Examining The Regulatory Scenario Of Indian Aviation Industry Tourism Essay

The Indian air power industry is one of the fastest turning air power industries in the universe and India is the 9th largest air power market in the universe ( beginning: ibef ) . There was a resurgence of kinds after a quiet 2008 when the figure of domestic riders fell by 5 % . In 2009, with 445.1 hundred thousand circulars the air power industry registered a growing of 7.9 % . Apart from that it is predicted that international riders will turn upto 50 million by 2015. Due to heighten chances generated by the unfastened air policy of the authorities 69 foreign air hoses from 49 states are winging into India.

When India was freed from the bonds of the British in 1947, the air power sector had a few participants like Indian National Overseas, Himalayan Aviation, Ambica Airline et Al. In 1953, the Indian authorities created two province owned national bearers – Air India for domestic operations and Indian Airlines for the international paths. The bing few air hoses were brought into the crease of these two companies and by the way most of these were running in losingss.

Indian Airlines and Air India ruled the roost in the civil air power sector boulder clay 1992 when the sectoral alterations came into force and the private participants could put in the sector. After liberalisation a figure of private air hoses came into being. A few noteworthy amongst them were Damania, EastWest, Jet, Sahara, Modiluft and NEPC.

These schemes began to bear fruit and as by March, 1994 they accounted for 24 % of the overall market and 44 % of the traffic of the chief bole paths. However they still struggled to be profitable and before the terminal of the millenary all except Jet and Sahara perished. Their endurance was attributed diversely to grounds like good fiscal direction and presence of air hose industry veterans in direction.

Whatever the ground may be, the good thing about the outgrowth of private air hoses was that for the first clip Air India and Indian Airlines got a gustatory sensation of competition and in order to vie came up with strategies for riders like frequent circular programmes etc. Jet, Sahara, and Indian Airlines shared the market between themselves with market portions of 46 % , 9 % and 40 % severally in the year-ending March 31, 2003.

Post 2003

The steady growing of India ‘s GDP and the revival of the in-between category provided an chance for a new stage of development of the air power industry. Besides that the figure of air travellers and per capita usage of air hose service in China were approximately 8 times that of India. In 2003 when the new participants entered, they largely decided to utilize low menus as a competitory arm.

Air Deccan: First to come in and provided point-to- point services between towns or metropoliss which were non catered to by the air hoses boulder clay so. While Air Deccan was able to capture the imaginativeness of the common public by supplying menus at par with first category train travel and at a lesser clip, it was beset by operational troubles. Inevitable holds, hapless service quality and deficiency of dependability became its hallmark.

But this inspired other low cost bearers to come in every bit good. Within a short clip, two more air hoses followed this construct – IndiGo and SpiceJet.

Main characteristics of these two were

competitory menus,

a individual type of aircraft and a individual category of service,

point -to-point operations,

speedy turnarounds,

no frills, and

internet-based ticketing.

Three more air hoses – Kingfisher, Paramount and GoAir- started by prominent concern houses followed diverse concern theoretical accounts.

Kingfisher which was a flagship of beer baron Vijay Mallya started off as a value bearer but shortly transformed into a full service air hose.

Paramount Airways was started by a scion of the Loyal Textiles Group and had a concern class-only air hose at the monetary values of economic system category.

GoAir owned by the Wadias of Bombay Dyeing decided to maintain a “ dynamic fleet ” . In this scheme they inducted aircrafts in extremum season ( winters ) and returned the fleet to the leasers in the thin months. But GoAir has revealed programs of increasing the fleet size to 24 by 2011.

Air India besides decided to leap into the disturbance of Low Cost Carriers ( LCC ) with its subordinate Air India Express. It started in October, 2007 with a premier focal point on the southern and eastern part of India. Within in no clip, it began to provide to international traffic to states like Singapore and Malaysia.

In the following few old ages a batch of consolidation and alterations took topographic point which is covered subsequently in the study.

Speed Bumps

High airdrome landing charges and pilotage charges

50 % higher than international benchmark charges. The ATRs were exempt from these charges.

With the monetary values of ATF surging to new highs it meant that an aircraft had to incur extra outgo on history of uneffective substructure and congestion at airdromes.

As a manner to cover these charges all the air hoses except Air India and Indian Airlines, started bear downing a congestion charge of Rs. 150 to the monetary value of the ticket sold

Low cost theoretical account at dunces with ordinances

In the US, the low cost air hoses chiefly operate from smaller airdromes and hangers and these assistance in maximising net incomes from their concern theoretical accounts.

However in India due to authorities ordinances airdromes could non be created closer than 150 kilometers from each other.

ATF provider monopoly and revenue enhancements

ATF in India sold by the three kingpin oil PSUs with IOC commanding about 65 % of the entire market.

ATF is sold at its international monetary value plus extra transit and selling borders ( around 20-25 % ) . Further most province authoritiess levy their ain revenue enhancements ( sometimes every bit high as 34 % ) .

In order to stop the monopoly of the PSUs the ministry of Civil Aviation has urged the Airport Authority of India ( AAI ) to develop common fuel substructure at airdromes and enable private oil retail merchants such as Reliance and Essar to come in the disturbance. A Federation of Indian Airlines ( FIA ) estimation indicates that a decrease in ATF monetary value by 60 % has an impact of take downing air hose operational losingss by 25 % . It believes that rationalisation of ATF monetary value and conveying it to international degree may convey an one-year nest eggs of $ 624 million for the air hose industry.

Besides these, there is a desperate deficit of skilled forces like pilots or other proficient experts.

Recent investings in the air power sector

The Airport Authority of India ( AAI ) which had been formed in 1995 has made or planned to do a series of investings in the coming old ages. A few high spots of the same are as follows.

Mumbai and Delhi airdromes which have already been privatized, are being upgraded at an estimated investing of US $ 4 billion over 2006-16.

Greenfield airports operational at Bangalore and Hyderabad have been built by private pool at a entire investing of over US $ 800 million.

A 2nd greenfield airdrome being planned at Navi Mumbai is traveling to be developed utilizing public-private partnership ( PPP ) manner at an estimated cost of US $ 2.5 billion.

Along with constructing a new Greenfield airdrome at Navi Mumbai, 35 other metropolis airdromes are proposed to be upgraded. All these will be undertaken through PPP manner.

Apart from these an investing of US $ 623 million will be made by industries in the Aerospace and Precision Engineering Special Economic Zone at Adibatla, Ranga Reddy territory.

The state ‘s first particular economic zone ( SEZ ) dedicated to the aerospace industry has been inaugurated in Belgaum territory, Karnataka. The SEZ-promoted by Quest Global, an aerospace technology and fabrication company-was undertaken at an investing of US $ 32.5 million.

Regulatory scenario

The air power industry has non yet been opened up wholly to foreign investings. Given below are the outstanding characteristics of the policy followed.

FDI up to 49 per cent is permitted for scheduled air conveyance services/ domestic scheduled rider air hoses under the automatic path. However, no direct or indirect equity engagement by foreign air hoses is allowed.

NRI investing is permitted up to 100 per cent under the automatic path.

For non-scheduled air transport services/non-scheduled air hoses, chartered air hoses and lading air hoses, FDI upto 74 per cent is permitted under the automatic path.

100 per cent FDI permitted under the automatic path for Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul ( MRO ) , winging preparation institutes and proficient preparation establishments.

FDI up to 100 % is permitted under the automatic path for chopper services / sea plane services necessitating Director General of Civil Aviation ( DGCA ) blessing.

FDI up to 74 per cent and NRI investing up to 100 per cent under the automatic path is permitted for land handling services subject to sectoral ordinances and security clearances.

In instance of airdromes, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent in Greenfield airdromes. FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent in bing airdromes. ( FDI beyond 74 per cent requires FIPB blessing ) .

Aviation Regulator

The Airport Economic Regulatory Authority ( AERA ) which was formed in 2009 is an independent organic structure that is the new air power regulator. The new regulator is responsible for formalising all charges to be levied on operators and guaranting a flat playing field. Its undertakings include repairing of duty, finalising parking and user charges, and wide guidelines to service suppliers, settling differences between stakeholders in new airdromes and interceding between assorted users and service suppliers, including air hoses. Henceforth AAI would besides be answerable to AERA.

Restructuring of the Aviation Industry

The escalating costs of operations along with competitory force per unit areas to maintain monetary values down led to restructuring of the industry and keeping market portion and leading with respects to size began to go more and more of import. This led to consolidation steps taken up by the companies. Apart from this besides the economic systems of graduated table besides prompted this moves by the Indian companies. It would now be possible to portion the substructure instead than jostling for it.

Jet Airways acquires Sahara ( 2006-07 )

Jet got entree to Sahara ‘s

Fleet of Boeing 737 and CRJ aircraft,

Parking slots in major Indian airdromes.

Jet decided to run Sahara as a value bearer subordinate under the trade name name JetLite. The analysts fought over the viability of the placement of JetLite. An illustration that can be cited here is that of British Airways which started “ Go ” , but found that it was losing its economic system category riders. Similar was the destiny of KLM.

Post-acquisition, Jet found that JetLite ‘s aircraft were in hapless form and needed considerable attending and investing to be brought up to efficient public presentation criterions. Over clip, they hoped to convey about a high grade of operational synergism between the two air hoses. However, presently both these parties are involved in a legal hassle sing the sum to be paid for the coup d’etat. HHow

Kingfisher acquires Air Deccan ( 2007 )

Kingfisher justified the acquisition based on synergisms in aircraft care, and spares since Air Deccan and Kingfisher both had fleets of the same types of aircraft ( A-320 jets and ATR propjet ) . Other shared services would include gross revenues and selling, land handling, technology services, client service, and preparation. Over clip, Kingfisher hoped to “ engage paths and frequences through combined strengths of web range, connexions, frequences, and substructure. ”

Indian Airlines and Air India merged ( 2007 ) into a individual national entity under the corporate name of National Aviation Company of India and the trade name name of Air India. Shortly before the official blessing of the amalgamation, the boards of Indian Airlines and Air India approved major fleet enlargement programs that would ensue in a complete inspection and repair of their several fleets.

Mahindra & A ; Mahindra acquired two Australian houses Aerostaff Australia and Gippsland Aeronautics ( GA ) ( 2009 )

This move signals Mahindra ‘s strategic entry into the planetary aerospace constituents and the general air power markets, and continues the committedness it made to this industry in 2006, with the acquisition of Engineering Design Company, Plexion Technologies. Geting interest in GA signals M & A ; M ‘s entry into the 2-20 seater, propjet market, among the fastest turning sections in general air power.

Exhibit 4:

Five Forces Analysis

Menace of new entrants: Low

Not really high because of:

High capital demands: a paid up equity of $ 500 million required for an air hose operating with aircraft take-off mass transcending 40000kg.

Government ordinances mean that have to take costlier paths

High fuel costs

Other than that there are some generic jobs due to which the sector is non so exciting for new entrants

Inadequate airdrome substructure and as such inevitable holds

Deficit of skilled pilots

Exit barriers because present demand for domestic air hose is to possess a minimal fleet of five aircrafts

2 ) Power of Buyers: High

Value witting clients

Customers expect a degree of service quality which is progressively non being provided by the air hose companies like promptness

Minimal shift costs and options available with the induction of train services like the Duronto

Not much distinction amongst the participants aiming the same clients

Role of in-between work forces or travel agents bit by bit decreasing due to the proliferation of cyberspace

Highly thin borders of the air hose companies have forced them non to put on the line the client base

The Ministry of Civil Aviation is pro public and most of the policies hurt the air hose companies

3 ) Power of Suppliers: High

Merely the large oil PSUs supply ATF to the air hoses. So can bear down extortionate rates

Aircraft makers limited in India.

Switch overing costs really high

No replacements, can non make without them

Supplier industry has greater profitableness than the purchasers

4 ) Menace of replacements: High

With the handiness of web sites which compare the monetary values of tickets of assorted air hoses, it is increasingly doing the shift costs negligible.

Therefore the air power sector is plagued by a monetary value war which has eroded the purchase of the houses.

5 ) Competitive Competition: High

Many participants with no individual largest or industry leader

Small distinction between the rival ‘s merchandises and services

A mature industry plagued by assorted jobs like dunking net incomes and borders due to assorted internal and external factors

Push in the right way

These are some of the political and policy alterations that are traveling to impact the air power industry.

Open Sky Policy

India has signed Air Service Agreements with approximately 40 states along with the European Union, UK and USA. This allows the signers to wing over the skies of India.

Consequence: An addition in reaching of tourers from these states which would ensue in greater influx of foreign currency. Plus there would be an betterments in bilateral dealingss and would ensue in entitlements for both the states.


The Air Corporation Act which was enacted in 1953 when it was repealed in

1994 allowed private participants to run in the air hoses and air power industry. Then with the relaxation of the FDI norms from stringent to chair allowed foreign participants to come in the disturbance. Requirements to go a scheduled operator air bearer were besides reformed.

Consequence: Greater fight in the air power sector which resulted in a win-win state of affairs for the clients who enjoyed cheaper and better flights.

Modernization of Airports

As has been mentioned already a figure of investings are already in topographic point and a few others in the grapevine entirely for the development of the airdrome substructure.

Consequence: Addition in the figure of travellers and encouragement for the operators.

Decrease of excise responsibility on ATF and abolishment of revenue enhancements

Excise responsibility was reduced in 2004 from 16 to 8 % along with the abolishment of the Foreign Travel Tax ( FTT ) and Inland Air Travel Tax ( IAAT ) .

Consequence: Cheaper flights and as such more riders.


Landing charges abolished and the mean age of an aircraft imported to India for commercial air hose operations was reduced by five old ages.


Market Growth: Per capita trips remain at a low degree even by developing states criterions. India – 0.02 per capita trips, China – 0.1 per capita trips, US – 2.2 per capita trips. India is between Nigeria and Ethiopia in this forepart. A batch of range for incursion.

Similarly on the international forepart, less than 1 % of Indians travel overseas each twelvemonth. Inbound visitant Numberss at 5.4 million in 2008 for the full state, were less than for Dubai or Singapore. Thus there is a batch of enlargement potency.

Improvement in the substructure of the airdromes would surely assist in bettering demand in the sector.

Care, Repairs and Overhaul ( MRO ) industry in India is still at a nascent phase and has enormous growing potency. One of the major hinderances in India germinating as an MRO finish was the deficiency of MRO companies holding a globally recognised enfranchisement, such as those issued by the European Aviation Safety Agency ( EASA ) or the Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA ) , to be able to serve leased aircraft of domestic and international air hoses.

Demand Drivers

The demand for civil air power in India usually grew inline with the growing in GDP. However in 2003, when Air Deccan came into the image with its no frills low cost aircrafts it marked a alteration in this tendency. In between 2003 and 2008, with the coming of a few other low cost bearers the demand for civil air power grew at a compound rate in surplus of 30 % ( as measured by domestic riders carried ) .

This demand growing can be attributed to

Lower menus,

Release of pent up demand,

Shift of upper-class railroad travellers to air for journeys of 750 kilometers and more,

Up nomadic aspirations of India ‘s in-between category, and

Better connectivity.

However in the first half of 2008 when air hoses increased menus aggressively the industry showed a negative growing. This underlined the fact that the air power has steep monetary value snap of demand.

Future chances

If the private bearers return to the way of growing in 2010, the Indian air hose rider market could emerge as the fastest growth in the universe. Harmonizing to a Center for Asia Pacific Aviation study, with India ‘s economic system retrieving from the dazes of 2008-09, private bearers are expected to post a entire net income of 250 million dollars to 300 million dollars in the financial twelvemonth that starts at April. However things are non so hunky dinghy for the province owned air hoses as Air India would go on to hold hard currency shortages for five to seven old ages at least due to falling rider Numberss and high operational costs.

As the competition grew tougher and fiercer for the air hose houses, an unforgiving monetary value war began to get down. This undermined the sector and bruised the borders. However it is hoped that rider growing would surpass capacity additions therefore assisting in profitableness. Domestic traffic is expected to post an enlargement of 15 % or more in 2010-11 as the industry returns to long-run growing flight.

What the authorities can make in this respect is to cut down the revenue enhancements, both cardinal and province, on ATF that have resulted in forcing up the monetary values to about 70 % higher than international benchmarks. Decrease of this spread to a more sensible figure ( say, a upper limit of 20 per cent ) would convey down fuel costs by about 30 per cent, cut down break-even tonss, consequence in more competitory pricing and a corresponding addition in demand, and better the air hoses ‘ viability. However there is ever the concern that whether this would interpret into existent benefit to the clients.

A study on Indian Aviation by KPMG says that air hoses in India could be profitable despite lifting air power fuel monetary values, if they focused on bettering efficiency. Since the cost due to ATF occurs merely when the flight is in operation, it means that this operational cost is straight relative to occupancy and burden.

The survey farther said that while ATF monetary values may be taking a toll on profitableness, it is presently non possible for any air hoses in India to do net incomes within three old ages of get downing operations as harmonizing to current capital outgo, break-even occurs in a lower limit of five to seven old ages of operation.

Exhibit: Capacity and Demand Analysis

What is promoting is that analysis of Capacity ( ASKM ) and Demand ( RKPM ) information for the twelvemonth 2009 vis-a-vis 2008 indicates that the air hoses increased the capacity with consequence from July onwards. The information besides suggests that demand has started increasing with consequence from June 2009 bespeaking better use of capacity. Therefore there is hope that the air power sector would make better than how it has performed in last twosome of old ages.