This is a research on the relationship between motive and public presentation of workers in the Nigerian building industry. It identifies a figure of motivational strategies that enhance the public presentation of workers. Findingss from the research on productiveness of building workers are reported. Two sets of questionnaires were employed in the survey. One set was administered on direction staff and the other on secret agents. The survey reveals that wages paid to secret agents in the survey were below the judicial admissions of the Nigerian National Joint Industry Council. It further shows that secret agents are seldom promoted. and operatives prefer fiscal inducements to nonfinancial inducements. The survey recommends that additions in salary via publicity. overtime allowances and vacations with wage should be used as incentives ( fiscal inducements ) for addition in public presentation of building workers ( secret agents ) . Keywords: building. inducements. motive. secret agents. productiveness.
The end product of the building industry constitutes one-half of the gross capital. and three to eight per centum of the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) in most states ( Arditi and Morkhtar 2000 ) . Mee-Edoiye and Andawei ( 2000 ) declared that the employees in the civil and edifice building industry of a state are the largest. The population of the workers compared to the whole work force of a state is important. Anything done to the employees could either do or impair the quality of their work. the velocity of advancement. the economic system of the state and the societal wellbeing of the workers. It follows from the predating therefore that workers should be good motivated for high public presentation and for the production of good quality merchandises.
However. despite this important function the industry plays in the Nigerian national economic system. the public presentation has non been impressive. Eldin and Egger ( 1990 ) noted that building productiveness has been worsening steadily in malice of the lifting cost and big labors intensive nature of building undertakings around the universe. The diminution in the workers’ public presentation causes the failure of the edifice industry to present undertakings seasonably with the obvious effects of cost overproduction. Labour productiveness harmonizing to Akindele ( 2003 ) is defined as labour end product per twenty-four hours ( man-day ) . This is frequently reduced by delayed. ill-defined or unequal instructions. proviso of hapless tools and equipment. imbalanced work packs. usage of working method. deficiency of inducements. and failure to depute authorization from senior to lower degree supervisors ( Heap 1987 ) .
Aiyetan and Olotuah
The productiveness of persons. which in bend affects the productiveness of a company. is a really of import parametric quantity to watch as it measures a company’s competitory power. It is an index of a firm’s net income border. a step of the firm’s endurance in concern. a yardstick for wage of employees. and a agency of acknowledgment of difficult work.
Productivity measures how expeditiously resources are employed. It is defined as the ratio of a specific step of end product to a specific step of input per unit of labor and is measured as entire end product divided by the members of units of labour employed to bring forth that end product
Williams ( 1997 ) defines human capital ( labor ) as the accrued cognition. accomplishment and experience of the labour force. As single workers get more human capital. their productiveness and hence their income grows. Labour comprises the wide class of human attempt. both physical and mental directed towards productiveness.
Motivation is an art targeted to acquiring people work volitionally. and an art of bring oning one to act in a peculiar mode to accomplish a undertaking. Mee-Edoiye and Andawei ( 2002 ) viewed motive as a human technology attack being triggered by the single demands. Flippo ( 1982 ) defined motive as a psychological procedure initiated by the outgrowth of demands affecting a end directed action and behavior aimed at fulfilling a peculiar desire. It is the incentive given to workers for higher end product. Motivated behavior has three basic features:
1. It is sustained – it is maintained for a long clip until satisfied. 2. It is purposive – it seeks to accomplish an aim. 3. It consequences from a felt demand – an impulse directed towards a demand. Several writers including Robert and GeneNeuport ( 1995 ) . Williams ( 1997 ) and Cole ( 1999 ) have propounded theories to assist to understand the human being and how to manage him to acquire ends achieved. The theories propounded include:
1. The Maslow’s Theory of Hierarchy of Needs:
Abraham Maslow developed a needs–based theory of motive. Peoples are extraordinary complex animals with many motivations for behavior on and off the occupation. Maslow ( 1954 ) identified and analyzed five basic demands. which he believed underlay all human behaviors. these demands relate to physiology ( the demands for nutrient H2O. air and sex ) . security ( safety. the absence of unwellness ) . society or association ( friendly relationship. interaction. love ) . regard ( regard and acknowledgment ) . and self realization ( the ability to make one’s potencies ) . These are perceptual experiences for high public presentation and productiveness of persons.
Before Maslow. most directors assumed that money chiefly motivated people. With Maslow’s work. directors can measure their ain actions. their companies conduct and their single doctrines about people. Maslow’s needs theory presented a feasible motive model for directors.
2. McGregor’s Hygiene Theories X and Y
Motivation on workers’ productiveness
An unmet demand can thwart an employee and do him unproductive. Douglas McGregor published the human side of endeavor in 1960. In it. he explained that directors operate from one or two basic premises about human behavior: Theory X and Theory Y. The first theory. the position traditionally held about labor. depicted workers in industry as being lazy and necessitating to be coerced. controlled and directed. The 2nd described people as McGregor thought them to be ; responsible. willing to larn and given the proper inducements inherently motivated to exert inventiveness and creativeness. McGregor holds the position that the traditional manner of handling people – sing them as unthinking. uncaring robots – must alter. Indeed. McGregor stressed that merely by altering these premises could directors tap workers’ or labourers’ huge endowments. He emphasized that what affairs was how people were treated and valued in their work scenes. He went farther by reding directors to give employees a opportunity to lend. take control and duty. Table 1 shows the premises of Theories X and Y.
With these theories. directors could detect what employees want from workplace. how to enlist their cooperation and committedness and how to unleash their endowments. energy and creativeness for their ultimate end. which in most instances is high degree of productiveness. Acquaintance with theories of motive allows a director an educated point of view from which to see how to develop workers. gaining control committedness and develop a positive work environment.
Table 1: Premise about workers harmonizing to theory X and theory Yttrium
Theory X People fundamentally dislike work and avoid it whenever possible Because most people dislike work. they have to be closely supervised and threatened with penalty to make aims. Most people have small creativeness. They are non capable of work outing jobs. Rather. they must be directed. Most people have limited rational potency. Contribution above basic occupation public presentation should non be expected.
Theory Y Most people find work every bit natural as drama or remainder and develop an attitude towards work based on their experience with it. Peoples do non necessitate to be threatened with penalty ; they will work voluntarily toward organisational aims to which they are committed. Most people possess a high grade of imaginativeness. inventiveness and creativeness with which to work out organisational jobs. Although people have rational potency. modern industrial life utilizes merely portion of it.
Beginning: Plunkett and Attener ( 1994 )
The nucleus of theories X and Y is that a direction doctrine influences the type of work climate the director endeavours to make and finally. how the director treats people.
Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor theory developed in ( 1975 ) besides called hygienemotivator. One set of the theory defines factors that lead to occupation satisfaction ; these factors are called hygiene factors.
Salary: To forestall occupation dissatisfaction. a trough should supply equal rewards. wages. and fringe benefits.
Job security: Company grudge processs and senior status privileges contribute to high-quality hygiene.
Aiyetan and Olotuah
Working conditions: Directors guarantee equal heat. visible radiation. airing. and hours of work to forestall dissatisfaction.
Status: Directors who are aware of the importance of hygiene factors provide privileges. occupation rubrics. and other symbols of rank and place.
Company policies: To forestall occupation dissatisfaction. directors should supply policies as guidelines for behavior and administrate the policies reasonably.
Quality of proficient supervising: When employees are non able to have replies to job-related inquiries. they become defeated. Supplying highquality proficient supervising for employees prevents defeat.
Quality of interpersonal dealingss among equals. supervisors. and subsidiaries: In an organisation with high-quality hygiene factors. the workplace provides societal chances every bit good as the opportunity to bask comfy work-related relationships.
The other set of factor the theory defines is that which produces occupation satisfaction and motive called incentives.
Accomplishment: The chance to carry through something or contribute something of value can function as a beginning of occupation satisfaction.
Recognition: Wise directors let employees cognize that their attempts have been worthwhile and that direction notes and appreciates them.
Duty: The potency for geting new responsibilities and duties. through either occupation enlargement or deputation. can be a powerful incentive for some workers.
Promotion: The chance to better one’s place because of occupation public presentation gives employees a clear ground for high public presentation.
The work itself: When a undertaking offers the chance for self-expression. personal satisfaction. and meaningful challenge. employees are likely to set about the undertaking with enthusiasm.
Possibility of growing: The chance to increase cognition and personal development is likely to take to occupation satisfaction.
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Motivation can be classified into two classs. These are non-financial and fiscal inducements strategies. Non-financial motive is intangible ; it includes promotion. the work itself. duty. acknowledgment. dealingss with colleagues. company policy and working establishments.
Fiscal Incentive Scheme
There are two countries into which fiscal inducements scheme autumn ; those of secret agents and those of directors. Harmonizing to Cole ( 1997 ) . incentive strategy for directors include. excess payments or increase in wages. periphery benefits covering such points as. auto. illness benefits. free instruction for managers’ kids. and free vacations. Others are free tiffins. free travel abroad with married woman and household. entree to newspapers and diaries. free involvement loan and free medical strategy ( Pigors 1981 ) .
Fiscal Incentives Schemes to Operatives
Cole ( 1997 ) gave a list of fiscal inducements to secret agents. which include good holiday wage. excess wage for displacement work and uncomfortable. dirty and unhealthy conditions. net income sharing. long service allowances. overtime handiness when operatives require it. pension fund part by the company. decease benefits and dependents. employee’s liability insurance and medical installation to operative’s household.
The survey was carried out in Nigeria. and random sampling technique was used for choosing houses for survey. Some towns where building activities are high were selected ; one from each of the three parts of the state ( the North. E and West ) . Abuja. Port-Harcourt and Lagos were chosen. Since building procedures are the same throughout the state. these towns were used as representative samples of the survey country since all towns can non be reached for the survey due to the immense amount of money that would be required every bit good as the clip needed for such an enterprise. The mark population for the survey was the direction staff ( designers. builders. measure surveyors and applied scientists ) and contractors. In order to obtain the sample size of the survey. the Corporate Affairs Commission was visited to obtain the figure of registered companies with them and peculiarly those that have their caput offices in the selected towns. A sum of 96 companies were listed ( registered ) . the expression below given by Siegel and Castellan ( 1988 ) was used to obtain the sample size.
It gave a sample size of 16 companies. Data was collected from 74 questionnaires. The secret agents were asked the sort of motive the direction gives to them and they prefer to bespeak their productiveness as high. The direction staff was besides asked the sort of motive they give and that which operatives prefer for high productiveness. The average mark of the amount of cardinal inclination ( statistical tool ) was used for the analysis of informations since parametric quantities analyzed is little.
Presentation and Analysis of Data from questionnaire type 1 ( for direction ) Majority of the respondents. 33. 33 % showed that the wage paid is somewhat below the Nigerian National Joint Industrial Council ( NJIC ) understanding. For 27. 27 % building houses pay precisely NJIC understanding. and 21. 21 % assert that salaries paid building workers are far below NJIC understanding. while 18. 18 % indicated that wages paid building workers is a small above NJIC.
From the analysis. it could be seen that most of the organisations pay wage. which is below NJIC understanding. and this may impact the public presentation of workers negatively ( Table 2 )
Table 2: Salary construction used compared with current NJIC understanding S/N
Far above NJIC understanding
A small above NJIC understanding
Precisely NJIC understanding
Slightly below NJIC understanding
Far below NJIC understanding
No. of Respondents
Percentage of Respondents
18. 18 %
27. 27 %
33. 33 %
21. 21 %
Beginning: Fieldwork. 2005
Twenty nine per centum ( 29 % ) of the organisations carry out publicity on company’s policy because of public presentation of workers. The survey found out that publicity is non done on a regular footing. for illustration after every 3 old ages but based on the public presentation of workers ( Table 3 ) .
Of all the actuating factors available in the building industry. the most used for higher public presentation is overtime with 9. 4 % followed by wellness attention services with 9. 0 % and thirdly by proviso of transit installation to and from work with 8. 9 % . The least used motivation factor is net income sharing with 3. 3 % followed by telephone services. The ground for overtime being used largely as motive for higher public presentation is that to the secret agents. they receive money in return and while to the organisation work done is increased. While wellness attention services. which are free put assurance into workers to work hard. and when sick they will be taken equal attention of without passing money of their ain ( Table 4 ) .
Equally far as the secret agents are concerned. the motive they preferred most is holiday abroad with wage. The average ranking is 7. 79 % . The likely ground that could be adduced for this is that. workers will be exposed to more experience in their field of work. to the latest available tools and equipment. better building techniques/methods. which makes them go experts in their field and hence production will be faster and with higher quality. This will hold a attendant consequence on their cell. as they will have publicity. Increase in salary is the 2nd most preferable motivation factor. which comes of course. They will be able to direct their kids to good schools. provender good and have a sense of belonging in the society. The least preferable motivation factor is telephone services. followed by duty. This is because it is non a fiscal addition ( Table 5 ) .
Presentation and Analysis of Data from Questionnaire Type 11 ( For Operatives ) Most ( 51. 22 % ) operatives indicated that wages paid them is a small below NJIC understanding. This makes workers non to work good as they feel cheated and thereby it affects productiveness negatively ( Table 6 ) . The two groups agree that wages paid workers are somewhat below NJIC understanding. Most of the secret agents ( 26. 4 % ) have a position that publicity is given to those who have people to act upon it for them. While 26. 2 % hold the sentiment that publicity is based on public presentation. and another 26. 2 % opine that publicity is seldom done ( Table 7 ) .
An addition in salary of workers makes them committed to difficult work for high productiveness. It is the first among all the factors ranked. Following this is publicity. which if regular keeps the workers focused on their occupation. due to the rating study that shall be made at the terminal of twelvemonth and subsequently compiled for usage as publicity usher. Following to this is overtime. which increases the return place wage of the workers at the terminal of the month. and makes them to work harder.
The least factors that could bring on the workers to working difficult are telephone services. duty and the work itself. The ground could be that they do non hold fiscal wages to the secret agents straight ( Table 8 ) .
A comparing of the questionnaires shows that both groups agree that the wage paid to laborers is somewhat lower than the NJIC recommendation. This is likely to impact the labourers’ productiveness and may be one of the grounds that delay in bringing of undertakings is experienced on bulk of undertakings. There is a difference of sentiment on the policy of organisations on the publicity of secret agents. While the direction claims that it is done really on a regular basis and just. the secret agents believe it is seldom done and if done at all it is for those who have godfathers. The most motivative factors harmonizing to the direction are overtime wage. wellness attention services and proviso of transit in this order. whereas the secret agents opine that these are addition in salary. publicity and overtime wage.
The undermentioned recommendations are herewith made based on the analysis of informations from the field and decision reached.
1. Companies are requested to set their salary construction to reflect the NJIC recommendation ; this will heighten the public presentation of workers.
2. Management should be concerned with the public assistance of the workers and their households. This will give the workers a sense of belonging and being appreciated will do them to be focused and wholly committed to their work.
3. Addition in salary ; publicity. overtime and vacation with wage should be used as incentives for addition in public presentation of building workers.
4. Promotion should be done on a regular basis and should be based on public presentation of workers.
The paper discusses the impact of motive on the productiveness of workers in the Nigerian building industry. Since motive is an incentive for higher end product it should be accorded a right of topographic point by employers of labor for the building industry to accomplish higher productiveness. which will take to greater part to the nation’s Gross Domestic Output.
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