Jean Piaget is celebrated for developing one of the most influential theory. the theory of cognitive development. The theory is chiefly concerned with the building and outgrowth of scheme which comprises the strategies of how a individual does comprehend the universe particularly during the developmental phases when the kids are deriving new agencies of mentally showing information. The theory is considered constructivist in resistance to other theories which could be either nativist or empiricists. ( Brainerd. C. 1978 ) .
The theory proposes that we do acquire to build our cognitive abilities through the self-motivated action in 1s universe. The nativist theory on the other manus asserts that cognitive development is the flowering of unconditioned abilities and cognition while empiricist theories defines cognitive development as a gradual procedure in which cognition is acquired through experience. ( Brainerd. C. J. & A ; Reyna. V. F 2002 ) . For this theory. Piaget won the Erasmus award. There are four chief periods that Piaget used to depict the strategies that kids make usage of to understand the universe. ( Gallagher. J. M. & A ; Reid. D. K. 1981 ) .
Four phases as described by Piaget’s.
This occurs at the age of 0 to 2 old ages. ( Piaget. J. 1929 ) . Harmonizing to Piaget. kids are born with a congenital physiological reaction which permits them to drift in the dense universe beyond their thrust to research the universe around them. The initial strategies that the kids have at this phase is all based on the distinction of their inborn physiological reactions. Since this is the first of the four phases harmonizing to Piaget it marks an of import phase in which the kid develops spacial abilities to understand the universe in six different phases. ( Piaget. J. 1929 ) .
These phases include ;
• The automatic strategy phase that takes topographic point from birth to one month. It is chiefly associated with the development of physiological reactions.
• Primary round reaction phase is the 2nd phase that occurs from one month to four month. It is chiefly associated with the development of wonts.
• The secondary round reactions phase forms the 3rd phase. It occurs from the 4th month to the 8th month and is chiefly associated with the development of vision and grasping coordination. ( hand-eye coordination ) .
• The 4th bomber phase is concerned with the development of the object permanency development. It is by and large called the coordination of secondary class unit of ammunition modest round reactions phase and occurs from the 8th month to the 12th month.
• The third round reactions stage is what Piaget suggested to the 5th bomber phase from 12 to 18 months. This is the phase that Piaget suggested that the ‘little scientist’ is born through active creativeness and experimentation.
• The 6th concluding bomber phase here is characterized by the beginning of symbolic representation and it occurs from the 18 months to twenty four months. At this phase the new found agencies of sing before taking an action gives the child new ways of finally accomplishing a end without holding to travel for the test and mistake experiment. ( Gallagher. J. M. & A ; Reid. D. K. 1981 ) .
This is the 2nd of four chief phases of cognitive development. Piaget demonstrated that a qualitative psychological operation does happen as the kid approaches the terminal of 2nd twelvemonth. Harmonizing to Piaget. a preparatory idea is any peculiar process that promotes mental action on objects. The chief trademark in this phase is logically unequal and thin mental operations. ( Flavell 1963 ) . It is at this phase that the kid learns to quash and utilize objects by words and images. that is symbolic thought is apparent. Since the kid still has hard of following other people’s point of view. thought is still egoistic.
It as it this phase that the kid has the possible to sort similar objects together trough a individual characteristic such as colour or form. ( Brainerd. C. 1978 ) .
Piaget suggested that this phase which instantly follows Sensorimotor phase occurs between 2-7 old ages of phase. It at this phase that kids develop their linguistic communication accomplishments and therefore they begin showing things utilizing images and words. Worth observing here is the kid relies more on intuition that the logical logical thinking at this phase. At the beginning. there are more egoistic since they are non yet cognizant that other people are non believing or comprehending things in the same manner like they do. It at this clip that their inventive head is really active and they therefore associate emotions to certain inanimate objects. ( Piaget. J. 1929 ) .
This phase is farther broken down into Preconceptual phase and the Intuitive phase. The Preconceptual phase occurs at the phase of 2-4 old ages and is chiefly characterized by egoistic thought every bit good as animistic idea. A kid with animistic idea is one who has the inclination to delegate properties of populating things to inanimate objects such as the perceptual experience that a glass does experience hurting when it is broken. The intuitive phase that occurs between the forth twelvemonth to the 7th twelvemonth is characterized by the possible kid who is actively work outing jobs through the mental procedure. Though at this phase they do pull off to accomplish some ends. they are nevertheless incognizant on how they achieved their decision.
A simple illustration is when a kid is able to right place the bulk from the minority merely by the virtual of sight. An illustration is when a kid is presented with seven Canis familiariss and possibly 2 cats and he/she is asked if there are more Canis familiariss that cats. As expected the kid would react positively but will besides perpetrate a logical mistake if purportedly asked the same inquiry in the same manner but otherwise such as if there are more Canis familiariss that animate being. ( Brainerd. C. 1978 ) . The kid will most likely respond by stating yes therefore demoing the usage intuition at this phase. An of import observation by Piaget is that kids chiefly learn through drama and imitation through these first two phases. ( Gallagher. J. M. & A ; Reid. D. K. 1981 ) . .
Concrete operational phase
This is the 3rd of the four phases in Piaget’s cognitive development theory. It follows preoperational phase and is suggested to happen between the age of 7 to 11 old ages. ( Piaget. J. 1929 ) . It is characterized by the appropriate usage of logic and at this phase some of the of import procedures that have been identified include ;
• Seriation. which is the ability to screen different objects based on form. size or other characteristic. A good illustration is the possible to distinguish colour gradient.
• Classification-the ability of the kid to place and call sets of objects based on size. visual aspect every bit good as other features that may propose that one object may include another.
• Decentering-this is a procedure where the kid is able to take into history multiple facets of a job towards work outing it. An illustration is the alteration in perceptual experience where a kid will no longer will no longer keep the perceptual experience that an exceptionally broad yet short cup will keep less sum that 1 that is usually tall and broad.
• Reversibility-where the immature one is able to grok that objects and Numberss can be altered and finally returned back their original province. Thus the kid will be able to grok that since 3+3= 6. so 6-3=3.
• Conservation- the ability to understand that length. measure or figure of points is fundamentally mot related to their visual aspect or agreement.
• Elimination of egocentricim- this is the ability of the kid to understand and see things from another position even though they may believe falsely.
Formal operational phase
This is the 4th and the concluding phase in cognitive development harmonizing to Piaget’ theory. It starts at around 12 old ages of age shortly after the Concrete Operational phase and continues all the manner to adulthood. ( Ashurst 1985 ) . It is the phase that is characterized with the ability to ground logically. believe abstractly. and be able to pull decisions from the available information. It is at this immature grownup phase that one is able to understand such facets as logical cogent evidence. love and values. Some biological factors can be traced during this phase as it occurs during puberty therefore taging the entry into maturity in knowledge. physiology. moral judgement ( Kohlberg ) . psychosocial development ( Erikson ) and psychosexual development ( Freud ) . It is estimated that about two-thirds of all the people fail to develop this type of concluding to the full for it to go their normal knowledge manner and therefore they remain as operational minds even as grownups. ( Flavell 1963 ) .
The above four phases have some general observation. One is that though they may change in clip. sequence does non alter. ( Brainerd. C. 1978 ) . The phases besides apply to believe and non to kids and they universal therefore they can non be associated with any civilization.
Shortcoming to Piagetian phase theory.
There are several challenges that have been put froth against Piagetian theory some of which even Piaget himself has noted such as the fact that development does non hold to come on in such as the smooth mode that his theory has proposed. His theory is a general one since it suggests that cognitive ripening occurs across different facets of cognition such as logic. mathematics. linguistic communication among others. ( Gallagher. J. M. & A ; Reid. D. K. 1981 ) .
Application of Piagetian theory
Most of the pedagogues every bit good as psychologists do pull off to have Piagetian theory preparation during their professional preparation. A Piagetian appraisal is more likely to be a familiar construct among the psychologists who work in those territories that carry out alternate appraisal of cognitive ability on regular footing. A good illustration are the psychologists at the Southern California Diagnostic Center who do do usage of the Ordinal Scale more in deepness during a Piagetian appraisal. For most of these psychologists. a Piagetian appraisal is like a going from the standardised intelligence testing.
The standardised intelligence trials that are available normally diagnose the student’s academic accomplishment anticipation and it may normally take considerable sum of clip and therefore may non be done for more than one twelvemonth. This therefore limits the trials for usage during short term intercessions such as pre-test or post-test. More to this is that standardised cognitive trials quantify a pupils power or strength of abilities or treating but unluckily the quantification does non exactly predict the intercession method that are most likely applicable or utile. ( Flavell 1963 ) .
A curriculum-based measuring ( CBM ) can be done several times within a twelvemonth by the school psychologists as a pretest or post-test on how effectual the intercession is. Unfortunately. CBM does non supply inside informations of why the intercession may or may non be successful nor does it function as a diagnostic tool for the instructional alterations. On the other manus. Piagetian showing can be utile in giving instructional intercessions particularly Incas to make with comprehension or math constructs. ( Piaget. J. 1929 ) .
Piagetian theory gives the phase wise development of qualitative agencies of developing believing from one phase to the following. Through this apprehension it is possible to understand more easy why pupils experience larning troubles. Therefore Piagetian showing does supply an avenue of rapidly gauging a student’s cognitive development degree. ( Ashurst 1985 ) .
In a drumhead therefore. one can indicate to Piagetian undertakings as guideposts that indicate the degree or phase that a kid of a peculiar age is working. Thus it is of import to understand that learning a kid certain specific undertakings does non in any manner change the development phase of the kid. Thus these guideposts are utile when developing adjustments and alterations that do back up a lucifer between a Childs a course of study with his/her cognitive processing ability.
Necessary intercessions for a kid course of study particularly at the age of 4.
Most of the kids normally do encounter hard math jobs. Piagetian theory can be used to explicate the appropriate intercessions that can be adopted and particularly at the age of four. For a pupil to efficaciously understand the mathematical constructs of simple minus and add-on. there is demand for him/her to get the construct of preservation of Numberss. A kid who is yet to achieve preservation of figure construct can still be able to execute. province or memorise assorted processs such as minus or add-on but may most probably be confused with the same concepts hebdomads. yearss or even hours subsequently. The chief ground for this is that information is stored as direct representations and the effect representations. ( Brainerd. C. 1978 ) .
The modern theories of memory suggest that memory is stored as verbatim ( exact input ) . or effect ( constructs ) and these representations of memory are accessed independently. Thus a kid who has non yet attained the preservation of figure seldom has the conceptual model that is needed for a one-to-one correspondence since they lack the conceptual model. ( Gallagher. J. M. & A ; Reid. D. K. 1981 ) . . At a ulterior clip when the kid is non able to accurately transport out math operations. an feeling of memory shortage may most probably be the first feeling. But the chief job possibly that the kid has non yet attained the developmental phase that is required to understand the mathematical constructs. It is in such fortunes that the kid may merely hive away direct memories and neglect to make the same for the conceptual cognition. gist memory.
Necessary intercessions in this instance suggest that one ought to be really certain that the concrete operations degree is emerging. If this is non the instance. the kid may most probably be in the pre-operational thought phase which is besides the intuitive degree. The necessary intercessions can be aimed at assisting the kid accelerate traveling from intuitive phase towards the concrete phase. A good illustration is at the age of four. which is by and large regarded as the phase of ‘why’ where the course-effect thought is learnt in inside informations. Worth observing is that some of the primary school-age kids whom have non yet attained the degree of being intuitive minds normally get on to ‘why stage’ one or two old ages subsequently and may therefore hold non had the chance of holding the oppugning behaviour reinforced. ( Flavell 1963 ) .
Students are besides known to see jobs with comprehension. The frequent ailment are normally at the 4th class all the manner to the 8th class. The hard possibly complex but with the application of Piagetian theory it is possible to find whether the pupil did pull off to achieve the necessary developmental phases to be able to grok different constructs that do affect some partly overlapping sets of information. Though the international theoretical account age for achieving categorization undertaking as age 9. an upward discrepancy is normally observed. Most of the upper simple scientific discipline. literary constructs and societal scientific disciplines involve besides mental use.
Normally pupils gain the attending of the school psychologists due t issues that are associated societal behaviour.