This chapter is taking to give an overview of related theories and perceptual experiences those affect to tourism industry. The reappraisal besides includes the construct of good image, the image of Thailand and heritage touristry and besides provide construct which antecedently has been developed by different research workers who set abouting the research survey in similar attack.
How Perception Affect Tourism
The term perceptual experience of the touristry industry is, by and large, can be viewed in two facets. The first 1 is the mental image created by selling and media. Another facet of image can be developed by the consumers. In general, the finish will market itself every bit much as possible in order to carry the traveler to purchase a trip at that place ( Tuohino, 2002 cited from Henkel et Al, 2006 ) . Travelers go to the finish in order to devour the merchandises, services and sing to those offering at the finish. Travelers will organize their perceptual experiences related to their outlook which are based on their former experience, friends, the cyberspace, selling and travel agent information ( Kotkew, Bowen & A ; Markens, 2006 ) . Therefore, if merchandises or services in peculiar finish exceed traveler outlook, which means they are satisfied. On the other manus, travelers are dissatisfied when their outlooks are non met ( Mcdowall, 2010 ) .
Harmonizing to Crompton ( 1979 ) , people travel for four different grounds: personal concern travel ; corporate concern travel ; sing relations and friends ; and for pleasance holiday. Therefore, tourers have stereotyped image of different perceptual experience and travel locations, so it is of import for touristry sellers to advance the finish image to increase the figure of tourers ( Sirgy & A ; Su, 2000 ) . Furthermore, the person ‘s cultural belonging and heritage does non merely impact the manner people experience and construe the merchandises and services supplied to them, but it besides influence their determination devising in respect to picks of holidaies and finishs. Furthermore, clients have different perceptual experience and single demands, which hold different values to a finish. The aggregation of client information is a manner to detect the client demands and their values. Therefore, clients benefit the finish in the manner of client ‘s gustatory sensations and penchants which can straight lend to marketing new merchandise and services in touristry industry ( Reportforu, 2010 ) .
Fakeye and Crompton ( 1991 ) , has outlined the tourer ‘s image formation procedure ( see Figure 1 ) . It can be explained from this Figure that the consumer ‘s organic images and the induced image of tourer finish can be obtained from elsewhere, i.e. literature, friends or relations. These messages play a important function and act upon the rating of alternate travel finishs and eventually in doing a determination about the finish they will see ( cited from Henkel et Al, 2006 ) . Hu & A ; Ritchi ( 1993 ) stated that the more tourers think that the finish will fulfill their holiday desires, the more likely the visitants will take the finishs.
Figure 1: Faye and Crompton ‘s Tourist ‘s Image Formation Process ( Tuohino,2002 ) .
Conceptualization of good image
It was described by the old survey on finish image that a finish ‘s image could lend to the destination-making procedure. During this procedure, travellers build a finish image based on the enlightening and persuasive information such as friends, intelligence and travel bureau ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) . Therefore, an effectual finish image scheme will be really of import in order to do the peculiar finish distinction from other states.
Cromton ( 1979 ) provinces that non all images can be influenced to traveler determination doing procedure. The research examines the relationships between the property of a finish and decision-making procedure of tourers. Therefore, understanding the evaluative of finish characteristic image related to finish pick is needed in touristry selling. Furthermore, Kotler and Barich ( 1991 ) states that consumer will organize an image based on benefit or value that they expect to acquire from those merchandises or services. Sheth, Newman, and Gross ( 1991 ) suggested that marketing pick behaviour is a multidimensional phenomenon affecting multiple values: functional, societal, emotional, epistemological, and conditional ( see Appendix 1 ) . The survey besides states that these seven of import factors are act uponing market pick behavior.
Based on the theory and selling image construct, the good image theoretical account was developed by Tappachai and Waryszak is shown as below.
Figure 2: Beneficial image theoretical account ( Tapachai & A ; Waryszak, 2000 )
Figure 2 shows traveler ingestion values which are in the good image theoretical account. These five ingestion values including functional feature of the finishs, Social perceptual experience about the finish, emotional of traveler through the finish, epistemic of the finish which traveler can derive new experience from the finish and conditional such as handiness to other states that will assist visitant to make up one’s mind about their finishs. ( Tapachai & A ; Waryzak, 2000, cited from Henkel et Al, 2006 ) . By utilizing Thailand as an illustration to depict the theoretical account above, Thailand ‘s functional values are intriguing deal shopping, assortment of nutrient and beautiful scenery site. The societal ingestion will be a finish that suited for all ages of people. The emotional value is about a topographic point of to loosen up and quiet. An epistemological value is a beautiful civilization in Thailand and eventually the conditional value is chiefly about the location which traveler can easy entree to other states.
Harmonizing to Echtner & A ; Ritchie ( 1993 ) , the finish image refers to impute base or holistic ( imagination ) , with each constituent incorporating functional ( touchable ) or psychological ( intangible or abstract ) feature ( Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1993 ) . The properties positions are including tourers ‘ perceptual experiences through the features of the holiday finish such as beautiful architecture and edifices, legion cultural, historical attractive forces and psychological feature like safe topographic point to visit and besides friendly people. Furthermore, the holistic position of the finish relates to destination image in footings of physical characteristic such as beaches, mountain, likewise the psychological are the finish ‘s ambiance or temper ( Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1993 cited from Henkel et Al ) .
Rod Davies ( 2003 ) explained that every finish have its ain trade name image. Besides, the factors like cost and convenience play an of import function in decision-making of the finish. However, the strongest influence and incentive is the image of the touristry finish ( Davies, 2003 ) . Therefore, images are the trade name individuality which tourer can be perceived. In add-on, images can be both addition and diminish the choice of the finish by traveler ( Henkel et al ) . However, Bigne et Al. ( 2001 ) argued that image is non merely influences the finish pick, but besides has an influence on the rating of the finish after the holiday. It can be explained that whether or non traveller will return to the finish ( Bigne et al, 2001 cited from Henkel et Al ) . Furthermore, a high positive image of peculiar finish is more likely to be chosen by tourer in the procedure of decision-making ( Echtner & A ; Ritchie, 1993 ) . In decision, image play an of import function for tourer satisfaction and the preconceive image of finish will act upon tourist determination on their holiday finish.
The image of Thailand
Destination image can be both positive and negative image, if two finishs have about offering the same features for traveler perceptual experience. Therefore, the more positive image of a finish topographic point, the more likely that traveller will travel at that place ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) .
Thailand is non merely positioning as a “ land of smiling ” as a consequence of friendly people and a safe topographic point finish, but besides considerable as cultural, natural and historical attractive forces. Due to the survey of Yau and Chan on the image of Southeast Asian, Thailand has been perceived as a sensible monetary value, beautiful beaches and assorted attractive forces ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) . In add-on, Tapachai & A ; Waryszak conduct a survey about benefit image feature of Thailand and grouped the consequences of research showed that the functional properties of inexpensive shopping, assortment of nutrient, friendly people and historical sites every bit good as the epistemological property of sing rich civilization in Thailand ( Henkel et al, 2006 ) . Furthermore, the research between Tourism Authority in Thailand ( TAT ) and Siam University showed the consequence that there was a positive image as a natural and historical travel finish ( Henkel et al. , 2006 ) . This positive image can be reflected by the award winning finish from different states, for illustration, International Tourisms Bourse Berlin ( ITB ) , awarded the four go Asia Awards honoring best service provides for travel to Asia in 2010, the Swedish expansive travel award has ranked Thailand as the “ World Best Tourist Country ”
However, Thailand has besides suffered from a negative image because of harlotry, pollution which led to the diminution of tourer attractive forces ( Rittichainuwat et al. , 2001 ) . Prideaux et Al. ( 2004 ) has besides stated that the image of Thailand is an titillating finish. In add-on, the image of Thailand besides related to international intelligence coverage by stating that Thailand is a topographic point of harlotry. These negative images can, evidently, affect visitants and might do them make non desire to see Thailand. This besides leads to the cause of some wellness and moral issues in Thailand ( Henkel et al. , 2001 ) . However, the Tourism Authority of Thailand ( TAT ) ne’er promotes Thailand as a sex touristry finish ( Prideaux et al. , 2004 ) . Suwanmoli ‘s survey about international media coverage of harlotry in Thailand, the consequence found that foreign newsmans normally report the negative side such AIDS and harlotry because this sort of intelligence really easy acquire attending from populaces. Furthermore, Suwanmoli explained that there are a high figure of every bit many as 2.8 million cocottes working in Thailand ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) . Therefore, the authorities should be concerned of this issue in order to minimise the pandemic deaths and harlotry. Alternatively, Tai authorities must actively seek to cut down the images of negative such as sex touristry through positive image selling of other touristry merchandises and seeking to diminish the illegal activities such as harlotry within the state ( Henkel et al, 2006 ) .
Finally, Thailand ‘s image has suffered from a decline of tourer attractive forces, pollution, traffic jam, deficiency of new tourer attractive forces and the image of sex touristry. Additionally, Ahmed states that “ one time a negative image is established in the heads of possible travellers, even a full scope of selling activities can non wholly change by reversal it ” . Thus, Marketers merely able to make little to extinguish the negative image. In contrast, seller can countervail the negative perceptual experience by making positive images through promotional schemes, including advertisement, set uping the events, and hosting international conventions and exhibitions ( Rittichainuwat, 2001 ) .
The huge bulk of literature on heritage, apart from the philosophical and rational, has concerned itself with heritage touristry, a sector that has grown globally and besides created the gross and employment for “ undeveloped states ” ( Misiura, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to The World Tourism Organisation ( 1992 ) defines heritage touristry as “ an submergence in the natural history, human heritage, humanistic disciplines, doctrine and intuitions of another part or state ” ( Laws & A ; Pan, 2004 ) . Furthermore, Rowan and Baram ( 2004 ) describe heritage touristry as a consumerist phenomenon and hence selling of this phenomenon is bound to be driven by capitalist inclinations. ( cited from Chabra, 2009 ) . Therefore, the nucleus of heritage selling is to happen out what the client privation and present it. Particularly, in relation to construct environment, i.e. , the selling activity should be design to excite demand and fulfill the client but non to the hurt of that which needs to continue for future coevals ( Misiura, 2006, p.2 ) .
Yale ( 1991 ) , explains that the heritage touristry is a centred on what we inherited from “ historic edifices, to art plants, to beautiful scenery ” . Ashworth ‘s ( 2000 ) defined the “ comodification ” and the “ past ” in heritage touristry which is based on the commoditized, edifice, memories and experiences of the yesteryear ( cited from Grace Yan et Al ) . From the demand facet, the heritage touristry is about happening something which is associating between the present and the past and traveller emotional experiences ( Richards 1997 and Prentice 1993 ) . However, Poria et Al. ( 2001 ) argued that the relationship of heritage touristry should be based on the person and the heritage presented instead than on specific site properties. In add-on, they described heritage touristry as “ a subgroup of touristry, in which the chief motive for sing a site is based on the topographic point ‘s heritage features harmonizing to tourers ‘ perceptual experience of their ain heritage ” ( Poria et al. , 2001, p. 1048 ) . Besides, in order to unite both supply and demand by explicating that “ heritage touristry relies on the strength of both the push and pull factors of the resources located in country in order to appeal to the possible tourers ” ( Apostolakis ( 2003, p. 800 ) Cited from Grace Yan et Al ) .
Heritage visitant, seek to happen the different benefits from trips.. Poria et Al. ( 2004 ) pointed out that the grounds for sing heritage sites for travelers can be grouped topographic points in to three classs which are under the headers of “ heritage experience ” , “ acquisition ” . These explain that there are people with a strong involvement in “ emotionally involved ” with a “ sense of belonging to the site ” . In contrast, for some tourers, heritage touristry is more than an educational or recreational experience. This farther suggested by Martin et Al. ( 2004, p.131 ) , “ finding the potency of heritage touristry and the possible impact and the selling way needed to pull these visitants will be less bad if the nature of the tourer is better understood ”
World Heritage is the programme administered by the UNESCO, the programme aims to catalogue, name, and conserve sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity and to raise consciousness of how to keep the sites to last for future coevalss of humanity ( Thaiwh, 2010 ) . In Thailand, there are World Heritage sites of Ayutthaya, Sukhothai, Si Satchanalai and Kamphaengphet states. There are rich heritage and brilliant architecture that make them as The World Heritage sites which are listed in 1991 by UNESCO ( UNESCO, 1992 ) .
Therefore, the selling of heritage, particularly heritage touristry will lend the benefit in order to function the merchandises and services to clients associate to those World heritage sites in Thailand. It can be seen that strategic planning has been used within many organisations. The successful travel and touristry must non merely understand who the clients are but besides cognize how to market them in order to fulfill the demands of their clients. In add-on, touristry administrations should place group of clients with homogenous features and behaviours and seek to accommodate their offer to the alone demands and desires of the section members. Heritage selling, hence, is both direction doctrine and as set of concern techniques. It is really of import to recognize that the direction of touristry will be uneffective without an apprehension of the manner tourists consumers make determinations and act in relation to the ingestion of touristry merchandises. This research non merely provides an chance for people to carry through their single demands, but transcending their outlooks and guaranting that it benefits greatly toward the World Heritage sites in Thailand ( Reportforu, 2010 ) .
The literature reviewed has provided general information about the perceptual experience of the tourers through the image of Thailand and Thailand ‘s image dimensions. However, the reappraisal has besides identified both positive and negative image which affected to tourers ‘ finish pick. It is deserving observing that the constructs described in old articles, diaries and text book, are refering and believed to hold a direct consequence on to the research theoretical account which is proposed in the current probe. Therefore, the proposed research theoretical account and hypotheses preparation will be discussed in following chapter.