A Database is an incorporate aggregation of interconnected records or files. for illustration. the personnel database of a concern might incorporate paysheet. public presentation reappraisal. and calling development files.

Cardinal Roles of IS Applications in Business
•Support of its concern procedure and operations.
•Support of determination devising by its employees and directors. •Support of its schemes for competitory advantage.

System Application in the Administration

Coordination
sorts of ISGroups served

Procedure

Strategic degree long term ends Senior director And planning

Management degree Monitoring. commanding. And administrative activities Middle directors
Of center directors
Knowledge degree Knowledge into concern. Knowledge and
Work station and office systemsdata workers

Eg. gross revenues. grosss. hard currency sedimentation. payrollOperational
Recognition information and flow of stuffs directors
Operation degree In a mill.

Operation degree –
The recent information engineering and information systems can be managed by functional and procedure based organisational constructions and managerial techniques normally used throughout other concern units.

Knowledge level-
Information system that supports cognition and information workers in an organisation.

Management-level system-
IS that supports the monitoring. commanding. determination devising and administrative activities of center directors.

Strategic degree system-
The recent information engineering should lend to a firm’s strategic aims and competitory advantages. non merely for operational efficiency or determination support.

Characteristic of MIS-
1. MIS is direction orientated
-Takes attention of directors who meet the information demand. -Keeps in position the overall aims of the directors
2. MIS is direction directed
It profoundly involved in the design. execution and care of the system.

3. Integrated system
The incorporate system as five Ms- Work force. Money. Material. Machines and Methods.

4. Avoids redundancy in informations storage
It avoids unneeded duplicate and redundancy in informations assemblage and storage.

5. common informations flow
Aims of integrating and to avoid duplicate and redundancy in informations assemblage. storage and retrieval.
6. Heavy planning component
Acquistion and deployment of hardware. package. informations processing operation. information presentation and feedback.

7. Subsystem construct
It gives proviso for breaky into assorted subsystems based on the activity every bit good as the maps of the organisation. so that effectual execution of each subsystem in possible at a clip.

8. Common data base
The information demands for different degrees of direction besides supports the demand of more than one database. alone databases and common database.

9. Flexebility and easiness of usage
The system is easy to run so that non much computing machine accomplishments are required on the portion of the user to entree database for information on for transporting out particular analysis of informations.

10. Computerisation
It provides velocity in making and accessing files. truth. consistence in informations processing. decrease in clerical work. avoid human mistake. etc.

Business Models
It expresses a cardinal conceptual model for the major constituents and activities of information system. A concern theoretical account is a method of making concern by which a company can prolong itself to bring forth gross. The concern theoretical account spells out how a company makes money by stipulating where it is positioned in the value concatenation

E-commerce as a concern theoretical account
Buying and selling through cyberspace is known as e-commerce. A company’s concern theoretical account is the manner in which it conducts concern in order to bring forth gross. There are four sections of e-commerce concern theoretical accounts available in the market. They are –

B2B Business to Business – It should be web based exchanges B2C Business to Consumer – Retailing activity of the web C2B Consumer to Business – Consumer command

C2C Consumer to Consumer – Consumer auctions

E-CommerceDescriptionWebsites
B2CSells merchandises or services straight to consumerwww. Amazon. com rediff. Com
B2BSells merchandises or services to other concern people or convey multiple purchasers or Sellerss together in a cardinal market placetradegain. com matexnet. com
C2CConsumers sells straight to other consumersBazee. com
Inforocket. com
C2BConsumers fix monetary values on their ain which concern people accept or declinePriceline. com Razorfinish. com

E-Business Models
e-business modelFunctionsBenefits for the company or merchandises E –shopTo grade a concern. This method frequently combined with dealing methodsIncrease in demand low cost path to regional and planetary trade. Bazaar. e. com e-procurementElectronic tendering and procurance of goods and servicesWide pick for the providers lower cost. better quality. improved bringing clip nest eggs and convenience. Maatexnet. com e-mallsE supermarket ( aggregation of e stores ) To e-mail members in footings of lower cost. trade name equity and cost savingBababazar. com e- virtualCustomer adding information to a concern environmentBuilding client trueness by having client feedback. India-apparel. com. electricmela. com

Information System Architecture

It refers to how information is organized within a system. It is concerned with the Organisation information demand and the manner in which the demand are met. Information architecture helps the Organization to run into its scheme concern demand if properly physique. The basic architecture of the organisation will act upon the sort of system that are developed and the linkages develops with other Organisation.

Categorization of Information system Architecture
Old ArchitectureNew Architecture
Distributed NetworkClient waiter architecture
PC’s and workstationE-commerce application
LANInternet or web base application
Mid scope Architecture
Main frame architecture

Development of Information System

?3rd millenary BC Sumerian people. used clay tablets for entering informations ?Changes made during industrial revolution
?Now. in an Organisation information system is regarded as separate section. 1. Manual Information system
2Computer based information system Manual Information System –
?Is the oldest method
?People receive informations by sing or hearing them. These informations are stored in the heads of single which besides act as a control and logic unit. ?The end product may be written or unwritten
?Here human heads can execute many operations on informations – cryptography. deducting. multiplying and dividing.
Computer based information system
It uses computing machine hardware and package to execute its operations – information processing system – people. plans. processs. informations. computing machines. 1. Computers can function several functions in the production of information informations storage and retrival device. – informations bibliothec

2. Computer
can supply processing capablenesss for the production of Information 3. Computer can function as a communicational device to obtain informations or information from other computing machines 4. The computing machine can show information by bring forthing tabular arraies. studies. charts. graphs. formatted paperss.

1990’s – 2000 vitamin E concern & A ; commercialism – Internet based vitamin E concern & A ; e commercialism system Internet worked endeavors and planetary e-business operations 1980’s – 1990’s – Strategy and Enterprise application. End user calculating systems EIS. Executive information system. Strategic Information System 1970’s – 1980’s – Decision support. Synergistic Adhoc support of the managerial determination doing process 1960’s – 1970 – Management coverage ( MIS introduced ) Mgt studies of 3 specified information to back up determination devising 1950 -1960’s – Data processing – Electronic information processing system. Transaction treating system. Record maintaining. Traditional accounting applications.

Until 1960’s the function of most information system are simple. The assorted systems such as dealing processing. Record maintaining. tradition accounting application. Electronic information processing application. Another function was added as the construct of MIS was conceived.

During 1970’s information merchandises produced by MIS were non adequately run intoing many of the determination doing demands of the direction. Hence the construct of DSS were introduced.

In 1980’s several new functions for information system appeared many figure of top corporate executives did non straight use the studies of MIS or the analytical capableness of DSS. So the construct of executive information system ( EIS ) was developed. Due to the rapid development of micro computing machine processing. package bundles and telecommunications web which gave birth to the phenomenon of terminal user. Apart from EIS there is a great interruption through in the development and application of Artificial Intelligence to Business information systems. the countries such as adept system. rural webs. robotics and other cognition base system hammer a new function for information system.

By 1990’s the construct of strategic function for information system caused Strategic information system was developed. It becomes an built-in constituent of concern procedures that help a company to derive competitory advantage in a planetary market.

Finally a rapid growing of cyberspace. intranet ( information merely within the Organisation ) and extranet ( it covers external environment in boundary ) and other inter connected planetary webs has dramatically changed the capablenesss of information system in concern. Global electronic concern and commercialism system and revolutionalising the operation and direction of todays concern endeavor.

Part A
1. Define MIS
2. What are the modern-day attacks of MIS
3. What are the constituents in MIS
4. Differentiate Data and information
5. Differentiate between manual based information and CBIS
6. Define system
7. What do you intend by hardware and package
8. What is a concern theoretical account
9. Distinguish between B2C and B2B electronic commercialism
10. What do you intend by electronic shopping

Part B
1. Explain the development of MIS
2. Explain the impact of IT in redefining modern concern
3. Explain the different types of information system
4. What are E-business theoretical account? What are the advantages of utilizing the Internet as the substructure for electronic commercialism.
5. Explain MIS model
6. Explain the constituents of MIS
7. Explain the range. characteristic and IS resources