Destination Marketing And Tourism Destination Tourism Essay

The assortment and profusion of finishs around the universe have played an of import function in the success of the touristry sector since 1945 ( Cooper et al.2000 ) . Pike ( 2004 ) defined finish as a topographic point including continents, states, provinces, small towns, purpose-made resort countries which attracts visitants for impermanent stay.

Finish selling is about all the activities and procedures which bring Sellerss and purchasers together, it focuses on competitory placement every bit good as reacting to consumer demands. It is a set of uninterrupted coordinated activities which is associated to administering merchandises to high possible markets expeditiously and it involves determination doing about the 4P ‘s, market cleavage and stigmatization ( WTO 2004:10 ) .

The new tourer is now seeking for new experiences such as genuineness of finishs, larning about different civilizations, larning about the history of the finish and understanding the life style of the host community. Middleton & A ; Clarke ( 2001 ) besides pointed out the fact that the touristry industry faces new and increasing challenges today which arise from the alterations in environment conditions and alterations in tourer behaviour. Therefore these new tendencies must be taken into consideration when planning and marketing the finish ( Cooper et al. 2000 ) .

Murphy et Al ( 2000 ) defined finish as a mix of single merchandises and experience chances which combine to organize a whole experience of the visited country.

Goodall & A ; Ashworth ( 1997 ) stated that finish selling involves a scope of stakeholders and a many-sided merchandise offer. There is an increasing demand for finish selling as client outlooks are lifting and competition between finishs is turning ( Pike 2004, Scott et Al. 2000 ) .

2.1.1 Tourism Destination

A tourer finish is a geographical location which has the necessary constituents to pull tourers and run into their demands ( M. Djurica & A ; N. Djurica 2010, Pearce 1992 ) .

A tourer finish comprises of different constituents which are characterized as the 4 As ( Cooper et al. 2000 ) . The 4 A ‘S are classified as follows ( Cooper et al. 2000 ) :

Attractions which motivate tourer to see the finish and consist of the artificial every bit good as natural characteristics or events.

Comfortss which include a scope of back uping installations and services like adjustment, nutrient, amusement and diversion which are required by tourers at the finish.

Access in footings of development and care of conveyance which provides the nexus to the tourer finish every bit good as the tourer attractive forces at the finish.

Ancillary services which are provided to clients and industry by the finish through a local tourer board.

The finish must do usage of its abilities, resources and chances from the environment in order to make the maximal value and hence be successful. The tourer finish can run into the demands of its consumers better than its rivals by analysing the selling environment ( M. Djurica & A ; N. Djurica 2010 ) .

In the finish selling procedure a SWOT analysis is undertaken so as to supervise the environment to detect chances and enable decision-making which will beef up the tourer finish. A selling chance represents the country of tourers ‘ demands every bit good as involvements where the tourer finish has a great chance of fulfilling those demands.

2.1.2 Tourist attractive forces

Gunn ( 1988 ) stated that touristry attractive forces form an indispensable portion of touristry finishs and that they are one of the four key sections of the touristry system.

Attractions are located within the finish and they form the footing of the touristry merchandise at the finish. A finish without possible or existent touristry attractive forces can non be developed into a touristry finish ( Eduard KuA?en 2010 ) .

There are assorted signifiers of attractive forces but non all of them can be used for touristry, hence those used for touristry intents must be classified as touristry attractive forces. Tourism attractive forces form portion of the basic touristry resources and are one of the major grounds why tourers visit a finish.

Harmonizing to Gunn ( 1988 ) touristry attractive forces are composed of assorted constituents including touristry activities, local scenery, service and amusement.

Inskeep ( 1991 ) stated that touristry attractive forces can be divided into 3 classs ;

Nature attractive force which consists of the environment and natural resources. Natural resources include wildlife, point of views, national Parkss and outstanding natural phenomena such as the Niagara Falls or The Grand Canyon.

Culture attractive force consists of amusements and human activities.

Unique attractive force

Tourists are motivated to see a peculiar finish by the information that they receive and their ain motive ‘Push ‘ them to see a finish where their demands and wants can be satisfied ( Leiper 1990 ) . Smith ( 1996 ) stated that the ‘push ‘ factors are the socio-economic factors of the tourer every bit good as their motive to go and the ‘pull ‘ factors are the information received and the resources which are provided at the finish.

2.2 Destination Image

Image forms a critical portion in the consumer ‘s procedure of choosing a finish ( Baloglu and McCleary, 1999 ; Stepchenkova and Morrison, 2006 ) . Images have a strong influence on travel behaviour as it represents the finish in a tourer ‘s head and provides tourers with a pre-taste of the finish. Destination image is defined as the features of a finish which influence tourers ‘ determination to see that peculiar finish ( Tapachai and Waryszak, 2000 ) .

Baloglu and McCleary, 1999 stated that finish images consist of the perceptual experience of respondents and their affectional rating of the finish. The manner the tourers feel about the finish and the physical properties are really of import in finding a finish ‘s image ( Echtner and Ritchie 1993 ) . The tourer ‘s pick for a finish depends on his or her image of the finish ( Baloglu and McCleary, 1999 ; Chon, 1991 ; Goodrich, 1978 ; Hunt, 1975 ; Mayo, 1973 ; Mayo and Jarvis, 1981 ; Woodside and Lysonski, 1989 ) .

Harmonizing to Gunn ( 1972 ) finish images consist of 3 phases: Organic, induced and modified induced images. Organic images consist of information about a finish such as newspapers, books and wireless which are developed over a long period of clip ( Jenkins 1999 ) . Induced images are formed through a finish marketing plan such as magazines and booklets in order to pull tourers. The induced image can be modified through the existent experience of the tourer at the finish it is hence considered as being modified induced images.

Gartner ( 1989 ) highlighted the fact that finish image plays a really of import function in the success of a finish as a tourer is likely to look for the finish with the most favourable image.

A tourer finish consists of different attractive forces such as cultural attractive forces and mountains therefore a tourer can develop multiple attitudes towards the different attractive forces for illustration a tourer can happen mountains appealing and have a negative attitude towards cultural attractive forces.

Therefore sellers must place the positive images held by tourer and work on those receptive mark markets.

2.2.1 Destination attraction

Pearson ( 1979 ) defined finish attraction as the grade to which the finish meet the outlook of its visitants in footings of nutrient and adjustment, natural beauty, cultural profusion, recreational chances and other comfortss.

Attractiveness is the summing up of feelings, thoughts and beliefs about finishs based on information from assorted beginnings ( MacKay and Fesenmaier 1997 ) . Attraction is the ability of a finish to present single benefits and harmonizing to Gunn ( 1994 ) it constitutes the vitalising power of the touristry system. Ferrario ( 1979 ) highlights the fact that there are factors which can non be classified as attractive forces but which plays a critical function in the attraction of a finish such as the exchange rate, political stableness and substructures.

Harmonizing to Buhalis ( 2000 ) finish attraction plays an of import function in the fight of a finish and encourages people to see a finish. Attractiveness can be measured by analyzing the different attractive forces or by analyzing the perceptual experience of those attracted by them. However Hu and Ritchie ( 1993 ) stated that a finish is attractive merely if the visitants of that finish experience that it is an attractive 1. Therefore weighing the finish attraction harmonizing to its touristry resource base has small effects ( George 2005 ) . A technique which is normally used to mensurate finish attraction is to name the resources found at the finish and seek their importance and evaluations from tourers in specifying the attraction of the finish.

2.3 Selling Scheme

Planning plays an of import function in touristry selling. It includes the finding of ends, the designation of the clip bound every bit good as how to accomplish these ends and placing the individuals responsible for the realisation of the different undertakings ( M. Djurica & A ; N. Djurica 2010 ) .

It is of import to understand the demands of consumers and the proceedings of rivals as it contributes to the addition value of touristry services and merchandises and it helps tourist finish to maintain bing clients while geting new 1s which will hold a good consequence on the profitableness of the finish ( M. Djurica & A ; N. Djurica 2010 )

Marketing schemes should be effectual and efficient and this implies making things right.

For a selling scheme to be effectual and efficient it should ( ( M. Djurica & A ; N. Djurica 2010 ) :

Identify specific ends of the finish.

Identify the resources necessary to accomplish the ends set

Include a complete appraisal of the selling environment

Focus on ways to present a superior value service.

Marketing schemes consist of cleavage, aiming and placement.

Cleavage is to place different groups of tourers at the finish and seek to understand their demands and wants ( M. Djurica & A ; N. Djurica 2010 )

Targeting is about taking which section the tourer finish will offer its services and merchandises. It helps to place the demands and alone features of the tourer to be satisfied. It helps in the planning of the selling mix and acts as a mention point for selling determinations. It besides helps in understanding the rivals as it helps to observe those holding the same mark market and helps in better understanding the alterations and development in the demands of the mark market ( Cooper et al.2000 ) .

Target markets can be based upon many factors such as age, sex, geographic location, visitant type, income degrees, socio-economic groups, purchase attitudes and behaviour and benefits sought.

Positioning is to place competitory advantages so as to place the tourer finish better than the rivals on mark markets.

2.3.1 Marketing Mix

Harmonizing to Kotler and Armstrong ( 1996 ) the selling mix is a set of selling tools which work together to impact on the market place and is the most of import construct in modern selling. The selling mix is under the direction ‘s control and refers to decision-making related to the 4 P ‘s ( Cooper et al.2000 )

The construct of the 4 P ‘s was introduced by Mc Carthy ( 1978 ) based on the term offered earlier by Borden ( 1965 ) sing the selling ingredients. The 4 P ‘s are classified as: Merchandise, Price, Place and Promotion.

For a selling mix to be successful the mark market must be clearly defined as it dictates the assorted ways to utilize the mix. The mark market is an of import component to pattern the selling mix so as to run into the demands of the clients in order for them to judge the merchandise as a superior one compared to that of rivals.


In the touristry industry a merchandise is an intangible service ( Wikipedia ) and merchandises developed should run into the satisfaction of the mark market ( Cooper et al.2000 ) . The merchandise mix consists of service, quality, scope, trade name name and characteristics and benefits.

Service is related to the degree of service to be offered and quality is related to the determinations about quality criterions and execution of confidence method mentioning to degree of public presentation of installations and staff. It is really of import as it creates a repute for the quality of the merchandise and service offered. It is necessary to make up one’s mind upon the scope of merchandises to be offered and how each fits in the merchandise mix.


The pricing policy for touristry merchandises and services is related to the public presentation of the future demand for the merchandises and services. The pricing of touristry merchandises should take into consideration the seasonality of demand and the fact that touristry merchandises and services are perishable. When make up one’s minding upon pricing policies rivals and reactions of consumers must be taken into consideration.

Topographic point

Topographic point is related to distribution. There is no transportation of ownership for touristry merchandise, and services are merely consumed or rented. A distribution system is required for the merchandises to be accessible and available.


It is the mix of communicating activities used to act upon consumers in taking a merchandise or service. Constructing the trade name image and merchandise consciousness is really of import in the promotional attempts. A promotional run should make awareness through information and supply cognition about the merchandise or service and creates a favourable clients attitude towards the merchandise. Harmonizing to Cooper et Al. ( 2000 ) advertisement and gross revenues publicity are the types of publicity which are largely used.

Ad is any paid type of non-personal communicating through the media such as newspapers, travel ushers, magazines, telecasting and wireless which inside informations a merchandise which has an identified patron ( Cooper et al. 2000 )

Gross saless Promotion consists of any activity which offers an inducement to excite a coveted consequence from possible clients, gross revenues force or trade mediators ( Cooper et al. 2000 )

Personal Selling is obtaining benefits through agencies of telephone or face-to-face.

2.3.2 Brand image

Harmonizing to Keller ( 2003 ) a trade name is a merchandise which adds other dimensions that differentiate it from other merchandises and is designed to fulfill the same demands. Stigmatization is the most of import constituent of a finish ‘s selling program ( Kania 2001 ) . The end of branding geographic locations is to make consciousness about the finish and nexus associations in order to make a favourable image to pull visitants every bit good as concerns ( Keller 2003 ) .

The finish itself can be considered as a trade name constituted by the image of the combined services, experiences and goods which are available to tourers ( Buhalis 2000 ) . Residents are really of import in guaranting the consistence of the finish ‘s image hence they should be actively involved in the procedure of finish branding as they form portion of the finishs selling mix ( Howie 2003 ) .

Some advantages of branding are that it creates consciousness and trueness and the drawback is that it is expensive to make and keep.

2.4 Beach Quality

Beachs link the sea and the land and face many menaces which can be classified as semisynthetic menaces or natural menaces. Man-made menaces can be oil spillage and natural menaces can be eroding. There should be proper planning in order to pull off environmental impacts and attract tourer.

2.4.1 Importance of Beaches

Beachs are of import for recreational and leisure activities and supply Marine home ground for many species. Beachs are the chief factors for pulling tourers and locals to coastal countries. Tourism is extremely dependent on the environment be it natural and semisynthetic and the natural resources constitute of seas, beaches, mountains, woods and lakes.

Harmonizing to the World travel and touristry council ( 1998 ) beaches are the largest factor in travel and touristry. Beach touristry is one of the oldest signifiers of touristry and is besides known as coastal touristry and harmonizing to Hall ( 2001 ) coastal touristry appears every bit popular as of all time.

For illustration, Florida is extremely dependent on its 825 stat mis of flaxen beaches as they are Florida ‘s primary tourer attractive force and convey significant economic benefits to the state ( Florida section of environmental protection agency of beaches ) .

Seashores account for most touristry activities and are hence the most of import resources of maritime parts ( Dragicevic, Klaric, Kusen, 1997 ) . Beachs can be classified as rock slab beaches, pebble beaches and sandy beaches which are located in lagunas are extremely valued. Islands are besides of import resources of nautical parts as they have a high power of attractive force ( R. Knezevic 2008 ) . Islands are extremely valued environmentally and are preserved countries, harmonizing to Mikacic ( 1995 ) they represent the strategic potency of the touristry trade.

Seawater is a resource which attracts tourers. There are assorted chemical and physical belongingss like salt, temperature and transparence which determine the value of saltwater as a touristry resource. The motion of saltwater such as tides and moving ridges is besides of import as it impacts on guest behaviour. The cleanliness of saltwater is another of import factor in finding its value as a touristry resource ( Reginald I Burke Carribean Policy Development Centre ) .

Carribean touristry normally takes topographic point on the seashore and are classified in the 3S class that is sun, sea and sand touristry and harmonizing to Patullo ( 2005 ) , Potter et Al. ( 2004 ) and Strachan ( 2002 ) the Carribean islands touristry industry does non travel much beyond the 3S. The Carribean islands have non done much to pull ecotourists or heritage tourers.

Many tourers travel for the 3S, for illustration St.Lucia and Barbados are finishs where the traditional Sun, sea and sand touristry is typical and hence these finishs focus on the 3S in order to pull more tourers. There are many sea activities such as fishing, rowing, rafting, kayaking and canoeing which attract tourers to a finish ( Reginald I Burke Carribean Policy Development Centre ) .

In many coastal countries, beaches are subjected to strong human activity and this rise the demand to measure beaches and have quality standards in order to sort them.

Tourism can hold both positive and negative impacts on the natural resources of a finish.

2.4.2 Negative impacts of Tourism

Tourism development requires back uping substructures which have a negative consequence on the environment particularly on the coastal, Marine, tellurian ecosystem and drinkable H2O resources ( Reginald I Burke Carribean Policy Development Centre )

Most of the impacts of touristry are the consequences of improper direction of waste H2O or liquid waste. The touristry industry has a negative impact on the environment in footings of solid waste coevals, sand compression which consequences from the use of beaches by tourers and vehicles and physical harm to corals from boat ground tackles ( Reginald I Burke Carribean Policy Development Centre ) .

Pollution is another negative impact of touristry. The touristry industry generates a batch of waste which has indirect every bit good as direct impacts on the environment. Solid waste generated by the touristry industry besides includes refuse which is generated by ships and pollution travels with sea current. Plastics play an of import function in the impairment of the Marine and coastal environment and besides in the decease and maiming of Marine animate beings. Beachs are polluted with tins and broken spectacless which are disposed on the beach and which can wound tourer every bit good as local occupants ( Reginald I Burke Carribean Policy Development Centre ) .

One of the chief impacts of the touristry industry is liquid waste. The touristry industry generates a significant sum of untreated liquid waste from hotels, oil spillage from sail ships and chemicals from golf class which are disposed in the sea. For illustration in Barbados, hotels which are situated on the seashore have extremely contributed to environmental debasement ( Reginald I Burke Carribean Policy Development Centre ) .

There are besides pathogens which are introduced into the sea through sewerage which are non adequately treated and this could be unsafe for both tourer and locals who use these beaches. The viruses and bacteriums which are introduced in the sea can besides be harmful to corals and prohibits their growing ( Reginald I Burke Carribean Policy Development Centre ) .

Gasoline used in recreational vehicles and the decomposition of bottles and Sns increase the degree of toxicity in the sea and is hence harmful to wildlife and aquatic workss. The building of touristry installations along the seashore generates dust and particulate affairs which may hold a negative impact on the marine environment and may besides do noise pollution.

Wilkinson ( 1989 ) stated that the concentration of resorts and big substructures along the seashore destroys the beaches every bit good as Rhizophora mangles and pollutes the laguna through sewerage dumping, sand excavation and dredging. Mangroves are cut down to be used in the development of hotels.

Pollution of beaches has led to the closing of many beaches in recent old ages for illustration in the 1980s more than 80 million dozenss of refuse was gathered during the one-year beach clean-ups.

The chief environmental impacts of touristry on beaches are generated through eroding, congestion and pollution. Pollution every bit good as eroding can be the consequence of touristry activities but they are non the exclusive effect of the touristry industry.

Overcrowding of beaches leads to sand compression and can be harmful to aquatic workss and Marine animals. Beach visible radiations besides affect Marine animals and Acts of the Apostless as pollution.

Most of the negative effects of touristry are due to inadequate planning. Tourism activities can degrade the environment but it can besides lend to an bing environmental debasement due to occupants ‘ project.

2.4.3 Positive impact of touristry

However touristry helps in the preservation of natural countries every bit good as biodiversity. The development and execution of new engineerings can assist to minimise touristry environmental impacts and widen the preservation of natural resources ( Reginald I Burke Carribean Policy Development Centre ) .

2.5 New Forms of Tourism

Harmonizing to the World Tourism Organization ( 1999 ) there are cardinal market sections which are turning in importance such as: eco-tourism, adventure touristry, cultural touristry, infinite touristry, sail market and thematic touristry.

The ‘experience searchers ‘ are a new section of international tourers who are looking for unfabricated locations, natural location, eco-experiences, autochthonal civilizations and more interesting types of adjustments as ecolodges, cottages or cabanas. The experience searchers want to see religious growing, active athleticss and nature ( EDSA et al. 2005 ) .

Agarwal ( 2002 ) and Sedmak et Al. ( 2008 ) besides highlighted the fact that 3S touristry is going disused as the touristry industry is increasing and caters for new market sections.

2.5.1 Ecotourism

Harmonizing to Hector Ceballos – Lascurain ecotourism is going to uncontaminated or undisturbed natural countries with the aim to analyze admire and bask the scenery and its vegetations and zoologies every bit good as the yesteryear and present cultural facets of these countries ( Weaver 2006 ) whereas David A. Funnel ( 2003 ) defined ecotourism as being a sustainable signifier of touristry which is natural resource-based and which focuses chiefly on larning and sing about nature, and which is managed in such a manner that it is non-consumptive, low-impact and locally oriented. It occurs in natural countries and contributes to the saving or preservation of such countries.

Wallace and Pierce suggested that ecotourism should turn to six rules ( T. Dimoska, J. Kocevski 2010 ) :

It should affect a type of usage which minimizes negative impacts on the environment every bit good as the local community.

It should excite the consciousness and apprehension of an country ‘s cultural and natural system and should affect visitants in issues sing those systems.

It should lend to the proper direction and preservation of protected countries every bit good as other natural 1s.

It should maximise the engagement of the local community in the decision-making procedure on a long-run footing.

It should convey economic benefits to the local community which complements instead than replacing traditional patterns.

It should supply local people with chances to see natural countries and larn more about the admirations that tourists come to see.

There are two types of ecotourism: difficult and soft ecotourism nevertheless Weaver and Lawton stated that there is a 3rd type of ecotourism being structured ecotourism ( Weaver 2006 ) .

Benefits of ecotourism ( Wearing et al. 1999, Gaul 2003 ) :

-It encourages the apprehension of the impacts of touristry on the cultural, human and natural environment.

-It ensures a good distribution of costs and benefits and improves the life conditions and comfort of local people.

-It generates occupations for the local community either straight in the touristry sector or in the different support sectors and improves the instruction of the local people.

-It motivates profitable domestic industries and helps to pay the preservation of archaeological sites and historic edifices.

-It generates foreign exchange and injects capital in the local economic system.

-It diversifies the local economic system and involves all the sections of the society in the decision-making procedure.

-It encourages the betterment of local communications, basic substructures and conveyance, and it creates recreational installations which can be used both by tourers and locals.

-It helps in monitoring, measuring and pull offing the impacts of touristry and developing schemes to minimise negative impacts.

-It revitalizes the elements of traditional civilization and improves cognition about carnal behaviour and distribution.

-It encourages the protection of vegetations and zoologies.

2.5.2 Cultural and Heritage Tourism

Harmonizing to TomljenoviA‡ ( 2006 ) Cultural touristry is about journeys which include visits to cultural attractive forces outside a individual ‘s normal environment with the purpose of geting new experiences and cognition in order to fulfill the cultural demands of an person.

Cultural heritage touristry is going to see activities, artefacts and topographic points which represent genuinely the history every bit good as people of the yesteryear and the present ( National Trust for Historic Preservation ) Heritage touristry sites are made up of historic, natural and cultural resources.

The demand for cognition and civilization motivates tourers to go as they want to unite leisure and cognition. Different life styles and civilizations are cardinal motives for tourers to see ( Hussein Alhroot et Al. 2009 ) .

Harmonizing to the National Trust Fund there are 5 rules for cultural heritage touristry to be successful:

Collaboration among the different spouses.

Finding and Fitting what the country needs to make and can make in footings of cultural heritage touristry through local fortunes.

Making sites every bit good as plans alive as tourers want to detect the human play of history.

Concentrating on genuineness and quality.

Protecting and continuing traditions, landscapes, edifices and particular topographic points which attract tourers.

Benefits of Cultural Tourism:

It can supply a vehicle for cultural exchange and apprehension as it can supply a tourer with a mix of educational experiences and amusement of other communities.

It encourages saving and preservation of heritage sites.

It revitalizes trade industries and traditional edifices.

It generates local development and economic activities and hence diversifies the local economic system. Cultural and Heritage tourers stay longer at the finishs and pass more money than the other types of tourers as they have the profile of being more educated and holding higher incomes.

It promotes community pride in cultural individuality and enhances coaction between the local community and organisations

It creates occupations every bit good as new concern chances and improves the criterion of life of the local community.

2.5.3 Adventure touristry

Adventure touristry is an out-of-door leisure activity which by and large takes topographic point in an alien, unusual, wilderness or remote scene and it involves some unconventional agencies of transit and is associated to high or low degrees of physical activity ( Maria Heneghan Fact Sheet No. 55 2006 ) .

There are assorted activities which fall under adventure touristry such as kayaking, boosting, stone mounting, Trekking, Wind surfboarding and so on.

Adventure touristry can be classified into 2 classs: Soft and difficult escapade

Soft escapade is a type of escapade which requires small or no experience and is low hazard that is it is safe and does non necessitate inordinate physical attempts. Some illustrations of soft escapade are bicycling, bivouacing and walking.

Difficult escapade is a type of escapade which requires more physical attempts and consists of a high component of hazard. Some illustrations of difficult escapade are mountain biking, mountaineering and white H2O rafting.

Benefits of Adventure touristry:

It injects money into the local economic system and creates occupations for the local community.

It motivates people to go more environment-friendly and to be cognizant of the importance of the environment.

It supports the local community

It helps in the creative activity of enterprisers.

There are besides other types of touristry which are emerging like medical touristry. However the figure of visitants and substructures which are needed to back up these assorted signifiers of touristry can set a major strain on the different resources which attract visitants ( National Trust for Historic Preservation ) . Therefore there should be a good planning and direction of the different signifiers of touristry