Child Psychology Sample Essay

* Attachment theory
* John Bowlby
* Children are biologically predisposed to develop fond regards with health professionals as a agency of increasing the opportunities of their ain endurance * Secure base is Bowlby’s term for an attachment figure’s presence that provides an baby or yearling with a sense of security that makes it possible for the baby to research the environment * Four Phases

* Preattachment stage ( birth – 6 hebdomads )
* Infant produces unconditioned signals ( shouting ) that conveying others to his or her side and is comforted by the interaction that follows ( being picked up ) * Attachment-in-the-making ( 6 hebdomads – 8 months ) * The stage in which babies begin to react preferentially to familiar people * Clear-cut fond regard ( 6-8 months – 1. 5-2 old ages ) * Infant actively seeks contact with their regular health professionals and typically shows separation protest or hurt when the health professional departs * Stranger anxiousness appears

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

* Reciprocal relationships ( 1. 5-2 old ages – on )
* Children takes an active function in developing working partnerships with their health professionals * Internal Working Model of Attachment
* The kid develops a mental representation of the ego. of attachment figures. and of relationships in general * This working theoretical account ushers children’s interactions with health professionals and other people in babyhood and at older ages * Operant Conditioning

* B. F. Skinner
* Research on the nature and map of support
* Attention is the most powerful support
* Intermittent Reinforcement is most powerful type of support
* Behavior alteration
* Classical Conditioning
* John Watson

* Behaviorism
* Children’s development determined by societal environment
* Learning through conditioning was the primary mechanism of development
* Psychosexual Development
* Sigmund Freud
* Behavior motivated by the demand to fulfill basic biological thrusts
* Largely unconscious
* Universal phases in which psychic energy becomes focused on different erogenous zones

* Psychic energy
* The biologically based instinctual thrusts that energize behaviour. ideas. and feelings
* Erogenous zones
* Areas of the organic structure that become erotically sensitive in consecutive phases of development
* Five Phases
* Oral ( first twelvemonth )
* The primary beginning of satisfaction and pleasance is unwritten activity. During this phase. the female parent is established as the strongest love object.
* ID
* The biological thrusts with which the baby is born
* The earliest and most crude personality construction
* Unconscious and operates with the end of seeking pleasance
* Anal ( 1 – 3 old ages )

* The primary beginning of pleasance comes from laxation * EGO
* Emerges in the first twelvemonth
* The rational. logical. problem-solving constituent of personality * Phallic ( 3 – 6 old ages )
* Characterized by the localisation of pleasance in the genital organ * SUPEREGO
* Based on the child’s internalisation ( or acceptance as his or her ain ) of the parents’ attributes. beliefs. and criterions * Requires declaration of the Oedipus and Electra composites *
Latency ( 6 – 12 old ages )

* Characterized by the channeling of sexual energy into socially acceptable activities * Genital ( 12+ old ages )
* Sexual ripening is complete and sexual intercourse becomes a major end * Healthy is there is apogee in the ability to put oneself in and derive pleasance from both love and work * If cardinal demands are non met during any phase. kids may go fixated on these demands. continually trying to fulfill them. * Theory of Role Taking

* Selman
* Four Phases
* 6 – 8 old ages
* Children semen to appreciate that another individual can hold a different position from their ain. but they attribute this to the other person’s non holding the same information they do * 8 – 10 old ages

* Children become able to believe about the other person’s point of position * 10 – 12 old ages
* Children can consistently compare their ain and the other’s points of position * 12+ old ages
* Adolescents can compare another person’s position to that of generalised one * Information Processing Theory
* Dodge
* Theory of societal job work outing
* Children’s usage of aggression as a problem-solving scheme * Highly aggressive kids have a hostile attributional prejudice * Theory of Self Attribution and Achievement Motivation

* Dweck
* Emphasizes the function of self-attributions in academic accomplishment * Entity/helplessness orientation
* Attribute success and failure to digesting facets of the ego and tend to give up in the face of failure * Incremental/mastery
orientation
* Attribute success and failure to the sum of attempt expended and persist in the face of failure * Applies to how they perceive their ain intelligence * Entity theory

* Incremental theory
* Social Learning Theory
* Albert Bandura
* Observation and imitation instead than support as primary mechanisms of development * Harmonizing to Bandura. preschool kids can get new behaviours through detecting others * Vicarious support

* Reciprocal Determinism
* Child-environment influences operate in both waies * Perceived self-efficacy
* Individuals’ belief about how efficaciously he/she can command his ain behaviours. ideas and emotions to accomplish a coveted end * Psychosocial Development
* Erikson
* Behavior is motivated by psychosocial thrusts
* Development driven by crises related to age and biological ripening * Individual must decide these crises successfully for healthy development * Eight age-related phases ( five during childhood and adolescence ) * Each phase is characterized by specific crisis that they individual must decide * If the dominant issue of a phase is non successfully resolved before the following phase begins. the individual will go on to fight with it * Eight Stages

* Trust vs. Mistrust ( first twelvemonth )
* Developing trust in other people is the important issue * Autonomy vs. Shame and uncertainty ( 1 – 3. 5 old ages ) * The challenge is to accomplish a strong sense of liberty while seting to increased societal demands * Initiative vs. guilt ( 4 – 6 old ages )

* Resolved when the kid develops high criterions and the enterprise to run into them without being crushed by concern about non being able to mensurate up * Industry vs. Inferiority ( 6 – pubescence )

* The kid must get the hang cognitive and societal accomplishments. learn to work industriously. and play good with others * Identity vs. Role Confusion ( adolescence – early maturity ) * Adolescents must decide the inquiry of who they truly are or live in confusion about what roles they should play as grownups * Theory of Moral Judgment

* Piaget
* Describes alteration from stiff credence of the regulations to an grasp that moral regulations are a merchandise of societal interaction and hence are modifiable * Methods:
* Observed children’s games
* Interviewed kids utilizing scenarios and asked them to do judgements as to which kid was blue * Breaking cups scenarios
* Until age 6. kids will state the kid who broke 15 cups is naughtier despite his good motivations * Three Phases
* Morality of Constraint ( until age 6 )
* Typical of kids who have non reached the concrete operations stage * Rules are “givens” and established by an grownup * What determines a good or bad action is the effect of the action. non the motivation behind it * Transition Period ( 7 or 8 – 10 old ages )

* Through equal interaction. childs learn that regulations can be constructed by the group * Learn to take one another’s position
* Becoming more independent in their thought about moral issues * Autonomous Morality ( 11 or 12 old ages )
* Moral relativism emerges
* All normal kids making this phase
* Understand that regulations can be changed if a group agrees to
make so * Consider equity and equality among people as of import factors in building regulations * Consider individuals’ motivations when measuring their offenses * They know when things are inadvertent or on purpose * Kohlberg

* Three Levels of Moral Judgment
* Preconventional
* Moral logical thinking is egoistic. concentrating on acquiring wagess and avoiding penalty * Conventional
* Moral logical thinking is centered on societal relationships * Focus on societal responsibilities and Torahs
* Postconventional
* Moral logical thinking is involved with ideals. concentrating on moral rules * Each degree involves two phases of moral judgement
* Six Stages
* 1. Punishment and Obedience ( PRECONVENTIONAL )
* What is seen as right is obedience to governments * Conscience based on fright of penalty
* The kid does non see the involvements of others or acknowledge that they differ from his or her ain involvements

* 2. Instrumental and Exchange ( PRECONVENTIONAL ) * Morality is defines in footings of one’s ain best involvement or a tit-for-tat exchange of benefits * What is right is what is in one’s ain best involvement or involves equal exchange between people * 3. Common Interpersonal Expectations. Relationships. and Interpersonal Conformity ( CONVENTIONAL ) * Good behaviour is making what is expected by people near to the person or by carry throughing the outlooks of a societal function * Being good is of import: agencies holding good motivations. demoing concern about others. and keeping good relationships with others * 4. Social System and Conscience ( CONVENTIONAL ) * Right behaviour involves carry throughing one’s responsibilities. continuing Torahs. and lending to society or one’s group * Motivated to maintain societal system traveling

* 5. Social Contract or Individual Rights ( POSTCONVENTIONAL )
* Right behaviour involves continuing regulations that are in the best involvement of the group * The greatest good for the greatest figure * Right behaviour is impartial. or was agreed upon by the group * However. some values and rights are universally right. regardless of majority’s sentiment * 6. Universal Ethical Principles ( POSTCONVENTIONAL ) * Valuess and rights are universally right and must be upheld regardless of majority’s sentiment * Right behaviour = committedness to self-chosen ethical rules * Reflect cosmopolitan rules of justness

* When Torahs violate these rules. act in conformity with rules instead than the jurisprudence * Kohlberg argued that people go through phases in the same order * Differ with respect to the concluding phase they attain * Kohlberg contended that cognitive development. particularly perspective taking. determined advancement through the phases * Theory of Prosocial Judgment

* Eisenberg
* Voluntary behaviour intended to profit another. such as assisting. sharing. and supplying comfort. instead than being right or incorrect * Children with higher-level prosocial moral concluding tend to be more sympathetic and more prosocial in their behaviour that kids who use lower-level prosocial moral judgement * Children are capable of prosocial behaviours. but kids differ in frequence and concluding behind them * Developmental consistence in children’s battle in prosocial behaviours. such as sharing. assisting. and soothing * Parents want their kids to be prosocial for selfless grounds * Be we are non all selfless and we don’t ever do what’s right * Altruistic behaviour rooted in experiencing empathy and sympathy * Empathy

* An emotional reaction to another’s emotional province or status that is similar to that person’s province or status * Sympathy
* The feeling of concern for another individual in reaction to the other’s emotional province or status ; frequently an result of sympathizing with another’s negative emotion or state of affairs * Five Phases

* 1. Hedonic. self-focused orientation
* 2. Needs-based orientation
* 3. Approval and/or stereotyped orientation
* 4a. Self-reflective empathetic orientation
* 4b. Passage degree
* 5. Strongly internalized phase

Specific QUESTIONS
* Three things that Piaget and Kohlberg’s moral theories have in common. *
* What make Freud and Erikson’s theories have in common?
* Both are psychoanalytic theories
* Development driven by biological ripening ( which interacts with experience ) * Continuity of single differences ( early experiences form subsequently development ) * Stress on phases and hence discontinuity in development * Both are wide and untestable

* What is the difference between male childs and misss harmonizing to Freud in footings of the composites they have to decide? * Male childs: Oedipus composite
* Conflict experienced by male childs in the phallic period because of their sexual desire for their female parent and their fright of revenge by their male parent * Girls: Electra composite
* Conflict experienced by misss in the phallic phase when they develop unacceptable romantic feelings for their male parent and see their female parent as rival * What do the acquisition theoreticians have in common?

* Stress the importance of cognitive factors and the active function kids play in their ain development * Emphasize continuity
* Focus on mechanisms of alteration
* Relevant for research and children’s public assistance
* What are the three theoreticians we studied in the acquisition theories?
* Watson’s Behaviorism
* Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
* Bandura’s Social Learning
* What curative intercession comes out of behaviourism? What kinds of things are it used to handle? * Systematic desensitisation
* Form of therapy based on classical conditioning in which positive responses are bit by bit conditioned to stimuli that ab initio elicit a extremely negative response. * Used to handle fright and phobic disorder

* What curative intercession comes out of Operant conditioning? * Skinner
* Maladaptive behaviour behaviour alteration
* What is ( harmonizing to Skinner ) one of the most powerful reinforcing stimuluss? * Attention
* What is the most powerful agenda of support?
* Intermittent
* Michael whines to acquire what he wants. In order to snuff out his behaviour you should? * Not pay attending to him when he whines
* Michael whines to acquire what he wants. In order to do him whine more. what should you make? * Give attending when he is whining.
* What does the Bobo doll experiment learn us?
* Bandura’s societal acquisition theory
* Children learn by detecting and copying others
* Sally and her brother leap on the couch every twenty-four hours. One twenty-four hours. Sally’s ma catches her brother and punishes for leaping on the sofa. Sally stops leaping on the couch…how did she larn? *

* John is driving and a auto swerves in forepart of him. He automatically thinks ‘what a atrocious driver. What a jerk’ . What is John showing? * Hostile ascription prejudice
* Dodge’s theory” the inclination to presume that other people’s equivocal actions stem organize a hostile purpose * A kid believes that if she merely keeps working at it. she will be able to acquire through her hard math jobs. Harmonizing to Dweck. the kid has what sort of accomplishment orientation? * Incremental/mastery orientation

* Which theory of emotion development suggests that emotions are unconditioned? * Discrete Emotions Theory
* Tomkins. Izard
* Which theory of emotion development suggests that emotions merchandise of the environment? * Functionalist
* Campos and others
* Basic map of emotions is to advance action toward accomplishing a end * Emotions are non distinct from one another and vary slightly based on the societal environment * What are the long-run positive results of kids who could wait longer on Walter Mishel’s survey of hold of satisfaction? * Better academic and societal competency. verbal eloquence rational thought. heed. planfulness. ability to cover with defeat * What is a societal smiling? When do they foremost emerge?

* Smiles that are directed at people. They foremost emerge every bit early as 6 to 7 old ages. * Name the self-aware emotions
* Shame. guilt. embarrassment. pride
* Relate to our sense of ego and our consciousness of others’ reactions to us. * When make the self-aware emotions come into drama?
* When they win. when criterions are met. and when they fail. when criterions are non met. * 15 to 24 months of age: embarrassment when they are made the centre of attending * By 3 old ages of age. children’s pride is tied to their degree of public presentation * The procedure of quieting oneself down when disquieted is known as: emotional self-regulation

* How does emotional ordinance alteration over the class of development? * Shift from health professional ( ordinance to self-regulation ) * 1st months: parents help babies modulate their emotions * By 6 months. babies can cut down their hurt on their ain * Between ages 1 and 2. babies turn their attending to non-distressing objects or people to deflect themselves from beginnings of hurt * First few old ages: more likely to trust on themselves instead than their parents when they are disquieted * Related to ripening of the neurological system ( frontal encephalon ) * Use of cognitive schemes to command negative emotions * Younger kids distract themselves with drama

* Older kids employ cognitive schemes such as deflecting themselves from negative events or seeking to see things in a positive visible radiation * As kids age. they are better able to utilize cognitive schemes to set to emotionally hard state of affairss * Selection of appropriate regulative schemes

* Choosing appropriate schemes for the state of affairs or stressor is helped by * Children’s ability to separate between stressors that can be controlled and those that can non be * Children’s ability to take the most effectual schemes for pull offing their reactions to their stressors * When do childs get down to self soothe?

* 6 months
* If I don’t cognize what to make in a societal state of affairs and I look to see how you are reacting… . what am I doing/what is that called? How old does this get down? * Social referencing
* 8 to 12 months
* What is being measured during the unusual state of affairs
* Measures infants’ fond regard to their primary health professional * What did the findings from Harlow’s monkey experiment learn us about physical contact? * Physical contact is more closely related to caregiver than nutrient proviso * What are the wide classs of fond regard as determined by Ainsworth. * 1. Secure fond regard

* baby or kid has a high-quality. unambivalent relationship with his or her attachment figure * may be upset when the health professional leaves but is happy to see caregiver returns. retrieving rapidly from any hurt * they can utilize health professionals as a secure base for geographic expedition * 2. Insecure/resistant ( or ambivalent ) fond regard

* clingy and remain near to their health professional instead than research the environment * they tend to go really disquieted when the health professional leaves them entirely ; non readily comforted by aliens * when health professional returns. non easy comforted and both seek comfort and resist comfort * 3. Insecure/avoidant fond regard

* indifferent toward their health professional and may even avoid the health professional * seem apathetic toward their health professional before the health professional leaves the room and indifferent or avoidant when health professional returns * if these kids become disquieted when left entirely. they are as easy comforted by a alien as by the health professional * What is the relationship between parent’s fond regard and their child’s fond regard? * Parents with secure grownup fond regards tend to hold firmly attached kids * How do we cognize a neonate has a sense of ego?

* Control of objects outside of themselves
* How make we cognize an baby has a sense of ego?
* Separation anxiousness – 8 months
* You have to recognize that you are a separate entity from your ma to be distressed when she leaves * How do we mensurate whether a yearling has developed a sense of ego? What age do kids go through this trial? * Mirror and image

* 30 months of age
* How do self-descriptions develop/change over clip?
* 2-year-old: usage of “me”
* 3-4: kids understand themselves concretely related to physical properties. physical activities and abilities. and psychological traits * unrealistically positive
* simple school:
* societal comparing: psychological. behavioural. physical operation * center to late elementary:
* ability to utilize higher-order constructs ( get down to see the large image ) * can organize opposing self-representations
* tend to compare themselves with others on the footing of nonsubjective public presentation * Adolescence is a alone clip. Teenss feel as though they are the lone one’s to travel through what they are traveling through and are ever being watched. What are these thoughts called from a psychological position? * Personal fabrication and fanciful audience

* An stripling who is traveling to be a physician because her parents want to is likely to be in which phase of individuality harmonizing to Erikson and Marcia? * 2. Foreclosure position: the person is non engaged in any individuality experimentation and has established a vocational or ideological individuality based on the picks and values of others * ( 1. Identity-diffusion position. 2. . 3. Moratorium position. 4. Identity-achievement position ) * Define psychological moratorium?

* A time-out period during which the stripling is non expected to take on grownup functions and can prosecute activities that lead to self-discovery * Define self-pride?
* An overall rating of the worth of the ego and the feelings that this rating brings up * Related to how satisfied people are with their lives and their overall mentality * Describe the patterned advance of moral concluding harmonizing to Kohlberg. * 1. Preconventional

* 2. Conventional
* 3. Postconventional
* What are the different spheres of societal judgement? Give an illustration of each. What is their comparative value in the eyes of kids and teens? * Moral judgements: Decisions that pertain to issues of right and incorrect. equity. and justness * Should he travel to imprison

* Social conventional judgements: Decisions that pertain to imposts or ordinances intended to procure societal coordination and societal organisation * Should the I help the church
* Personal judgements: Decisions that refer to actions in which single penchants are the chief consideration * Should I become a vegetarian
* Children differentiate between moral and societal conventional issues by age 3 * See moral evildoings as more serious discourtesies.
* Will disregard grownups regulations for moral but non societal convention quandary otherwise will ground harmonizing to stiff regulations ‘set by parents’ * Children and teens believe that parents have authorization over moral and societal conventional issues in the household. but non over affairs of personal judgement. * How can rear assist their kids behave in prosocial and selfless ways? * Have values that encourage prosocial behaviour

* Behave in prosocial and selfless ways
* Make them pattern
* Be constructive and supportive in their parenting
* Talk to childs about why
* Define Empathy and give an illustration
* an emotional reaction to another’s emotional province or status that is similar to that person’s province or status. * Both in same state of affairs ; traffic ; got robbed ; failed the exam * Define Sympathy and give an illustration

* the feeling of concern for another individual ( or animate being ) in reaction to the other’s emotional province or status ; frequently an result of sympathizing with another’s negative emotion or state of affairs * feeling bad for the loss of person

* What are the different classs of aggression? Give an illustration of each * Instrumental aggression
* Motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete end such as deriving ownership of a peer’s plaything * Relational aggression
* Harms others by damaging their equal relationships such as by stating prevarications about something one did non state * What is the developmental class of aggression?

* Aggressive displacements from physical ( until approximately 2yrs ) to verbal as childs develop linguistic communication. * Physical aggression lessenings because children’s usage of verbal and relational aggression * Besides develop abilities to decide struggles and command their ain emotions. However. some childs develop frequent and serious jobs with aggression at this age. * In adolescence. open aggression lessenings for most adolescents. although serious Acts of the Apostless of force addition markedly. * What are some features of aggressive/antisocial persons who remain aggressive and antisocial? * Difficult disposition from a really early age

* Issues with impulsivity. attending
* Callousness in childhood
* Hostile ends in societal state of affairss
* Generating fewer and more aggressive grounds than do unaggressive kids when faced with negative societal state of affairss.
* Tend to measure aggressive responses more favourably and prosocial responses less favourably than unaggressive kids