History Of Cultural Tourists Tourism Essay

Tourism has been known as one of the universes fastest and largest turning industry. The industry has become really important to all states across the universe as for decennaries it has been a major subscriber to a state ‘s economic growing and development. Nevertheless, today there has been a tendency and an increasing growing of assorted touristry markets sections in the touristry industry, which one of them is known as the cultural or heritage touristry that has become the most important and fastest turning section in the touristry industry ( Virginia Department of Historic Resources, 1998 cited in Huh, Uysal, and McCleary, 2006 ) .

Cultural tourer defined by The Australian Bureau of Statistics ( 1998 ) is person who has visited to cultural topographic points and spent at least one dark in more than 40 kilometers from his original topographic point of abode. The cultural topographic points or attractive forces can be assorted including art galleries, museums, animate being and sea Parkss, libraries, concerts, theater dramas, dancing public presentations and film ( cited in Filippou et al. , 2010 ) . Cultural touristry as a distinguishable merchandise class by and large is different than when people going to a finish to see civilizations. Since all travel could affect cultural elements in which tourers are traveling from their ain cultural environment and travel to destination to see other civilizations. Even assorted touring activities may enable tourer to see cultural differences. Yet, cultural touristry means more than merely cultural supplanting and it is of import to separate between cultural touristry and touring to different civilizations. Cultural touristry involves in the ingestion of different scope of a finish ‘s touchable and intangible cultural heritage assets include archaeological sites, museums, palaces, historical or celebrated edifices, humanistic disciplines, theater, crude civilizations, subcultures, cultural communities and other things that represent people and their civilizations ( Richards, 1996 ; Goodrich, 1997 ; Miller, 1997 ; Jamieson, 1994 cited in McKercher, Ho, Cross, and Ming, 2002 )

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There are merely few research has been published analyzing the cultural touristry market, yet there are some figures bespeaking the size and the important of this market. Harmonizing to assorted research surveies, a important sum of per centum of tourers traveling for cultural experiences such visiting cultural attractive forces and take parting in assorted cultural activities which are non ‘sun, sand and sea ‘ related ( Richards, 1996 cited in Yun et al. , 2008 ) . The World Tourism Organization has besides estimated the cultural touristry market histories for 37 per centum of all tourer trips and demand is turning by 15 per centum per annum ( Richards, 1996 cited in McKercher and Cross, 2003 ) The growing and importance of this cultural touristry has been stimulated chiefly due to the lifting demand despite the fact research has showed that cultural touristry is non developing every bit fast as the planetary touristry as a whole ( de Hann, 1998 cited in Richards, 2007 ) . However, due to the emerging of more educated and sophisticated tourers has enable people to entree civilization and globalisation besides tend to make more involvement in civilizations every bit good as local heritage. Cultural tourer now represents as a new type of mass tourer which seeks for meaningful cultural experiences ( McKercher and DuCros, 2003 ) .

Therefore, this paper aim ‘s is to show a market intelligence study to Australia ‘s Destination Marketing Organization ( DMO ) which will supply them information peculiarly on cultural touristry section. This paper besides attempts to place and analyse the profile features and behaviour of cultural tourers market in footings of its ( 1 ) demographic features, ( 2 ) types of information beginnings used, ( 3 ) travel booking penchants, ( 4 ) travel motives, ( 5 ) activity engagement, ( 6 ) travel outgo, and ( 7 ) the selling deduction that needs to be taken history or understand by the finish sellers in such a manner for finish to maximise the its entreaty and net income, and extremely pull more cultural tourers to the finish by understanding their behavioural profile.

2.0 Target Market Analysis

There have been assorted touristry research surveies of cultural touristry which have focused on placing and analysing the features of cultural tourers market. These surveies are aim to supply comprehensive information and to larn in deepness about the mark market including their demographic features, the travel behaviour features and motives of tourers who visits cultural finishs, information beginnings used, booking penchants, outgos as good the type of cultural activities they participated in such a manner to develop selling scheme of the finish.

2.1 Demographic Features

First, to hold the apprehension of the cultural touristry market section of what are the features of cultural tourers that visit cultural attractive forces or take part in cultural activities, therefore demographic indexs are being used in touristry research to profile tourers such based on gender, age, income, educational degrees, business, or matrimonial position.

On September 27, 1999 and April 16, 2000, informations survey were collected by the Canadian Tourism Commission ( CTC ) in the United States by carry oning a Travel Attractions and Motivation Survey, which to analyze US originated tourers and helps to obtain general apprehension of tourer behaviours and demographic profiles of cultural tourer in sing assorted of cultural attractive forces or activities ( Kim et al. , 2007 ) . There are 29 types of cultural attractive forces being identified and were categorized into a few typical groups utilizing bunch ( four bunchs ) analysis ( see appendix A1 ) which are include festival and musical attractive forces, Commercial diversion Parkss, local festivals and carnivals, cognition or aesthetic seeking attractive forces. A series of logistic arrested development analyses were used in this survey to place the assorted demographic features ( gender, age, income, and instruction ) on the four bunchs of cultural attractive force engagement ( see appendix A2 ) . In add-on, another survey were besides conducted which was composed of tourers who visited the cultural attractive force of Virginia Historic Triangle ( Williamsburg, Jamestown, and Yorktown ) in June and August 2002 ( see appendix B ) ( Huh, Uysal, and McCleary, 2006 ) .

On the footing of the two surveies mentioned above, demographic features of cultural touristry section can be clearly identified. It can be concluded that greater per centum or figure of adult females participate in cultural touristry than work forces. Research besides shows that the cultural or heritage touristry section is somewhat moved towards more females. U.S Department of Commerce and the U.S President ‘s Committee in the Humanistic disciplines and the Humanities ( 2005 ) showed that the bulk of adult females or females take part more in cultural activities compared to work forces, this is because the place adult females has improved in recent decennaries, both in the household and workplace. Women besides tend to hold the biggest function in determinations doing sing to household holidaies both in footings of continuance of trips and finish pick ( cited in Filippos et al. , 2010 ) . From the findings can be concluded cultural tourers are mostly made up of grownups and the senior age group in the elderly of 40s- 60s old ages. Despite the younger age group typically aged 20-29 shows the smallest per centum in cultural touristry yet they are besides portion of the cardinal demographic group. Furthermore, big figure of of cultural tourers tends to belonged to the high societal group with high household income of $ 80,000 or more, and by and large they are good extremely educated with higher per centum of holding college and advanced grade ( graduate degree ) . Hence, the higher instruction degree of tourers, it shows greater engagement and involvement in cultural touristry. In contrast the lower per centum of engagement in the four bunchs of cultural attractive forces is largely tourers with lower instruction degree in high school and college.

2.2 Information Beginnings used

As portion of information hunt about the finish that tourists want to see, there are broad scope of information beginnings of travel that tourers can take prior to their finish include booklets and stuff published by visitant information centres and by tourer boards, articles or magazines, cyberspace, Television, word of oral cavity ( WOM ) by friends and relations, travel guidebooks, circuit ushers, travel agents, and past experiences. The different sorts of information beginnings available may be grouped into those accessed through internal and external searching ( Fodness and Murray, 1997, 1998 ; Gursoy and Chen, 2000 cited in Osti, Turner, and King, 2009 ) .

To cognize the chief travel beginnings of information being used by cultural tourers can be obtained from a secondary information survey which was drawn from the 2004 Tourist Exit Survey conducted on Prince Edward Island ( PEI ) , Canada ‘s major tourer finish, with a sum of 3,139 studies were completed by nightlong pleasance tourers ( Yun et al. , 2008 ) . The 3,139 tourers were categorized into two bunchs groups of non-cultural tourer ( cluster 1 ) and cultural tourers ( constellate 2 ) about 1,996 ( 63.6 per centum ) of tourers have low engagement in cultural activities and 1,143 ( 36.4 per centum ) extremely involved in cultural activities.

Based on the study consequences, it was found that the bulk of cultural tourers most likely to used the cyberspace or touristry website as a chief beginning of information which accounts for 58.4 per centum. Travel information bundle ( 49.4 per centum ) is besides become the 2nd chief of import beginning of information used by cultural tourers, followed by friends, relations, or colleagues which histories for 36.9 per centum, this may reflect the high information content of travel information bundle and strong personal recommendation from friends or household. Cultural tourers are besides more likely to utilize bundle circuit, travel guidebooks, and tourer information Centre every bit good as a beginning of their travel information. However, really few of them used of newspaper narrative or advertizement, travel agent, and telecasting plan or advertizement as their beginning of information ( see appendix C ) .

2.3 Travel Booking Preferences

Travel engagement penchants is closely related to how cultural tourers book its travel in order to see a cultural finish.

Motivations for Travel

What are by and large the chief travel motivations of cultural tourers towards go toing cultural experiences in a peculiar finish? Murray ( 1964 ) , defined motivations as a separate distinguishable internal feature that occurred, direct, and incorporate a individual ‘s behaviour ( cited in Kay, 2009 ) . Some empirical research surveies have been conducted to derive better apprehension of tourer motive for going to cultural attractive forces and events or other cultural experiences being offered in the finish.

A turning organic structure of conceptual and empirical research is demoing fundamentally that non all cultural tourers are homogenous. Some surveies have segmented this market based on the importance or centrality of cultural touristry in the determination to see a finish. Then McKercher ( 2002 ) has built on these surveies by adding deepness of experience and created a two dimensional theoretical account that produces a conceptual theoretical account of cultural tourers ( see appendix D1 ) in which he classified and identified five types of cultural tourers based on the centrality and deepness of experience ( from shoal to deep ) , and the importance ( or centrality ) of cultural touristry ( Low to high ) . He recognized different tourer may expose different experiences despite holding the same or similar motive degrees. Since handiness of clip, travel spouses, tour group engagement, degree of consciousness and involvement, instruction, cultural background and assorted other factors could impact person ‘s engagement in cultural touristry ( cited in McKercher, Ho, Cros and So-Ming, 2002 ) .

The types of cultural tourers he has identified include the purposeful ( high centrality/deep cultural experience ) , sightseeing ( high centrality/shallow experience ) , insouciant ( modest centrality/ shallow experience ) , incidental ( low centrality/shallow experience ) , and serendipitous ( low centrality/ deep experience ) cultural tourers. This theoretical account was so tested through empirical observation on a sample on a sample of cultural tourers sing Hong Kong and differences can be identified in footings of their travel motivations ( see appendix D2 ) . Based on the information consequences of this survey, each of the different types of cultural tourers are motivated to go for different grounds than other tourers. Purposeful and sightseeing cultural tourers were motivated to go for educational and cultural grounds, see travel largely as a alteration to turn personally and as a alteration to larn about another ‘s civilization. In contrast, incidental, insouciant serendipitous cultural tourers were motivated to go for creative activity, merriment, and relaxation, yet to larn besides about other civilizations. However, serendipitous see travel as more to alter to turn personally alternatively for relax ( McKercher and Cros, 2003 ) .

There was another general research survey by Pandora L. Kay, in the diary of Cultural Experience Tourist Motives Dimensionality: A Cross-cultural Study ( 2009 ) . It examine tourers ‘ motivational for go toing and sing a scope of cultural related experiences, some was by taken a sample represented by Nipponese tourers and Mainland Chinese tourers ( see appendix D3 ) . The information showed a generic graduated table for mensurating travel motivations for tourers sing cultural attractive forces, most normally found on the dimensions from selected empirical surveies representative of the considerable organic structure of tourist motive research in assorted contexts. The information shows the most normally found travel motor dimension in a general context in relation to cultural and non-cultural attractive forces. Several motor dimensions being listed and it emphasized a big figure of psycho-socio-physiologically based dimensions and with the listed of the writers. It clearly shows that merely one important travel motor dimension found for cultural attractive force motivations which chiefly for instruction or cognition based on the three surveies.

2.5 Activity Participation

There are immense assortments of activities that cultural tourer normally take part in. The most common and of import activities that cultural tourers still largely prosecute or take part is sing cultural sites or attractive forces such as museums, galleries, and memorials. Based on ATLAS ( 2004 ) studies, approximately 60 per centum of tourers had visited a museum, 30 per centum had visited a memorial and 29 per centum visited a gallery. In add-on, there is a tendency of traveling toward a greater trial to assorted different types of cultural attractive forces in a finish chiefly towards ‘arts ‘ attractive forces such as sing to art galleries, executing humanistic disciplines, and festivals ( cited in Richards, 2007 ) .

Furthermore, survey of cultural tourer taken from Tourists Exit Survey on Canada ‘s major finish Prince Edward Island ( PEI ) , 2004 have identified the different activities take part by cultural tourer compared to non-cultural tourers ( see appendix E1 ) . Overall, high per centum of cultural tourers were likely to take part in rubber-necking, sing beaches, sing a national park, driving circuit, and shopping for trades and keepsakes compared to other travel activities being listed.

However, activities that cultural tourers pursued in a finish can besides be different from one another since different types of cultural tourer show different behaviours at a finish. McKercher ( 2002 ) categorization of five different types of cultural tourers based on the centrality and deepness of experience runing from a shoal, superficial or sightseeing experience to a much deeper, larning oriented experience may expose differences in cultural activities engagement ( see appendix E2 ) . The first is purposeful cultural tourer which characterized as extremely motivated and tends to hold high centrality and deep cultural experience, therefore this type of tourer would by and large take part in activities of sing cultural sites such museums alternatively of shopping, they probably to see store in local markets instead than in shops selling trade name names. Tourist who is extremely motivated but has more shallow experience is known as the sightseeing cultural tourer. This type of tourer normally interested in roll uping experiences instead than prosecuting any one activity in deepness, and largely undertakes activities such sing museums, shopping or see local market. The 3rd is insouciant cultural tourer that has a shallow experience and a finish ‘s civilization or heritage such historic edifices or subject Parkss plays function in the determination to see. The incidental cultural tourer besides has shallow experience and non so motivated to go for cultural or grounds but still take part in aggregate cultural touristry activities such as heritage subject Parkss and other topographic points of amusement. They tend to avoid sing temples and other spiritual assets, and instead take to see shops selling trade name names. Last, the serendipitous cultural tourer is characterized as holding deep experience yet has no motive to go for cultural ground and still take part in cultural activities like sing museums ( McKercher, 2002, McKercher and Cros, 2003 ) .

2.6 Travel Outgo

Travel outgo is refers to go budget or the sum of money in which cultural tourers spend on cultural touristry in a finish. Harmonizing to a research, cultural tourers known in their high disbursement on cultural touristry in most tourist finishs with mean entire disbursement over $ 1920 which consider as much higher than visitants on a rural vacation ( $ 1320 ) , at the beach ( $ 1825 ) , and on metropolis trips ( $ 1535 ) in 2004 ( Richards, 2007 ) .

The same information consequences of survey which were taken from the 2004 Tourists Exit Survey conducted on Prince Edward Island ( PEI ) with 3,139 respondents of nightlong pleasance tourer both consist of non-cultural tourer and cultural tourers, clearly shows the differences in travel outgo between the two bunchs ( Yun et al. , 2008 ) . Cultural tourers by and large spend more than non-cultural tourer with the mean entire disbursement per individual per trip footing of $ 1186.2 whereas non-cultural tourers merely have the entire mean disbursement about $ 825.1 ( see appendix F ) . The comparatively high sum of disbursement of cultural tourers extremely associated with the high income degrees which characterized this market section. In footings of outgo classs, based on the information consequences the largest per centum cultural tourer spent on adjustments, at eating houses and bars, passing on keepsakes and trades.

2.7 Selling Deductions

Based on all the cardinal findings on the profile features and behaviour of cultural touristry section from assorted research surveies, it has showed that cultural tourers have displayed different features, behaviours, demands, wants and involvement comparison to non-cultural tourers, every bit good as different behaviour, experience, and motive are demonstrated in the five different types of cultural tourers indentified by McKrecher though their demographic features are mostly the same. This will probably impact the finish selling or direction organisation in taking determinations of developing its selling scheme which can be in footings of merchandise, publicity, packaging, and distribution.

Cultural tourers like to seek different activities when they travel include rubber-necking, sing to museums, historical edifice, and other sites represent civilization of a finish. Then finish sellers need to understand the demands of cultural tourers and travel behaviours through a promotional attempt of advancing and supplying a assortment of boxing agreement of cultural attractive forces. The types of packaging agreement that can be offer to cultural tourers can affect different types of cultural merchandises such as museum packaging with art festival and theatre public presentation or can besides be national Parkss and art galleries. The advantage of these boxing agreements can make a wider degree of involvement and offers the assortment of experiences that most people are seeking, every bit good as increasing perceived value for clip and money spent.

Furthermore, cultural tourers are by and large motivated to go for cognition or educational grounds and seen as for self personal development by larning other ‘s civilization. A good scheme of advancing cultural attractive forces or activities can be created by stressing the educational elements or educational information that may benefits to the tourers. Besides, assorted publicities could be focal points on advancing cultural installations, attractive forces, and events through advertizement such as on web site, travel guidebooks, or travel operator can be used to capitalise on chances to pull more cultural tourers and increase their motive to take part in greater cultural activities.

Furthermore, a turning organic structure of conceptual and empirical research has shows the conceptual theoretical account or typology of cultural tourers placing there are five types of cultural tourers which has demonstrates differences on the footing of their behaviour, involvement cultural activities and travel motive. Each of different types of tourers may seek different experiences and prosecute at different degrees of cultural attractive forces both high and low engagement. For these grounds, finish sellers need to accurately section the different types of cultural tourers market and use distinguishing selling scheme for packaging and promotional or advertisement in such a manner to pull and suits the demands of the different types of cultural tourers.

The first is the purposeful cultural tourers who are greatly involved in cultural activities and extremely motivated to go to derive deep experience and cognition, while sightseeing tourers similar to purposeful tourers the chief difference is holding shallow experience. Therefore, finish sellers need to make an enlightening promotional or advertisement scheme stress on plants stores, exhibitions, public presentation, architectural, treatments, museums ‘ aggregation book stores, publications and research to pull both of these cultural tourers. Since these tourers have high engagement, they need to develop deep apprehension of the significance of cultural connexions of the attractive force and they are may extremely pull or influenced by cognitive information ( Kantanen and Tikkanen, 2005 ) .

Next, the insouciant and incidental cultural tourers both have shallow experience and non extremely motivated to go to cultural attractive forces alternatively they are motivated to go for merriment, creative activity and relaxation yet still somehow prosecuting in more cultural amusement and subject Parkss. Therefore, persuasive advertisement scheme that entreaties emphasize on Parkss, galleries, theatre, theme events and Parkss would allow to pull this low engagement type of tourers. Then one effectual selling communicating that allows to make these tourers when they spend clip in the finish would be Television advertisement on the local web. Last, serendipitous cultural tourers who have no motive to go to a finish for cultural touristry yet have deep experience. Therefore, satisfaction scheme is can be used to extremely pull this tourers to carry them to see a finish and see a cultural attractive force. Promotional can be largely emphasizes on art, architecture, museums, exhibitions, theater or music public presentations, and theme events ( Kantanen and Tikkanen, 2005 ) .

3.0 Decision

As the chief aim of this paper is to present market intelligence study specifically on cultural touristry section to Australia ‘s Destination Marketing Organization, in footings of its demographic features, information beginnings used, travel booking penchants, travel motive, activity engagement, travel outgo, and its selling deductions. Overall, based on the cardinal findings from assorted research surveies of cultural tourers that has been clearly identified, has showed that the cultural tourers section are different with non-cultural tourers in footings of its features, behaviours, demands and wants. Cultural tourers are made up of grownups to senior age with the bulk of adult females take parting. This group of section besides extremely educated and belong to the high societal group of holding big household income and travel outgo. They besides tend to take the cyberspace, travel information and addition information from friends and relations as their chief travel beginnings of information. However, McKrecher ( 2002 ) reveals that non all cultural tourers are homogenous and each have different in motive, experiences and cultural activities engagement classify as the purposeful, rubber-necking, insouciant, incidental and serendipitous cultural tourers. The chief selling deduction for these grounds, finish sellers should be able to section the different of cultural tourers ‘ market sections with different cultural merchandises demands, promotional scheme and packaging agreements to provide the demands each of the cultural market every bit good as to increase their engagement in cultural activities. .