Issue Of Corporate Social Responsibility Tourism Essay

Chapter 1


During recent old ages at that place has been a rise in involvement around the issue of Corporate Social duty ( CSR ) . The events that led to the addition in scruples about societal duty are diverse. The assorted drivers include H2O pollution, air pollution, depletion of ozone bed and deforestation in mass. These factors threaten to do an imbalance in the environment which would be dramatic to everyone. Therefore, while entire planetary income has increased, the province of the environment has deteriorated.

Peoples have started to recognize that the Earth ‘s natural resorts are quickly consuming and that the current tendency of ingestion can non be maintained. Businesss are more and more challenged and made to account for their Acts of the Apostless and impact on the environment. As a more educated and more informed populace is inquiring inquiries to companies, their function in society has evolved.

The founding thought of CSR is that companies and society is interrelated hence society can anticipate certain behaviours from the companies. In fact, Forstater and Raynard stated in 2002 that people no longer believes that a company exclusive purpose is to do as much net incomes as possible when they are set abouting operations that can impact the life of people around the universe. Corporate societal duty ( CSR ) is a term that has more and more become a portion of concern duologue. It includes a scope of aims and issues, corporations, nongovernmental organisations ( NGOs ) , authoritiess, investing groups and consumers all play a portion in the turning function of the corporation ( Gawel, 2006 ) .

It is to be noted that a recent study done by the Economist Intelligence Unit found that 85 % of investors and executives that participated in the study said that Corporate Social Responsibility is now a “ cardinal ” or “ of import ” consideration in determination devising. This study which chiefly concentrated on investors and companies is one of that many that is being conducted presents that indicates that corporate societal duty is going of all time present in society every bit good as in the concern universe.

1.2 Problem statement

Over the past century, there has been a roar in the growing of the touristry activity all over the universe. More and more people are looking for ideal topographic points to pass their vacations and this has beneficiated Mauritius a batch as we have a good reception that attract people, that is the sea, sand and Sun. As the touristry concern experienced a major growing, the impact on the environment had to be controlled so as non to do irreversible harm to the environment. Therefore corporate societal duty and touristry is much linked. Hotels have to happen a manner to supply assorted services and installations without damaging the environment and seting at hazard the local population in the long tally.

The purpose of this survey is to concentrate on the community ‘s position of CSR. In Mauritius, people populating in coastal countries are normally non good educated and are frequently non cognizant that they can profit from CSR patterns of hotels. Are people cognizant of the responsibilities of the hotel? It is frequently non the instance. Therefore this survey wants to measure the consciousness of people in the milieus of one specific hotel about the issue of CSR.

Hypothesis preparation

H0: A positive response about the addition in degree of instruction should hold no consequence on the economic place of the dwellers.

H1: A positive response about the addition in the degree of instruction should take to an betterment in the economic place of dwellers.

H0: A just distribution or non of CSR activities should hold no consequence on the dwellers.

H2: A just distribution of CSR activities should take to the targeted population being better off financially.

Therefore the aims of the survey would be to:

Assess the extent to which societal duty is being addressed in policies, schemes and patterns of the hotel.

Assess the extent to which the targeted population countries are cognizant of CSR activities done by the hotel.

Assess the degree of effectivity of the CSR patterns towards the targeted population

Assess the alteration in overall quality of life in footings of the environmental, societal and economic facet, of targeted population due to CSR patterns.

1.3 Methodology

With the aims set, the research program for roll uping information and implementing the research program has to be done.

Data aggregation

Therefore, the information aggregation will be done through the agencies of a self-administered questionnaire which will be distributed to a sample of one hundred people that live in the environing countries of the hotel. The questionnaire will dwell of inquiries divided in different subdivisions to roll up informations on the economic, societal and environmental facet of the lives of people that lives at that place.


The population targeted in Le Morne consists of about 1000 females and 994 males. A sample of 100 people has been selected as it is unrealistic, dearly-won and very clip devouring to aim the whole population

A pilot trial will be done in the targeted country and the questionnaire will be modified harmonizing the findings to do it more user friendly to the people at that place. As for the questionnaire itself, it will be made to measure the economical, societal and environmental facets of life of the targeted population.

Chapter 2

Literature reappraisal

2.1 Corporate societal duty

Businesss cod resources from their milieus, treat them and sell the concluding merchandise to bring forth net incomes. But this whole procedure is non so simple. Processing the resources really frequently causes harmful impacts on society. In the yesteryear this was considered as normal, but today there is more awareness about wellness, safety and environment. Companies were forced to make more for society in general and their milieus. This gave rise to the construct of Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) .

Corporate societal duty is a term that is more and more used in corporate duologue. Scholar Archie B. Carroll, 1979 said that the societal duty of concern encompasses the economic, legal, ethical, and discretional outlooks that society has of organisations at a given point in clip. CSR is a instead new construct, that is, it is of all time present in every organisation be it big or little presents. However that construct was being mentioned since 1950 by assorted writers, even though they did non travel in inside informations in the affair.

Corporate societal duty can be understood from the three words in it: “ corporate ” , “ societal ” , “ duty ” . Therefore, overall, CSR covers the duties an administration has to the society within which it is based and carries out operations.

More peculiarly, CSR will necessitate a concern to place its stakeholders and including their demands and wants within the daily decision-making procedure.

2.1.1Stakeholder theory

The traditional definition of a stakeholder is “ any group or person who can impact or is affected by the accomplishment of the organisation ‘s aims ” ( Freedman1984 ) . The wide thought of the Stakeholder construct is a redefinition of the organisation. In general the construct is about how the concern should be and how it should be conceptualized. Friedman ( 2006 ) states that the concern itself should be thought of as group of stakeholders and the intent of the organisation should be to pull off their demands, involvements and point of views.

There are assorted stakeholders in an organisation. They include:

aˆ? Customers

aˆ? Local communities

aˆ? Employees

aˆ? Suppliers and distributers

aˆ? Stockholders

aˆ? The populace in general

aˆ? The media

aˆ? Business spouses

aˆ? Future coevalss

aˆ? Past coevalss ( laminitiss of organisations )

aˆ? Stakeholder representatives such as trade brotherhoods or trade associations of providers or distributers

aˆ? Rivals

aˆ? NGOs or militants – considered separately, stakeholder representatives

aˆ? Financiers other than shareholders ( dept holders, bondholders, creditors )

aˆ? Rivals

aˆ? Government, regulators, policymakers

CSR is an issue that should concern everyone. It is so because CSR includes the societal, environmental, cultural and economic facet of life and changing those facets may ensue in irreversible amendss to society. As mentioned above, the assorted stakeholders of an organisation should be good cognizant of the CSR patterns and policies that are supposed to be done or being done really.

2.1.2 Rationale for this research

CSR can be done with many aims in head and it can bring forth many different consequences for an organisation. This research will non concentrate on what organisations say they are making. It will be from the peoples ‘ point of position. For the interest of this research, a specific portion of Mauritius has been targeted and the people at that place have been asked their sentiments. Therefore this research will concentrate on a stakeholder in peculiar, that is, clients. It aims at carry throughing the spread in cognition about the extent to which people environing an organisation are cognizant of the CSR being done around them. The focal point will be on Dinarobin Hotel Resort and Spa which is a good known hotel in the coastal country of Le Morne. Peoples populating in the neighbouring countries of the hotel have been asked their sentiments on the CSR patterns of the hotel.

2.2 Development of the construct of corporate societal duty over the old ages

Corporate societal duty is a instead recent construct that has emerged in the past century. The literature reappraisal will get down on the literature that appeared in the 1950s and so travel towards more recent times when corporate societal duty became a topic of treatment for man of affairs and faculty members.

In 1953 Howard R. Bowen published a book called “ societal Responsibilities of the Businessman ” which is said to be the beginning of the literature on the topic of Corporate Social Responsibility. His book was written on the belief that 100s of the largest concerns were really powerful and that the actions and determinations taken by them affected the lives of citizens in many ways. In his book he raised the inquiry of what responsibilities to society may the business communities expect to presume. Bowen besides argued that CSR was non a remedy but a truth that must be followed by concerns in the hereafter.

During this epoch, Morrell Heald wrote a book called the societal duties of concern: Company and community, 1900-1960. Even though he did non give a definition to CSR he discussed the theories and pattern of CSR which were in line with the definition of Bowen.

In the 1960 ‘s Keith Davis set frontward his definition of CSR, stating that it refers to “ business communities ‘s determinations and actions takes for grounds at least partly beyond the house ‘s direct economic or proficient involvement ” ( Davis, 1960, p. 70 ) . He argued that the construct of societal duty is still sick defined and should be adapted to managerial contexts. He besides said that some socially responsible determinations that a concern return will most likely bring economic rent to the concern and hence paying an sum for it would be socially responsible. This statement is really interesting since this position was accepted in the late seventiess and 1980s

He besides set frontward his now-famous “ Iron Law of Responsibility ” which held that “ societal duties of business communities need to be commensurate with their societal power ” . He besides held the position that turning away of societal duty will finally take to eroding of societal power.

In 1962 Milton Friedman said in his book entitled Capitalism and Freedom, “ Few tendencies could so exhaustively undermine the very foundations of our free society as the credence by corporate functionaries of a societal duty other than to do as much money for their shareholders as possible ” .

Harold Johnson ( 1971 ) has put forth several definitions for CSR.

First he says that a good staff does non merely purpose for net income maximization but besides concerns itself with the people working, the local community and besides, the state. Second, he states that by transporting out their societal duty, the concern organisations are maximising their net incomes in the long-run. His 3rd attack is based on the premise that the first end of the house is public-service corporation maximization, that is, the house wants to accomplish several ends instead than merely maximising their net incomes. He so says that a an enterpriser or a director who is socially responsible, does non endeavor for his well-being merely but besides looks out for the wellbeing of his employees, of the community and of the state.

The CED ‘s building of CSR is peculiarly deserving adverting since it is made up of people who are in the concern every bit good as teachers and therefore, it reveals an of import practician position of how the societal contract between concerns are altering every bit good as the societal duties which are confronting the concerns. Votaw ( 1973 ) further added that societal duty stating that it is a great term since each and everyone interprets it in his ain manner and therefore it has a different significance to everyone. Therefore, Ells & A ; Walton ( 1974 ) focal point of attending, compared to other writers, was non on the definitions but instead, they looked at what CSR means and how it evolved. They stated that corporate societal duty motion corresponds to how the concerns help in back uping and bettering the societal order. ( Ells and Walton,1974, p.247 ) .

S. Prakash Sethi ( 1975 ) stated that corporate societal duty involves three phases which are:

Social duty – the degree to which concerns helps the society while staying to market forces and legal demands.

Social duty – When concerns help the society harmonizing to the societal norms, values and what is by and large expected from them.

Social reactivity – When concerns adjust to societal demands consequently. In this instance, concerns have to expect the demands beforehand and act consequently.

Gomes and Ramos ( 1997 ) argue that societal duty is a construct that includes, among other subjects, the mission and vision of an organisation, general patterns of human resources, moralss, wellness, labour relationships, relationship with productive concatenation, relationship with stockholders, market patterns, societal selling, attending to the consumer, community undertakings, relationship with authorities, environment, cultural actions, support to the community every bit good as human rights. In line with Gomes and Ramos, Enderle and Davis ( 1998 ) says that it is a construct basically multidimensional, with a systematic attack, whose chief concern is on the relationship among stakeholders, straight and indirectly associated to the concern of the company. The construct therefore stresses its inclusion into strategic orientation of the company and is contemplated in ethical challenges of environmental, societal and economical dimensions of the concern.

In 2002 Raynard and Forstater stated that most people deem it no longer sufficient for a company to province that their concern is about maximising net incomes for their stockholders, when making operations that can impact lives of communities in states around the universe. Globally there has been a displacement seen in the mentalities of stakeholders. Due to climate alteration, globalisation and media coverage, stakeholders now expect more from organisations. ( Riordan and Fairbrass, 2008 )

In fact the International Organisation for Standardisation, strategic consultative group of CSR describes it as “ a balanced attack for organisations to turn to economic, societal and environmental issues in a manner that aims to profit people, communities and society. ” ( Leonard and McAdam, 2003 ) CSR includes such issues as:

Human rights

Workplace and employee issues, including occupational wellness and safety

Unfair concern patterns

Organizational administration

Environmental facets

Market and consumer issues

Community engagement

Social development

Therefore, societal duty is a pattern that is connected with its public presentation and the usage of resources that belong to the society. The public presentation of a company depends on the usage of natural resources, renewable or non, that do non belong to the company, but to the society. Such resources used by the company comprise of humanity ‘s belongings. In return, it should lend to the solution of the societal jobs of society, as the usage of the resources will ensue in net incomes for the company. ( Melo Neto & A ; Froes, 1999 )

Semra ( 2002 ) further adds that the field of Corporate Social Responsibility has expanded more rapidly after the denationalization motion in most economic systems. Besides, corporations have been trapped between their economic forces and forces for socially responsible behavior, with the weakening of the province. This contradicted the thoughts of Mr. Milton Friedman who said that the lone responsibility of a concern is doing net incomes. Friedman ‘s hypothesis behind this, harmonizing to Porter and Kramer ( 2002 ) , was that economic and societal aims are separate ; so that a corporation ‘s societal disbursals comes at the cost of its economic consequences. Therefore, for corporate executives to move duty, they must travel past the traditional economic end of concerns, towards legal, ethical and discretional duties.

This is the context in which “ corporate societal duty ‘ in its different signifiers has emerged as a really of import model within which concern operations are being reviewed and improved.

Harmonizing to Baker ( 2003 ) , companies need to reply to two facets of their operations:

The quality of their direction – both in footings of procedures and people.

The measure and nature of their impact on society.



Figure 2

The concern in society

Beginning: Baker M. , Business Respect

Caroll ( 1979 ) , Gatewood and Carrol ( 1991 ) cited Bartol et Al. ( 1998 ) , stated that direction ‘s societal duties encompasses ethical, legal, economic and discretional duties as depicted in figure 3.

The proportions shown in the figure suggest the graduated table of each duty for corporate leaders.

Figure 3

Social duty of Management

Adapted from Caroll 1979,

Beginning: Bartol et al. , 1998

These variables of societal duty can farther be explained in the undermentioned tabular array:


Social Expectation




Be profitable. Maximise gross revenues, Minimize costs, etc.



Obey Torahs and ordinances



Make what is right, just and merely.


( Philantropic )



Be a good corporate citizen.

Table 1

Understanding the Four Components,

Adapted from Caroll & A ; Buchholtz,

Beginning: Business for Social Responsibility, 2003

Economic Duties

Semra, 2002 stated that the function of concern is in “ accretion of capital ” and “ creative activity of excess ” . He says that if this map is non met, no other duty can be met. On the other manus, due to the close control of authorities on concern, it is ineluctable that concern adopts a policy that bypasses legal demands

Legal Duties

The legal duties refer to obeisance of ordinances and Torahs, the purpose being to do certain that concerns observe criterions of acceptable behavior ( Napal, 2001 ) .

Ethical Duties

These include activities and behaviors that are expected of concern by society ‘s members ( Bartol et al. , 1998 ) . Businesss should be ethical, just, and merely.

Discretionary Duties

Society expects many things from concerns. In fact, Moir ( 2001 ) says that there is some extent of societal outlook that a concern would move in a peculiar mode – in fact some signifier of societal bond. Here, outlooks are referred to as discretional duties of concern, besides known as philanthropic duties.

So, a socially antiphonal company, as stated by Smith ( 1994 ) , enthusiastically seeks and contributes to solutions of societal jobs. These companies, so, do non wait for demands to be made on them before they act. Such beneficent actions consist of many little hard currency contributions to back up local civic causes or supply general support to universities and national charities ( Porter & A ; Kramer, 2002 ) .

2.3 Purpose of corporate societal duty

Society is defined by the people. Their beliefs, norms, values, civilization and life criterions among others are the things that define society. Organizations besides form portion of society as they are decidedly linked to it in one manner or another. Stakeholders are really the 1s that allow the administrations ‘ procedure to run swimmingly and therefore they have to better or curtail activities to maximise the public assistance of society. ( Branco and Rodrigues,2006 ) . However companies engage in CSR non ever for the same grounds. It can be out of good religion, but it is most frequently for alternate grounds. Businesss may desire to embroider environing countries as it will make good to their concern every bit good, for illustration Hotels demand to maintain milieus clean and beautiful to fulfill its clients. The company may desire to prosecute in CSR as a selling tool. Being environment conscious will pull more clients presents since people are really cognizant of environmental jobs and would desire to assist and back up those organisations giving back to society. Therefore it can be said that companies may desire to prosecute in it to excel competition. Furthermore it may be a tool used to suppress new markets by appealing to them with environmental friendly merchandises and goods. It will eventually ensue in an organisation with a really high good will and enhanced profitableness.

2.4 Empirical grounds

What is meant by CSR is the extent to which companies and organisations take into consideration the effects of their actions on society before prosecuting into it or possibly take actions to mend the harm they caused in the yesteryear. There are illustrations of good and bad CSR.

Bad – The US Masters, adult females, and the Ku Klux Klan.

Since Augusta National Golf Club ‘s failed to ask for adult females to be members of the nine, the National Council of Women ‘s Organizations ( NCWO ) launched a motion that aimed at corporations prolonging the 2003 U.S. Masters golf tourney and demanded that they stop their support, with some success. As the nine refused to co-operate, the state of affairs got worse when the Ku Klux Klan announced that they would protest at the Masters tourney to demo their support of the Golf Club ‘s right to except female members.

Whether the nine was right or non, it could hold avoided a batch of negative imperativeness coverage by following a more open-minded stance on this affair at an early phase.

Good – Annika Sorenstam, Bank of America, and the Colonial Golf Tournament.

in its first twelvemonth as the rubric patron of the PGA Tour event The Colonial ( May 22-25, 2003 ) at Fort Worth Texas The Bank of America invited Annika Sorenstam, the best participant on the LPGA Tour to vie. No female participant had participated in a PGA Tour event since 1945. Making so significantly raised peoples ‘ involvement in the golf tourney countrywide and stood in large contrast to the argument that had surrounded the U.S. Masters the month before. Many would name the Bank of America ‘s move ‘opportunistic, ‘ and at the same clip high spot Augusta National ‘s right, as a private nine, to bond with whom it wants. From the corporate position, nevertheless, the Bank of America was extensively praised for its progressive attack and received a batch of positive imperativeness coverage as a consequence, while Augusta National faced broad disapproval for its stiff stance and really conservative attack that does non reflect the feelings of the bulk of U.S. citizens.

Besides nowadays companies and organisations prosecuting in CSR benefit from three peculiar advantages

Positive marketing/brand-building – BP

With a $ 200 million re-branding exercising, BP has efficaciously re-positioned itself as the most socially responsible and environment friendly among the extraction companies. The company stands in contrast today with Exxon Mobil that faces go oning NGO ( Non-Governmental Organization ) onslaughts, activist-led judicial proceeding and consumer boycotts, because of its determination to contend the environmental motion, and due to that fact that it does non acknowledge the wider importance of CSR.

Brand insurance – Nike

NIKE has become one of the most progressive planetary corporations in footings of CSR because it has learned from its past errors and onslaughts by NGOs. Since it is one of the first corporations to hold a Vice-President for Corporate Responsibility and to publish an one-year CSR Report, the company has done a batch to better public sentiment on them and set up its trade name as agent of a much more dedicated corporate citizen, and ‘insure ‘ itself against any replicate of the consumer boycotts it faced in the mid-1990s.

Crisis direction – Johnson & A ; Johnson

Johnson & A ; Johnson ‘s crystal clear handling of the crisis its Tylenol trade name faced in 1982 is widely used as the theoretical account instance in the country of crisis direction. J & A ; J went beyond what had antecedently been expected of corporations in such state of affairss, making a $ 100 million re-call of 31 million bottles of the drug following a suspected poisoning/product fiddling incident. In making so, J & A ; J saved the Tylenol trade name, enabling it to go on being a strong gross earner for the company to this twenty-four hours.

Given the big sum of clip, attempt and money companies put in in their trade names ; a good CSR policy is a good agency of protecting that investing and maximising its impact.

2.5 CSR and sustainable touristry

Ten old ages ago many cordial reception and touristry administrations had small cognition of Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) , and many of those who knew about it, were really hesitating about it. However, in recent old ages many touristry and cordial reception administrations have accepted the rules of CSR and have started to integrate CSR into their chief concern and operation schemes.

However the composite and of all time altering environment of touristry may show a danger to the sustainability of CSR. Therefore, a inquiry must be raised: “ In the context of a disruptive environment could CSR come to be seen as a ‘luxury ‘ that administrations can no longer afford, or could it be regarded as the one ‘luxury ‘ that they can non afford to make without? ”

2.6 Development of CSR in the touristry and cordial reception sector

In the beginning of its development, CSR activities within the cordial reception and touristry sector tended to concentrate on environmental concerns and efficient usage of engineering and energy. This was chiefly in reaction to the international guidelines on sustainable touristry set by the World Travel and Tourism Council ( WTTC ) , the World Tourism Organisation ( WTO ) and the Earth Council following Agenda 21 ( Kalish, 2002 ; Miller, 2001 ) . The Green Hotels Association another major impact on consciousness about environmental and waste issues in hotels over the last 15 old ages ( Holcombe, Upchurch and Okamus, 2007 ; Green Hotels Association, 2008 )

Equally good as these environmental issues, the WTO ‘s Global Code of Ethics for Tourism ( GCET ) , originally recognised in 2001, published 10 articles or rules of responsible touristry development and enforcement ( WTO, 2005a: Holcombe et Al, 2007 ) . The popular usher “ The Responsible Tourist and Traveller ” is based on the GCET ( WTO, 2005b ) .

In recent times the sector has extended its scope of CSR activities. In 2004 the Hotels, Restaurants and Cafes in Europe ( HOTREC ) 50th General Assembly adopted “ An enterprise for bettering Corporate Social Responsibility in the cordial reception sector ” between HOTREC and the European Federation of Food and Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions ( EFFAT ) .

Although it could be said that the above indicate that the touristry and cordial reception sector had developed a consciousness of CSR activities there is still really small grounds to demo how far CSR had been adopted by administrations.

Chapter 3

Company profile

Company profile

The company that was chosen to be studied is the celebrated Beachcomber Hotels. “ Beachcomber Hotels ” is a Mauritanian company that provides superior quality resorts and installations to clients and to keep its repute continuously improves its merchandises and stick to high quality criterions in all countries of its operations. The group is committed to back uping the civilization and bosom of the island. The company besides recognizes that taking good environmental enterprises is a necessity so as to minimise their environmental footmark. Besides at the beginning of 2011 the group did a series of pilot undertakings on energy, illuming efficiency, H2O use and renewable energies. Those holding good consequences would be replicated in all the hotels in the group to better overall efficiency of the hotel and avoid wastage. Furthermore Diesel runing boilers were converted to LPG as it is much friendlier to the environment and is cheaper

The company besides encourages sustainable touristry development by:

Bettering and protecting the natural environment

Giving back something to the community

Promoting and continuing the genuineness of Mauritius

“ Fondation Espoir et Developpment ” ( FED ) was created in April 1999 to formalise the group ‘s committedness towards the community. Beachcomber is today a leader in corporate societal duty.

3.1 About the FED

In footings of construction, the FED is like a private company. The board of managers supervises the work done by selected commissions which consist of voluntary employees. They work jointly with Community Based Organisations ( CBO ) which enables them to place the demands of the community exactly and take appropriate steps to help society.

The FED aid to finance assorted Non Governmental Organizations but differ from many societal public assistance organisations as its ultimate end is to assist people in demand get entree to instruction and be able to populate at easiness by themselves.

To achieve their end, the Federal:

Collaborates with the NGO ‘s by financing societal undertakings.

Creates consciousness of societal duty.

Some countries are privileged such as well-being of handicapped individuals, instruction, wellness, economic and societal development. The FED gives penchant to long-run fiscal assistance alternatively of one-off undertakings. This encourages stableness and provides the get downing point for other undertakings by leting edifices and occupations to be created. To increase of impact on the community, the FED has created a web of spouses affecting all stakeholders of the society.

Many illustrations of partnership show their inter-dependence:

Contribution of the FED to the Poverty Action Plan under the counsel of the Trust Fund for the Social Integration of Vulnerable Groups, long-run preparation plans for the NGO ‘s with the aid of the UNICEF, De Chazal du Mee – a private house and the Barclays Bank. The FED besides works in partnership with the local community, specially the presidents of small town councils of Le Morne, La Gaullete and Coto Raffin. These people represent the local community and during frequent meetings held with Mr. Eric Bell – the president of the Board – they discuss the demands of the dwellers.

The FED besides collaborated with the “ Ecoles de foot de curepipe ” so as to let the integrating of 120 underprivileged childs. This allows them to develop a healthy life style, finding, resiliency and just drama through athleticss. Besides the FED received 12million during 2011 to prosecute more in societal undertakings and go on to assist the community.

Furthermore the beachcomber group ‘s undertaking “ projet employabilite jeunes ” which aims at incorporating young persons that could non finish their normal schooling celebrated its tenth day of remembrance and is still really functional since out of the 210 young persons that enrolled in the plan in August 2010, 140 went to follow on the occupation preparation, while 30 were employed or continued to prosecute proficient classs. 200 childs enrolled in 2011.

The group besides encouraged workmanship for the last five old ages by supplying design, production and selling installations to some specific local craftsmans that are selected based on their necessities, so that they can aim the hotel clients to sell original and hand-crafted keepsakes.

However the group consists of many hotels based in several states and it would non be possible to aim all of them. One hotel of the group was selected and will be analysed in this research.

The focal point will be on Dinarobin, which is one of the best resorts in Mauritius. It is a fashionable 5-star resort which is located on the south west seashore of Mauritius at Le Morne. The hotel signifiers portion of the Beachcomber group of hotels. Beachcomber Hotels was the first group in Mauritius to take stairss towards sustainable development in CSR and is the leader in Mauritius. The group has designed exceeding schemes to salvage H2O and energy and formed its ain Non Governmental Organisation called Federation Espoir et Developpement ( FED ) to assist society.

Chapter 4


4.0 Introduction

In the old chapters, the theoretical model and groundss were described. Besides the company on which this research will be focused was mentioned along with the actions it dies for society. This chapter deals with research methodological analysis, that is, the methods that will be used to garner all information required to set about this research successfully. The research procedure, research aims, research methods, the mark population and the information analysis will be elaborated.

4.1 The research procedure

All researches are usually carried out for a specific intent, that is, to fulfill the demand for more information in a specific field. It should be done in a scientific and methodological manner in order for it to be valid and dependable. The market research society defines research as “ the aggregation and analysis if informations from a sample of persons or organisations associating to their features, behavior, attitudes, sentiments or ownerships. It includes all signifiers of selling and societal research such as consumer and industrial studies, psychological probes, experimental and panel surveies ” ( MRS, 1994 ) . This portion of the thesis will take at explicating the methodological analysis used to detect the efficiency of corporate societal duty of the hotel Dinarobin Hotel Golf and Spa. This hotel was selected because it is portion of the Beachcomber Hotel group which is the leader in corporate societal duty in the touristry industry in Mauritius.

The research procedure of Kotler and Armstrong ( 1997 ) was used for the intent of this survey. The four stairss are:

Specifying the job and research aims

Developing research program for roll uping information

Implementing the research program ( aggregation and analysis of informations )

Interpreting and describing the findings

4.2 Specifying the job

Any research has to get down with the research worker analyzing and specifying the job really carefully and every bit mentioned in the debut ; the purpose of this survey is to concentrate on the community ‘s position of CSR. In Mauritius, people populating in coastal countries are normally non good educated and are frequently non cognizant of the CSR patterns of hotels. Therefore this survey wants to make full the spread in cognition about the consciousness of people in the milieus of one specific hotel, viz. Dinarobin Hotel Resort and Spa.

4.3 Aims of the research

Assess the extent to which societal duty is being addressed in the policies, schemes and patterns of the hotels.

Assess the extent to which the targeted population countries of the hotel are cognizant of the CSR benefits.

Assess the degree of effectivity of the CSR patterns towards the targeted population

Assess the alteration in the overall quality of life of the targeted population due to the CSR patterns.

4.4 Hypothesis preparation

H0: There have been no alterations caused by the CSR activities done by the hotel.

H1: If CSR is being practiced expeditiously, it should take to people being better off.

4.5 Research method

Two chief methods can be used to roll up informations for a research. One can utilize the qualitative method or the quantitative method. The usage of any method will depend on the nature of the research that one is set abouting. The qualitative attack must be used when merely a little population is targeted and the information that is required must be in deepness and detailed. Therefore utilizing this method, one will acquire small but choice information. On the other manus, the quantitative method is used when the population targeted is big and standardised inquiries can be used to obtain information.

4.6 Data Collection

This is the phase of the thesis where there is field work and informations and information are gathered. Collection of informations can be in signifier of secondary or primary informations.

4.6.1 Secondary informations

Secondary informations consists of all information that already exists. For illustration articles, diaries, books among others where the information needed can be extracted and used. For this research, secondary information was used to garner information and to be good informed on the subject of CSR. Much information, like published diaries and one-year studies were obtained on the cyberspace.

4.6.2 Primary informations

These are informations newly collected for the specific intent of a survey. It can be gathered by agencies of questionnaires, focal point groups among others. For this survey, the research tool that was used was a self-administered questionnaire that was circulated to people populating in the environing country of the hotel. However it needs to be noted that the targeted population had a low literacy rate and personal interviews with each respondent was required as the inquiries had to be explained to them in “ creol ” so that they could understand.

4.7 Population

The population targeted in this research is really broad as it concerns the neighboring countries of the hotel. This means that all the little small towns that are found in Le Morne are concerned as they are the 1s closest to the hotel and should be profiting from the CSR activities.

4.7.1 Sampling Plan

For Dinarobin, the environing small towns of Coto Rafin, Le Morne, and La Gaullette were chosen and the local population is about 1000 females and 994 males ( Geographical and Migration Characteristics, Volume VI, 2000 ) .

It would be really unrealistic, clip consuming and dearly-won to aim the whole population. Therefore a sample that represent of the population will be selected to be able to acquire a general position of the attitudes and positions of the people about CSR.

4.7.2 Sampling size

A good sample is one which represents the whole population. For this survey, 100 respondents have been targeted. A graded random trying attack was done to choose the sample. The population will be separated into males and females in proportion to their sizes. The figure of male selected will be 50 [ ( 994/1994 ) *100 ] and female respondents will be 50 besides.

4.8 Structure of questionnaire

The questionnaire was used for the intent of this research. It was used as it is a research tool that can be used to aim a whole population or, as in the instance of this research, used to aim a specific part or more normally called, the mark population. The questionnaire ( Appendix 1 ) consists of 22 inquiries divided in different subdivisions to roll up informations on the economic, societal and environmental facet.

Near ended inquiries were used to ease the informations aggregation. After pre-testing the questionnaire with five respondents, it was found that utilizing near ended inquiries was the right pick since most people of the targeted population has a really low literacy rate and most can non compose.

4.8.1 Sections of the questionnaire

Section A is on the general facet. It aims at measuring the cognition of the respondent on CSR. Whether he is cognizant of the activities done by the hotel for society or if he believes that the hotel does these activities merely to maintain a good image and repute, therefore holding high good will.

Section B is on the economic facet. It aims at measuring whether people populating there are better off financially as a direct consequence of the CSR activities done by the hotel and if this is dispersed reasonably across parts around the hotel or focused on a little group of people.

Section C is on the societal facet. This subdivision aims at measuring the efficiency of plans done by the hotel that leads to a lessening in the degree of societal jobs or increase in the degree of instruction that prevails in the neighbouring countries. It besides seeks to cognize whether local people feel that they are involved plenty in CSR activities done by the hotel. For illustration, they could take portion in determination devising of the hotel refering CSR activities, so that the hotel could provide for their specific demands.

Section D is on the environmental facet. This subdivision seeks to analyze the degree the hotel ‘s dedication towards the environment. Examples could be runs to clean the country or works flowers and other workss to embroider the country. It besides seeks to cognize the degree of satisfaction of people towards the committedness of the hotel to supplying good public installations to people populating in the country. Furthermore, whether the hotel has programs or undertakings to protect and continue the historical country in which it is found, that is, Le Morne Brabant.

4.8.3 Pilot proving

Making a pilot trial is indispensable before administrating the concluding questionnaire to respondents. The questionnaire was be pre-tested with a sample of five respondents taken from the mark population in order to measure the cogency and dependability of inquiries, expression for design mistakes and alters them before making the study. Suggestions to better the questionnaire were received from the people and simplification of certain inquiries and some elucidations was done to do the questionnaire as user friendly as possible.

4.8.4 Administration of questionnaire

To administrate the questionnaires, I drove to Le Morne one Saturday where the questionnaires were handed to people populating in neighboring small towns of the hotel who asked to make full them out. This exercising was peculiarly palling since the people that live there are non really educated and I had to explicate the inquiries to most of them.

4.9 Response rate

When making the study at the neighbouring small towns of the Hotel, I managed to acquire responses from 88 people. Therefore out of 100 questionnaires, I got a response rate of 88 % .

4.10 Restrictions of the study

A research affecting questionnaires and inquiring people their sentiments can rarely be perfect. When roll uping the information for the research, some people filled out the questionnaire truly rapidly and did non give it their full attending. This decidedly means that some of the questionnaires did non reflect the existent sentiment of the respondent. Besides many respondents did non cognize how to read and I had to explicate the inquiries to them. Whether some of the individual understood clearly what I meant is non clear, they may hold agreed to a statement indiscriminately when presented with the picks. In add-on, I merely got a response rate of 88 % . Therefore out of the 100 questionnaires that were supposed to be filled out, merely 88 people were willing to give some clip to make full out the questionnaires. Furthermore, there is ever the possibility that the sample that I studied does non stand for the whole population ‘s sentiment. As I chose a random sample, I studied merely the people that were willing to take part in the research at a specific clip of the twenty-four hours at Le Morne, one Saturday. Possibly the sample that I got is non a really good representative of the whole population.

Chapter 5

Analysis and Findingss

5.0 Introduction

After explicating the methodological analysis that have been used in this research to roll up informations, this chapter will concentrate on the analysis of the informations that were collected by agencies of questionnaires and the research findings will be presented. The informations were input in SPSS 17.0 for the intent of analysis. The information will be interpreted and presented in tabular arraies and charts.

5.1 Analysis of questionnaire

5.1.1 Section Angstrom

This portion was concerned with the general facet of CSR and the inquiries that were included are as follows:

1. Make you cognize what corporate societal duty is?

This inquiry was asked to respondents to cognize whether they have a basic cognition of the duties of companies towards society.

Figure 1

As seen in figure 1 above, most people did non cognize the term “ corporate societal duty ” , nevertheless when explained what it is, they stated that they knew really small about it, as confirmed by the manner at a frequence of 36.The people that did non cognize about it at all were largely fishermen life in the part those that live at that place and worked for the hotel showed great cognition about the activities done by the hotel for the people of the part.

2. Are you cognizant that CSR activities are practiced by Dinarobin Hotel?

This inquiry is linked to the 2nd aim of this research. That is, whether the people populating in the neighbouring countries of the hotel are cognizant of the CSR activities done by the hotel.

Out of the 88 respondents 71 people knew about some activities done by the hotel for society. It should be noted that out of the 88 respondent, many were really disgruntled with the deficiency of activities done by the hotel for them. The fishermen were particularly unhappy as the hotel refused to give them compensation for cut downing the topographic point available for them to work by constructing platforms for aquatic games for tourers.

3. How far do you believe that your overall quality of life has improved due to the CSR activities?

By analyzing the informations collected for this inquiry, it was found that activities done by the hotel had an impact on the lives of people.

Figure 2

As shown in figure 2, the bulk of people believe that their lives have improved due to activities done by the hotel. It can be noted that the sentiments of people on the affair varies and merely a minority of people believes that their lives have significantly improved due to CSR activities done by Dinarobin Hotel. Most people populating in the neighbouring countries who believed that their lives improved significantly are those who are employed by the hotel.

Question 4 aimed at roll uping the information on the targeted population ‘s sentiment on the motivation of the hotel to prosecute in CSR and inquiry 5 inquired whether they believe that more people should be involved in CSR activities.

Figure 3

When questioned on the motivation of the hotel as to why it engages in CSR activities, the targeted population ‘s sentiment differed. 40.9 % believed that the hotel engages in these activities merely to maintain a good image and repute. Some believe that the hotel does these activities merely to avoid holding to follow with the community ‘s existent demands. They believe that the activities done ( For illustration cleaning the beach and laguna ) are merely done so as to pull tourers and non for the involvement of the local people. However, 59.1 % of the respondents believed that the hotel did the CSR activities in good religion. Some of the people who believed the hotel had good purposes were cognizant that the hotel sponsored some childs to let them to have proper instruction.

As it can be seen on figure 3, the bulk of the targeted population thinks that the hotel should affect more local people in CSR activities as affecting them would decidedly take to the local population ‘s public assistance. The people explained that they would wish to be involved in the activities of CSR at their creative activity, that is, they want to be involved in the determination doing procedure of the hotel refering CSR so that they can propose undertakings that will provide for the existent demands of the community. Those who believed that the hotel is already affecting adequate people are a minority of 3.4 % and were largely employees of Dinarobin hotel.

5.1.2 Section B

This portion was designed to measure the economic impact that the hotel ‘s CSR activities had on the targeted population.

Did you better economically due to CSR activities done by the hotel?

When asked whether they improved economically due to CSR activities, the bulk of people said that they improved somewhat.

Figure 4

Most of the targeted population recognizes that their lives improved due to the hotel, but it was non truly because of CSR activities. The fact that the hotel attracts a batch of tourers has enabled their concerns to better which resulted in fiscal betterment. 5.7 % of the respondents said that their fiscal place improves to a big extent. These people are those who were employed by the hotel.

Does CSR profit everyone or is it reserved to merely a little group of people?

Most people agree that the activities done by the hotel is distributed reasonably in the community.

Figure 5

As it can be seen in figure 5, the bulk of the targeted population agrees that CSR activities are non focused on a little group of people. However some people believe that the employees of the hotel benefit from far more advantages and installations than people populating in the country. This is why there is 28.4 % of the targeted population that believes that the activities are focused on a little group of people.

Do you believe that most people in the part are better off due to CSR activities?

Figure 6

It is clear that the targeted population believes that on the overall their lives have improved in one manner or another due to the CSR patterns of the hotel. This is reflected on Figure 6 with a 72.7 % understanding to the inquiry. The minority that believes that their lives are non better off and sometimes even worse off are disgruntled fishermen that states that the hotel are interfering with their occupations.

Question 9 and 10 were concerned with poorness relief in the part.

Figure 7

The targeted population has experienced an betterment in their criterion of life due to the hotel. However this is non largely due to that fact that the hotel ‘s clients like to see neighboring countries and do purchases in assorted stores, whether it is as keepsakes or merely to hold tiffin or dinner. This has enabled their concerns to boom and therefore there has been a grade of poorness relief due to the hotel. Again the fishermen are dissatisfied and they are the 1s that constitute the 29.5 % .

It is clear that most of the targeted population agrees that the hotel created occupations for the people in the vicinity. Whether it is straight or non, there are more employed people now than before the hotel was built. The hotel employs a figure of people from the neighbouring small towns ; nevertheless it employs a batch of people that comes from other parts of Mauritius. The ground why the hotel employs people that lives really far was explained to me by an employee. She said that that people populating in the neighbouring countries are hard to work with as they are non really polite and have small instruction. Even after preparation, some are non suited to function tourers. This is why the hotel has to use competent employees from other topographic points.

5.1.3 Section C

Questions 11 to 18 are statements on the societal facet that people could strongly hold, hold, be impersonal, disagree or strongly disagree to.

11. The activities carried out by the hotel are distributed reasonably in the community.

Figure 8

This inquiry is in line with inquiry 7. Most people agree that CSR activities are done for the community in general and therefore distributed reasonably.

12. CSR patterns help to increase the figure and assortment of cultural activities for the people in the vicinity

Figure 9

This inquiry was asked as some hotels promote the cultural diverseness of the community and participates in cultural activities by giving patrons or even organises events for the clients. For illustration put tapers and visible radiations for the cultural celebrations of “ Divali ” . However the respondents disagreed to this statement and said that they are non cognizant of such patterns of Dinarobin Hotel. Those who agreed are some of the people that are employed by the hotel as entertainers. However it can be seen that the respondents ‘ sentiments differ on the affair, with some that strongly agree and some that strongly disagree, but the bulk disagrees, which means that the targeted population do non experience that the hotel promotes cultural activities.

13. Social jobs ( intoxicant, drugs ) decreased as a consequence of CSR patterns done by the hotel.

Figure 10

The targeted population ‘s sentiments differed on this inquiry. The people that agreed to it said that the hotel tries to diminish these sorts of jobs by educating childs at school. However, the world of it is wholly different. The people populating in the neighbouring countries said that jobs like intoxicant and drugs are of all time present in their community. The immature every bit good as their parents are all concerned. They explained that imbibing is common pattern and that it would be really hard or even impossible to alter this wont.

14. The degree of instruction of local people increased due to attempts done by the hotel.

This is the lone affair that the people of the part showed some existent cognition. Most people are cognizant that the hotel patrons some childs so that they can acquire entree to instruction.

Figure 11

It can be seen that most people agree that the degree of instruction has improved in the vicinity. When asked what activities the hotel does for the community, most of the targeted population are merely cognizant that the hotel patrons instruction for some kids. It is besides there that the childs learn about the societal jobs and so on. One of the respondents was a instructor at their local school and she assured me that the work done by the hotel for the childs was model. However there are a figure of people that believes that the hotel should make more to increase the degree of instruction of people populating at Le Morne. One respondent suggested that the hotel could patronize the small town council to enable it to supply classs like cooking and other classs that could even profit the homemakers.

15. There is an unfastened communicating between the community and the hotel representative.

To understand whether the hotel listens to the demands of the community, there should be a good communicating in topographic point.

Figure 12

Most people disagreed to this statement. It was explained to me that to be able to talk to the hotel, one should travel to the small town council and explicate his issue. The small town council would so make the necessary to pass on this information to the hotel. However, harmonizing to the respondents, the procedure is really long an inefficient. This is seen on Figure 12 as the people who disagreed and strongly disagreed sum to 66 % as compared to those who were positive at 20 % . The people employed by the hotel agreed that there is an unfastened communicating for them.

16. The hotel patrons athleticss and leisure activities for people in the vicinity.

Many hotels sponsor leisure activities for the people populating in the milieus. Sometimes they even build resort areas for small childs with swings and other merriment games.

Figure 13

For the instance of Dinarobin Hotel, most of the targeted population disagreed to the statement. The hotel late organised a football tourney for childs harmonizing to some employees. However it is clear that merely a little group of people were concerned and knew approximately it as most of the respondent did non hold any cognition about this event.

17. whenever there are ailments about the installations provided by the hotel, they are treated rapidly.

This inquiry is in line with inquiry 15. Good ailments managing is a manner to maintain the community happy and cater for the demands of the people populating in the country.

Figure 14

As explained above, to be able to pass on to the hotel, there is a really long procedure that must be followed and it is really inefficient. Therefore as it can be seen in figure 14 most people disagreed with the statement that ailments are handled rapidly.

18. CSR promotes cultural diverseness of your community.

Question 18 is in line with inquiry 12 and efforts to understand whether the hotel encourages cultural diverseness as our cultural diverseness is one of the positive factors of the touristry industry.

Figure 15

58 % of the people disagreed with the statement as the hotel do non organize events for cultural celebrations like “ Divali ” . Those who agree are largely employees that stated that the hotel encourages cultural diverseness as it employs people of every community. There is a good diverseness in the employees that the hotel employs and there is no favoritism.

5.1.4 Section D

This subdivision is concerned with the environmental facet of the CSR activities done by the hotel.

Question 19 and 20 are on the visual aspect of the neighboring countries of the hotel

Figure 16

When asked if the hotel motivates them to reconstruct or protect historical sites in the country, the bulk of people disagreed as they explained that this was largely done by the small town council and non by the hotel. However the employees and some people argued that the hotel tells the clients non to litter and to maintain the countries clean when they visit historical countries at Le Morne and by making so it is seeking to continue the country.

The targeted population was largely positive when asked if the hotel motivated them to embroider the vicinity. In fact the hotel is really cautious about this facet as perfect scenery is really of import to keep client satisfaction. Therefore the hotel sees to it that the topographic point is ever clean and reasonably. The people of the vicinity are motivated when they see hotel representatives cleaning and are encouraged to maintain the country clean. Most of those who agreed were employees and those populating really near the hotel as the hotel ever takes great attention of the topographic points around the hotel and embellishes them by seting flowers among others. However the people that disagreed were people non populating in countries in the immediate neighbouring of the hotel. They said that in their small town the hotel does non make anything to embroider the environment. Those who agreed were farther asked their degree of satisfaction of the activities of the hotel to embroider the vicinity. Most of them agreed that they are satisfied to some extent and seemed really positive.

21. How would you rate the public presentation of the CSR activities to better populace installations?

This inquiry was asked to measure the part of the hotel to the public installations of the part harmonizing to the populace ‘s sentiment.

Figure 17

Peoples that rated the part of the hotel extremely were largely employees of the hotel. Harmonizing to them, the hotel provides conveyance for them and people in the countries at some times of the twenty-four hours. Most of the respondent nevertheless considers that the lone parts of the hotel to better public installations are for good roads.

22. How would you characterize the enterprises taken by the hotel to continue the environment ( e.g. recycling )

Most of the respondents are cognizant that the hotel tries to continue the environment.

Figure 18

The employees explained that the hotel have undertakings to better their already in topographic point setup to handle waste H2O and that the hotel engages in activities like recycling and see to it that the waste produced by the hotel are taken attention of suitably. However most of the answering thinks that the hotel ‘s public presentation in this facet is mean.

5.2 Hypothesis proving

H0: A positive response about the addition in degree of instruction should hold no consequence on the economic place of the dwellers.

H1: A positive response about the addition in the degree of instruction should take to an betterment in the economic place of dwellers.

H0: A just distribution or non of CSR activities should hold no consequence on the dwellers.

H2: A just distribution of CSR activities should take to the targeted population being better off financially.

R value from Pearson Correlation coefficient trial ( if p & gt ; 0.05, Accept H0 )




Sig ( P )

Hypothesis 1



Reject H0

There is a weak yet important positive relationship between the two variables ( r=0.290 which is below 0.5 and p & lt ; 0.01 ) . So, H0 is rejected.

Hypothesis 2



Reject H0

There is a weak positive relationship between the two variables ( r=0.278 which is below 0.5 and p & lt ; 0.01 ) . So, H0 is rejected.

There is a positive relationship of 0.290 between an addition in the degree of instruction and the economic place of the dwellers. Therefore an addition in the degree of instruction will take to an betterment in the economic place of the targeted population.

Besides there is a positive relationship between a just distribution of CSR activities and the fiscal place of the targeted population. Thus a just distribution of CSR activities will take to the targeted population being better off financially.

5.3 Assessment of the extent to which corporate societal duty is being addressed in policies and patterns of the hotel.

For the intent of this analysis, the company ‘s one-year studies for 3 old ages were analysed. It should be noted that Dinarobin Hotel resort and watering place signifiers portion of the beachcomber group and that the one-year studies of the group does n’t hold a dislocation of CSR activities of each hotel.

The one-year studies have a subdivision named “ SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ” where they mention the assorted undertakings that the whole group does for society. In 2009 they contributed 20 million to the FED whose precedences are instruction, wellness and disablement, civilization, athleticss and leisure and other socio-economic developments.