An event such as the World cup Football can be a agencies for long term chances for the vicinity or state hosting the event by bettering and redeveloping its image. Such events are held for a short continuance of clip but are really important in pulling or retaining nomadic capital, in peculiar foreign direct investing. ( Rogerson, C. M. , 2009 ) Some of these Mega events include the Olympic Games and the FIFA Soccer World Cup. The Soccer World Cup has the largest engagement and spectatorship in the universe.
Although there are a batch of benefits of hosting such events, there are besides several jobs and hazards associated with it.
This study surveies the several hazards involved in the FIFA World cup in 2010 to be held in South Africa. It compares the 2006 universe cup held in Germany with the 2010 universe cup showing the hazards that could endanger the event, which are specific to Africa. It besides assesses the stairss that have been or could be taken to extinguish or minimise the negative effects of the hazards by the host state.
Comparison of Germany and S. Africa as universe cup hosts
Hosting an international Mega event such as the FIFA has benefits of international exposure but it besides brings with it immense outlooks and important sum of investings associated with hosting such an event. Harmonizing to Maennig and Du Plessis, ( Maennig, W. and Du Plessis, S. 2007 ) investing for outgo and funding at the state degree for installations, substructure and organisation is an of import facet to be considered by the host state.
Germany is one of the largest economic systems in Europe. Germans are known for being good organized and efficient. The German conveyance system is besides dependable and safe which is a really of import facet in hosting the universe cup.
Inspite of Germany holding a good substructure in topographic point, a big sum of money was spent in substructure development and bowl upgradations. ( Maennig, W. and Du Plessis, S. 2007 ) . … … … … .put sum
Whereas, SA is known for offense, a deficient public conveyance web, high laterality of HIV/ AIDS, a terrible deficiency of accomplishment, among few factors which could be the cause of hazards at the WC event. The investing required by SA would be much more as compared to Germany. For a state like SA with a high rate of poorness and unemployment where basic necessities are hard to obtain, a mega undertaking like the universe cup seemed inappropriate by most S. Africans.
Other perceived troubles in SA as compared to Germany included the net income through the gross revenues of tickets. Although SA has the largest economic system in the continent, there is a likeliness that the sale of tickets and thereby the net income would be affected due to poverty. The South African organisation commission programs to sell tickets at an mean ticket monetary value of more than US $ 236. SA has an unemployment rate of about 27 % and mean monthly incomes of the South Africans is US $ 280 doing it hard for the mean citizen of Africa to purchase the tickets. ( Maennig, W. and Du Plessis, S. 2007 ) .
Hazards on the economic system:
Past Events held in South Africa
Among the developing states, Africa has non been at power with Asia and South America in hosting Mega Sports events.
In the past South Africa has hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup, the 1996 African Cup of Nations, the 1998 All Africa Games and the 2003 Cricket World Cup.
South Africa has been one of the few African states which have been proactive in hosting mega-events in athletics. Most of the developing states such as Africa face societal and economic challenges, costs and infrastructural demands for command and hosting mega-events. ( Hiller, 2000, p. 440 )
The 2003 Cricket World Cup
The 8th cricket universe cup was jointly held by South Africa, Zimbabwe and Kenya. Co hosting the event led to a figure of unanticipated events.
Political issues & A ; Security: There were several political issues during the cricket universe cup which led to menaces in security of the participants. Two terrorist onslaughts took topographic point in Kenya merely before the universe cup. New Zealand boycotted the event due to safety concerns taking to increase in Political rifts between states.
Inspite of the hazards the cricket universe cup in South Africa turned out to be a successful event. The success of the universe cup shows SA as a state more capable than other African states which are able to keep big scale international athleticss events. Many other African states are non able to guarantee satisfactory degrees of security. However, the success of the Cricket World Cup was widely proclaimed as a major economic and promotion effort for the continent, yet
the political webs that characterized the event carried some wider deductions for African states ‘ entree to and engagement in high-profile international events. Although, the universe cup event was a failure as a undertaking of the ‘African Renaissance ‘ to an international audience.
Hazards in the 2010 universe cup in South Africa
‘Risk direction is a subject for life with the possibility that future events may do inauspicious effects. ‘ ( Flanagan R. , Norman, G. , 1993 ) .
Hazards are assessed by expectancy, designation followed by the planning of responses, to assist cut down or extenuate issues in the planning phases. Pull offing hazards in really big featuring events is really of import. “ Being aware of possible hazards allows a hazard director to near an event in a general manner and so acquire event particular ” . ( Berlonghi A. , 1990 ) .
For the 2010 event in South Africa to be successful it is necessary to place the likely hazards in the event.
Hazard Identification and steps
The undermentioned hazards can be speculated and a suited hazard extenuation scheme put in topographic point for the 2010 universe cup in SA.
Political Hazards at command
Crime ( hooliganism, vandalism, terrorist act )
Hazard: SA has a really high offense rate since decennaries and is ranked as the 2nd most unsafe metropolis in the universe to populate in. One of the major hazards to the event is to supply equal safety, security and policing to the 350,000 international tourers who are expected to go to the event. ( Donaldson, R. and Ferreira, S. , 2007 ) . During the WC, there are a big figure of people sing the state over a short period of clip. There is a possibility for rival protagonists to collide ( vandalism ) ; such big crowds are besides vulnerable to terrorist onslaughts thereby making safety and security concerns in add-on to the bing offense in the state. The likely hazards due to offense can take to a decrease in the figure of visitants in SA go toing the event.
There have besides been strong links between athleticss and terrorist act. ( Toohey, K. , 2008 )
Hazard Schemes in topographic point:
SA has a security program in topographic point which has been submitted to and approved by FIFA. The SA constabularies are being trained for any such incidents which are likely to take topographic point during the event. In add-on to this SA the participating states would be directing their ain security forces to help their participants and the SA constabularies force. SA is besides organizing with international organic structures to roll up information sing any terrorist activity in and around the event. Add mention… … … … … … ..
Control measures to extenuate the hazards:
In add-on to the proposed security program, it is of import to guarantee the safety in and around bowls, within public conveyance, public topographic points such as bars, hotels and eating houses in the host metropoliss.
To fix against condemnable onslaughts, it is necessary to analyze the location of offense, the location of violators in the metropolis, and the positions of local citizens. Before the choice of the location of the bowls, informations should ‘ve been collected sing the offense rate around these countries. Detailed survey should be done in the locality of every bowl and should so be incorporated in the sanctioned programs for safety and security at the 2010 WC event.
The security program would cover the undermentioned countries: Road security and public conveyance, locales ( preparation, lucifer and bowls ) , public topographic points such as the Parks where the fans could run into the participants, residential countries of the participants, organizers, VIPs, at activities which take topographic point before and after the lucifers, media centre. Security would besides be required for protecting tourers, commanding the crowd and at the airdrome and havens. ( Horn, A. & A ; Breetzke, G. 2009 ) .
In order to fix a hazard scheme for security it is necessary to take into consideration the financess, resources and the capableness to engage and develop human resources.
Expensive hazard direction schemes, frequently affecting international cooperation between authoritiess, are now being implemented at major featuring events to forestall any terrorist onslaughts.
Opportunity: The 2010 World Cup event is a opportunity to cover with the negative position about South Africa and to construct a favoured tourer finish image.
Health and Safety
Hazard: SA has one of the highest instances of HIV in the universe, and the international visitants at the universe cup event face a high hazard of undertaking this virus. Presently there is a deficit of HIV drugs and scarceness of wellness professionals who are non paid good. ( Smith, A. D. , 2009 ) . It is besides necessary for SA to take safeguards against the spread of catching diseases like the avian grippe. An eruption of such an epidemic merely before the WC would set the event at a immense hazard. During the events there is a high hazard of force due to alcohol ingestion. Vandalism can besides take to people being hurt by hiting or knifing. Medical issues due to accidents, menaces can take to exigencies for which organizing commission demands to be prepared.
Control measures to extenuate the hazards:
It is critical to hold an AIDS bar program in topographic point by consciousness, bar and intervention plans.
Commissariats in the signifier of medical services within the bowls should be made. Rules and ordinances should be established sing counsel for wellness and safety at big assemblages and exigency medical services at public locations such as developing evidences and position Parkss. There should be sufficient staff available for supplying the necessary services. ( Yancey, H.A et all.2008 )
Hazard extenuation scheme for keeping wellness and safety during the event should include:
Event research- Harmonizing to Yancey et all ( Yancey, H.A et all.2008 ) , an initial reappraisal of information from the earlier WC, will help the development of appropriate timelines for planning.
Event investigation- It is necessary to guarantee that each event site is subjected to wellness and medical probe so that there is timely entree to and emptying of anyone in demand of medical attention, in instance of exigencies.
Surveillance systems- To place the people in demand of medical assistance in order to supply immediate intervention.
Enough skilled personnel/ staff would be required to take attention of the demand for medical attention.
It is necessary to hold separate and easy entree to medical installations for witnesss, participants and VIPs.
There is a demand for proviso to be made for mass casualty incident planning due to vandalism, which is really common at such events.
( Yancey, H.A et all.2008 )
Hazards impacting the Health and safety at the event can non be wholly avoided, but they can be mitigated by proper planning and steps in topographic point in instance of an contingency.
Opportunity: The WC can make chances for new schemes and extra resources that could beef up the public wellness system, upon which the bulk of South Africans rely for bar and attention. ( Yancey, H.A et all.2008 )
Transportation system and Infrastructure
Hazard: SA is known for its sub criterion conveyance system and for this event it is puting more than R400 billion to upgrade it. However, SA faces a hazard of the substructure non being completed in clip for the universe cup 2010 due to schedule holds and budget overproductions. This failure could do terrible jobs to the visitants at the event. The substructure work includes the rapid theodolite coach system, Gauteng freeway betterment strategy, the upgradation and building of new bowls. The hazards which could do hold to the undertakings are load casting, bad conditions ( rain ) , quality of the land where building is taking topographic point ( difficult stone or dolomite ) , the location of building in a dumbly populated country doing obstructor, issues due to the environmental impact of these undertakings, or opposition from the cab associations kicking against loss of income and deficiency of compensation due to the building of rapid theodolite system. ( Steyn, G. 2008 )
Control measures to extenuate the hazards:
The likeliness of happening of these hazards is high with a really high impact on the event. These hazards should be mitigated by wholly avoiding them. This can be done by forcing the completion day of the month frontward so that sufficient clip can be kept for any little last minute alterations required to be done. Milestones for completion at intervals would help in avoiding the hazard of unseasoned systems. ( Steyn, G. 2008 ) , Quantifying the hazards can assist in prioritizing the hazards which need to be dealt with first in order to
Opportunity: Inspite of the immense sum of money being spent on conveyance and substructure, this will be good for the short and long term growing of the South African economic system.
Electricity Supply deficits
Hazard: There is really high hazard of power failure during the events, as SA is known for blackouts in the yesteryear where the people have been left stranded. This could non merely interrupt the event but besides cause pandemonium in the conveyance system and besides scar Africa ‘s image.
Response in topographic point [ Avoidance ]
Although South Africa ‘s electricity is one of the universes cheapest, it would be safer to utilize generators due to the hazard of power cuts/ failure because the cost of the failure of the event due to the power cuts would be much more. ( Mantshantsha, S. , 2009 )
Catastrophes: ( Fire, Environmental hazard e.g. , pollution, natural catastrophes )
SA has suffered catastrophes such as drouth, temblor, implosion therapy, and jobs with nutrient security in the yesteryear. At an event such as the universe cup there is a high hazard of a catastrophe such as a fire taking topographic point. It is necessary to fix for extenuation and effectual response in instance of happening of disaster/fire hazards. There can be hazards due to lack of skilled staff, deficit of equipment, deficit of financess and clip restraints.
Response in topographic point [ Reduction ] :
These hazard need to be avoided by guaranting effectual safety and security legal demands. Hazard appraisals, bar and extenuation schemes promote the demands of the municipal catastrophe direction program. Risk decrease enterprises can be made by promoting formal and informal programs for avoiding hazards, by commiting hazard appraisals, reexamining catastrophe direction programs and increasing the capacity of stakeholders to understate the hazard and impact of catastrophes. There is a demand to fix for an effectual response scheme in instance of major incidents or catastrophes and the response plans get implemented. This can be done through enlisting and preparation of people. There is besides a demand to fix for recovery in instance of the contingency. For this it is necessary to hold insurance, alleviation financess and national support in topographic point.
This event is a really ‘ high hazard ‘ undertaking with ‘high returns ‘for SA if effectual hazard direction is in topographic point. Developing states like Africa can utilize the 2010 universe cup event as a platform to carry through political aims, construct their image as a safe tourer finish and to convey about integrity with other African states.
However, due the big sum of investing required in substructure and necessary resources, the event can do a load for the state instead than benefits, if non managed decently. There are besides many hazards specific to SA which need to be accounted for in fixing a hazard extenuation scheme such as the high rate of offense, political issues, power failure during the event, deficiency of proper substructure and hazard of force because of competition during the game. The chief factors that need to be considered are location, old experience, staff, installations, timing, size, political relations, civilization and complexness of the event.
It is necessary to be proactive and assess all possible hazards to the events and its stakeholders by strategically placing, cut downing, avoiding, reassigning or accepting, for be aftering responses to extenuate those identified hazards.
The hazards associated with the universe cup to be held in SA can be summarized as below:
PROBABILITY OF OCCURANCE OF RISK
Health and Safety
Electricity supply deficits
Information engineering & A ; Telecommunication
Marketing Signage & A ; Communication