We have an addition of population size and people will hold different demands to hold successful healthy and happy lives. For illustration, a household remaining with their aged parents may see a auto as a necessity to ferry his elderly parents to their medical assignment. Due to turning demand, without a auto to supply the mobility they need, many are force to go in a less desirable mode. Hence, we could see that the bulk of manner of transit used by most of people in Singapore is auto.
Car nevertheless has led to a series of jobs including air pollution, congestion and turning nursery gas emanation because a running auto ‘s engine produces big sum of C dioxide being emitted into the atmosphere every twenty-four hours. Harmonizing to Katzev ( 2003 ) , cars are besides a major beginning of C dioxide, the alleged green-house gas, which many claim is the principle beginning of planetary heating. As such, we need to get down as a group of community believing about more sustainable signifier of conveyance in Singapore. One possible option to taking autos on the route is through car-sharing strategy. This research will concentrate on the chances to show to Singapore through this auto sharing strategy in our transits. This is the more sustainable option in the long-run.
In 2012, there were more than 520,000 private autos registered in Singapore. The motor vehicle population in Singapore which include private and company autos, rental autos, taxis, coachs, bikes, goods and other vehicles were increased by 1.45 % from 951,307 in 2011 to 965,192 in 2012 ( Singapore Police Force, 2013 ) . Such a big figure of private autos cut down the efficiency of the conveyance system by taking up route infinite that is needed by public conveyance and commercial vehicles. The authorities had tried a series of steps to cut down auto overpopulation and traffic congestion by to a great extent taxing the purchase and usage of autos every bit good as with late announced that COE monetary values addition to make more than S $ 95,000. However, this had the unintended consequence of pricing out people who are in demand of a auto as does non postpone the job of overpopulation. This is because as the population grows, the Numberss of autos on Singapore growing will go on to turn.
The demand of Singapore transit become more sustainable
In Singapore, despite there are a batch autos on the route, we need to diminish autos on the route to do the conveyance more sustainable, one possible ways by making this is through car-sharing strategy. Singapore is a little island city-state state whereby we can non afford to disregard the effects that transport that has on wellness and the environment. The environment is our precedence and Singapore needs to maintain the environment every bit pristine as possible.
Our economic system depends on an efficient conveyance system to bringing swimmingly a flow of goods and forces to where they are needed. Our limited supply of land besides means that we have to apportion resources to transport system really carefully. Hence, it ‘s of import to follow a greenish signifier of conveyance.
However, we understand that no affair how efficient Singapore populace conveyance system are, can ne’er to the full run into every mobility demand. Despite of an first-class MRT system and efficient cab system, options are required to let for Singaporean to do different picks about traveling about on the island. Car-sharing strategy is such a pick for such chances to take autos on the route while still leting people to acquire around as they need to.
Car-sharing strategy, a new attack to sustainable transit in Singapore
Car-sharing is a pay-as-you-drive transit service introduced in many modern metropoliss to construct a sustainable urban transit scheme and environment-friendly urban community. This astonishing green concern thought works because people save money, and lose the fusss of ownership, yet still able to entree to a auto when they need one. The car-sharing growing in Singapore is chiefly boosted by the rise of COE monetary value. Higher COE monetary values are driving people to look for cheaper and more flexible options and hence would able to force people towards utilizing public conveyance, or choose for car-sharing.
Car-sharing allows single to derive the benefits of utilizing a private auto without the costs of duty of having a auto. The benefits of car-sharing can include – more careful consideration of the necessity, continuance, and distance of car trips, ensuing in reduced vehicle usage and ownership, and reduced parking demand and traffic congestion. Besides, car-sharing will be greater consideration given to alternative manner, ensuing in addition of MRT riders. Car-sharing besides provide cost economy to single and employers, energy nest eggs and air quality benefits every bit good as cut down the emanation of C dioxide. Despite to its many possible benefits, car-sharing may derive in popularity in Singapore as demonstrated by increasing North American rank.
Through car-sharing strategy, we are able to cut down autos on the route which led to less congestion, less pollution, less dependance on oil, and cleaner, fresher air to breath.
Car-sharing Operators in Singapore
There are about 300 car-sharing vehicles located in over 100 locations in Singapore. Land Transport Authority ( LTA ) is working closely with HDB and car-sharing operators to supply more locations across the island to do it more convenient for users to entree a car-sharing service in the close hereafter. In Singapore, presently have a few car-sharing service suppliers: Car Club, Whizzcar and Kah Share. Clean Mobility Singapore, an environmental start-up company that provides electric autos for hire launched in Buona Vista-Ayer Rajah country and have designated parking tonss in Pixel Building, Biopolis, Fusionpolis, Insead Campus and Block 71 Ayer Rajah Crescent. Clean Mobility is portion of the Energy Market Authority and Land Transport Authority ‘s three-year, electric-vehicle test bing $ 20 million ( The Straits Times, 2011 ) . The Straits Times ( 2013 ) had reported that more than 150 people have plugged into a year-old electric car-sharing sharing strategy operated under the trade name name Smove. Meantime, Kah Share, Whizz Car and Car Club have reported an addition of between 15 per cent and 35 per cent each in rank Numberss ( The Straits Times, 2011 ) .
Like many other metropoliss, Singapore faces the challenge of pull offing traffic congestion. With a fixed measure of route infinite, each extra vehicle adds to the demand of route infinite and additions congestions for every other vehicle and pollutes the environment. Singapore is a land of scarceness, the state does non hold the luxury to let everyone to have a auto and that auto ownership can non be put under the same class as basic necessity such as lodging ( Channelnewsasia, 2013 ) . As portion of attempt to cut down C emanation from auto, the Singapore authorities implemented the Vehicle Quota System ( VQS ) which allows the authorities to command the sum of autos on the route.
Vehicle quota system – The VQS is controlled by the Certificate of Entitlement. The intent is to restricting the figure of freshly purchase vehicles and purposes for sustainable growing in vehicle population. The purchaser has to offer to buy a COE which is valid for 10 old ages before the vehicle can be use on route. The authorities had decided to cut down the allowable vehicle growing rate from 3 per cent per annum which was the rate since vehicle quota system introduced in 1990, to 1.5 per cent per annum in 2009, and farther reduced it to one per centum per annum in 2012 and 0.5 per cent per annum in February 2013. The COE premiums for little autos ( up to 1,600cc ) breached the $ 90,000 grade, completing the twelvemonth ‘s first command session at $ 92,100 on January 2013. This is up 12.4 per cent from last month ‘s command where monetary values ended at $ 81,889. Monetary values for large autos in Cat B ( above 1,600 milliliter ) besides reached a new high, stoping at $ 96,210. The old record-breaking monetary value was $ 94,502 in August 2012 ( icarsclub, 2013 ) .
Figure.1: COE Open Bidding Result ( Beginning: sgcarmart.com, 2013 )
Taxs and fees on vehicles – Every auto in Singapore is taxed by an import ( Customs ) responsibility, enrollment fee, an extra enrollment fee, and route revenue enhancement which make having a auto in Singapore really expensive. The import responsibility is 31 % of the import value of the auto, on top of that, a Registration Fee is charged for private autos and on top of that, an Additional Registration Fee ( ARF ) is charged. The ( ARF ) is 100 % of the Open Market Value ( OMV ) of the vehicle.
Public parking charges have been raised and besides extra surcharges were levied to deter auto usage. Others cost such as insurance, Electronic Road Pricing ( ERP ) , gasoline and care cost which are highly dearly-won for an mean gaining single and therefore it helps to command auto population. Hence, execution of authorities ordinances with surging premiums for COEs, revenue enhancements and fees or charges, it had straight boosted the usage of car-sharing for the people who need to go around the island. For a successful auto sharing strategy in Singapore, Singapore authorities has to play its portion in turn toing the jobs of clime alteration and looking at ways and steps to cut down our emanation.
Our research will concentrate on the primary and secondary inquiry in position of the solution to route congestion, pollution and other environmental and resource effects of car dependance through car-sharing.
1.2.1 Primary Research Question
Our research inquiry is what are the benefits and chances for utilizing car-sharing strategy to do Singapore conveyances system become more sustainable.
1.2.2 Secondary Research Questions
The Scopess that this research is concentrating on:
What is car-sharing strategy and how does Car-sharing plants ;
What are the benefits of car-sharing strategy ;
Who benefits from car-sharing strategy ;
Which states have already develop car-sharing strategy
The Scope of the Research
The survey will concentrate on the benefits of auto sharing strategy in our transit option for many people in run intoing the transit needs in an economically and environmentally responsible mode in Singapore.
The research method we will be utilizing is both qualitative and quantitative research attack. The quantitative method will be based on the research inquiry analyses based on the current state of affairs and analyses through literature reappraisal. The qualitative method shall be garnering information through sets of questionnaire on a focal point group of employees, employers and retired persons at a few point of location in Singapore.
The chief aim of the research is to understand the jobs of increasing auto population which led to a serious job of air pollution, congestion and growth of nursery gas emanation and to place the chances and benefits of car-sharing strategy as an alternate transit manner towards sustainable signifier of conveyance in Singapore.
This research will be discoursing the benefits of car-sharing strategy utilizing normal auto and merely within Singapore based on the cognition and understanding gather from collected information beginnings and informations. There will be restriction to calculate whether of the impact and growing car-sharing strategy by utilizing electric auto. It may impractical at this minute although electric auto have the possible to cut down our C emanation significantly if adopted on a big graduated table and authorities drama its portion advancing green vehicle by provide a scope of inducements or discounts. However, the engineering is still in the early phases of development. Beside, in order for electric auto to hold a positive impact on cut downing emanation, the energy grid authorising these autos need be from a sustainable beginning like solar or air current. Due to the cost of purchasing a intercrossed vehicle is much higher than of a normal auto, users, limited scope of electric vehicle every bit good as the charging clip. The information and information will be obtained from published intelligence and diaries except the information from questionnaires.
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Definition and account of car-sharing strategy
Car sharing is a revolution in personal transit – urban mobility for the twenty-first century. Carsharing is designed to replace auto ownership for people who do non necessitate to drive to work every twenty-four hours, and to significantly cut down route congestion and nursery gas emanations. It is a service that provides 24/7 self-serve entree to a web of autos stationed around the metropolis ( and progressively, metropoliss world-wide ) , which can be reserved by the hr or twenty-four hours via smart phones, Internet and name Centres ( Carsharing, 2013 ) .
Car, despite its legion benefits, is mostly responsible for many of the environmental and societal jobs in the universe today ( Katzev, 2003 ) , which Singapore is one of such states. The dependance on car has contributed traffic congestion and pollution to the air of Singapore. Therefore, in order to cut down traffic congestion and cut down the environmental impact contributed by car in Singapore, legion attempts have been made by the authorities to cut down vehicle population growing rate by increasing the Car of Entitlement ( COE ) monetary values for autos or cut downing the quota for COE.
Car-sharing is foremost introduced in Singapore by NTUC Income in 1997 since the rise of COE monetary values and over the old ages, the involvement in car-sharing has risen as car-sharing is the ticket for drivers who can non afford or make non desire to have a auto ( The Strait Times, 2012 ) .
Differ from car-pooling, car-sharing is a procedure whereby people portion or lease a auto without holding to bear the duties of auto ownership and costs. Whereas in car-pooling, it is a group of persons taking the same auto together to acquire to a common finish at the same clip. In car-sharing strategy, the car-sharing companies pay all of the costs of vehicle care, service, and fixs. This includes insurance coverage, parking, and the cost of fuel ( Katzev, 2003 ) . Besides differ from conventional auto leases, car-sharing companies operate by puting autos near to member ‘s place or office when the demands to utilize the autos originate. ( Martin & A ; Shaheen 2011 ) . The pay-as-you-drive or pay-per-use transit service which provided by the auto sharing companies offer drivers another option and freedom of utilizing the auto. Drivers get to bask the benefits of a auto without holding to have one for a short period of clip based on their traveling demands, such as hourly or day-to-day footing. The drivers are besides allowed to take the types of autos harmonizing to their demands.
This strategy is introduced in many modern metropoliss to construct a sustainable and environment-friendly urban community ( Land Transport Authority, 2013 ) . A research done in the North America shows that one shared vehicle can take 6 to 33 in private owned vehicles off the route. This is made possible by cut downing the figure of private vehicle required to finish non-work trips ( Green Business Times, 2013 ) . Hence, car-sharing decreased congestion on the route as it reduces auto ownership and people dependency on in private owned vehicles. Car-sharing besides has environmental impact to the environment. Harmonizing to the article stated in Green Business Times ( 2013 ) , ‘vehicle stat mis traveled by members dropped by 67 % , yet they were able to keep mobility and convenience of transit while acquiring entree to a wider assortment of autos. The bead in vehicle stat mis traveled will hold a immense environmental impact that consequences in a lessening in nursery gas emanations from 39 % to 64 % ‘ .
Since its origin, car-sharing has grown quickly and it has become more common worldwide, particularly in Europe and North America ( Shaheen, Sperling & A ; Wagner 1999 ) . Car-sharing rank hasA increased by 360 % worldwide between 2006 and 2010 ( Carsharing, 2013 ) and as of January 2011, North American car-sharing companies served about 604,000 members with approximately 10,000 vehicles. ( Martin & A ; Shaheen 2011 ) .
2.1.1 How car-sharing plants in Singapore
It normally takes less than 5 proceedingss from reserving to roll uping a car-sharing vehicle and the whole procedure is automated and it is self-service merely like holding a ain auto. To utilize the auto, the user can follow the stairss listed below:
Join as a member
User who wishes to car-share must foremost fall in as a member at any of the car-sharing company. After which, members will have a personal keyfob/ smartcard. The keyfob/ smartcard is use to unlock an electronic box where the auto keys are kept.
Making reserve for the auto
When there is a demand to utilize the auto, member can do reserve via smart phones, Internet and name Centres. The reserve can be made within a few minute notice or few yearss in progress. The engagement will be keyed into a computing machine and transmitted to the electronic box.
Roll uping the auto
The autos are usually parked near to user ‘s place or office in designated auto park spaces.A The electronic box is located in the member ‘s estate and the member can unlock the box when the member slots in their keyfob/ smart card. His booking peculiar will be copied onto the keyfob/ smart card and he can so roll up the key.
Driving the auto
During reserve period, member will merely utilize the auto merely like his ain.
Returning the auto
When member has finished utilizing the auto, he needs to return the auto back to the same location where he has collected the auto. He besides needs to put the key back to the electronic box.
The trip use is automatically recorded and the member can see their use record online.
The bill is so generated and payment will be made through GIRO or recognition card monthly to the car-sharing service companies.
If a member does non return the auto on clip, he will hold to pay a punishment, which will be used to counterbalance the following member who had booked the auto but was inconvenienced due to late return from the former member ( Carsharing, 2013 ) .
Benefits of car-sharing
Due to recent high COE, it is acquiring more and more hard for one to have a auto in Singapore presents. Some of the major societal benefits of car-sharing are such as lower emanations, easiness traffic congestion, convenience and cost nest eggs for persons and concerns, better use of land and energy resources and cut down the demand for auto park infinites.
2.2.1 Less pollution to the environment
Motor vehicle use is a major beginning of air and noise pollution in the universe today. It has contributed 70 % of the C monoxide, 45 % of the N oxides, and 33 % of hydrocarbon emanations in the universe ( Katzev, 2003 ) . The burning procedure of fuel in motor engines emit Carbon Monoxide ( CO ) will non merely foul the air quality, it besides harm the human organic structure through respiration ( Singing Health 2013 ) .
Motor vehicles are besides a major beginning of C dioxide, a nursery gas, which many claim is the chief beginning of planetary heating ( Katzev, 2003 ) . Besides C monoxide and C dioxide, other nursery gases such as azotic oxide, methane and CFCs ( CFCs ) are besides released from the burning procedure of fuel in motor engines. These gases caused planetary heating to the Earth which the temperature will increase and pin down the radiated heat from get awaying out ( Nutramed, 2011 ) .
In the United State, low emanation motor vehicles contribute to take down nursery gas ( GHG ) emanations. AutoShare and U Car Share offer extra nursery gases decreases through partnerships with carbon-offset companies. Many clients report an addition in environmental consciousness after fall ining a carsharing organisation ( Shaheen, North American car-sharing, 2008 ) .
Noise pollution is besides an issue to the environment. With more motor vehicles on the route, the noises created from the engine revolutions can be a nuisance to the environment. Particularly during traffic congestion, the noise degree can be high and it may interrupt the concentration of one ‘s head.
With fewer vehicles on the route through auto sharing, the degree to Carbon Monoxide ( CO ) will finally be reduced, therefore doing lesser C monoxide emitted to the environment.
2.2.2 Less traffic congestions
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Figure.1: Fatal and Injury Accident Rate Per 10,000 Vehicle Population ( Source: Singapore Police Force, 2013 )
Car-sharing helps to chasten traffic because it reduces solo drive ( Wang, 2011 ) . Harmonizing to the graph, Singapore has an increasing figure in vehicle population by 1.45 % from 951,307 in 2011 to 965,192 in 2012 ( Singapore Police Force, 2013 ) . This is a great figure for Singapore as our state is limited in land country and the increasing vehicle population creates more traffic congestions.
Traffic congestion is an progressively serious job in many metropoliss. For illustration United States, traffic affiliations, particularly during peak hours timing, are estimated to be the United States 1.2 billion hours of lost clip and 2.2 billion gallons of gasolene each twelvemonth, to state nil of the estimated $ 30 billion one-year loss in productiveness entirely ( Katzev, 2013 ) .
Due to the increasing Numberss of motor vehicles on the route, the danger faced by the route users, particularly motorcyclists are still an issue. Despite last twelvemonth ‘s bead in the fatal and hurt accidents, there are still a important figure of deceases on our roads. The addition in the figure of traffic misdemeanors remains a concern as every traffic misdemeanor can potentially ensue in a fatal or hurt accident and the loss of lives ( Singapore Police Force, 2013 ) .
As an alternate step of cut downing the sum of vehicle population, auto sharing can supply route users with a pick. Some of Singapore auto sharing companies such as CarClub provides to their clients a broad assortment of motor vehicles to take from to provide for different sort of occasions ( CarClub, 2013 ) .
Because the drivers of the auto sharing strategy are charged consequently to the sum of milage logged, therefore drivers would be after their trip carefully in order to do unneeded thrust trips.
The execution of auto sharing can besides cut down the sum of motor vehicles on the route if 5 people sharing a auto to the common finish instead than driving on personal motor vehicles.
2.2.3 Reducing the cost of going to finish
Traveling to a finish by private vehicles can be dearly-won. With Singapore implemented ERP ( Electronic Road Pricing ) , It will be expensive to go to CBD country during peak hours by personal vehicles. In add-on, the cost of parking in concern towers in CBD country can be dearly-won excessively.
The cost of having a private auto can be a load in Singapore. As the monetary value of Certificate of Entitlement ( COE ) is boosting, a step by the Singapore Government in order to keep or cut down the sum of motor vehicles on the route, which can be dearly-won. Harmonizing to study, a monetary value of a Cherry QQ in Singapore with COE can fit up for a Porsche Boxster Black Edition in the US ( AsiaOne, 2012 ) ; this shows how the surging COE monetary value has turned the ownership of motor vehicle as a immense outgo.
Car sharing is different from rent a auto from auto lease, auto sharing gives persons entree to a auto for brief trips, in some instances every bit short as a half hr, bear downing merely for the clip and continuance of each trip. In contrast, auto rental companies charge the full day-to-day rate, irrespective of the continuance or distance of travel. In add-on, clients that rent a auto must pay for the gasoline cost required to make full the vehicle ‘s armored combat vehicle at the clip it is returned, while the car-sharing companies pays all the costs of fuel, every bit good as insurance, vehicle care, service, and fixs ( Katzev, 2003 ) .
As auto sharing strategy in Singapore, drivers can salvage sum money on the cost of having a private motor vehicles including care fees, one-year route revenue enhancements and motor vehicle insurance collectible. Car sharing non merely offers to non-car proprietors the impulsive experience ; it has besides offers a much cheaper option to go to their finish that in private motor vehicles.
Car sharing has besides provided Singapore a much cheaper option to go than by cab. Traveling by manner of cab can be expensive. The rates and surcharges can add up to a high cost.
Surcharges such as peak hr charges, midnight charges and location charges are included in different timing and location.
Some of auto sharing companies in Singapore such as CarClub provides to their clients with different monetary value programs. CarClub comes with value program and standard program to provide to every client ‘s demands. Value program is cater for more for regular drivers whereas standard program is cater more occasional drivers ( CarClub, 2013 ) . With different available monetary value programs, drivers can take the most appropriate programs to accommodate their drive frequence and salvage money. University pupils and low-income families besides benefit from the flexibleness and mobility that carsharing offers ( Shaheen, North American car-sharing, 2008 ) .
With the late fastening step by the Singapore authorities, it has become more hard for low and in-between income group to buy a private motor vehicle as purchasers have to pick a down payment of 40 per cent or more for a new vehicle and have a upper limit of five old ages to serve their auto loans ( ChannelNewsAsia, 2013 ) . Therefore, auto sharing can be a more afford to the market for low and in-between income groups.
2.2.4 Better connexion
Car sharing has provided users a better connexion between different manners of conveyances, doing it easier for the populace to link major conveyance nodes and hence cut downing the demand to drive to their finish.
Car sharing can supply better entree to topographic point where has limited entree. For illustration, HDB residential country where the distance to the nearest public conveyance node is far off, it may be hard for aged or handicapped people to go.
Motor vehicles in the car-sharing fleet are normally located near to the user ‘s abode, whereas those belonging to the rental companies are parked in cardinal countries or major transit hubs. Finally, those who want to lease a vehicle are required to finish time-consuming paperwork before they can drive the vehicle, whereas auto partakers need merely phone or travel on-line to reserve a vehicle prior to utilizing it ( Katzev, 2003 )
In Singapore, CarClub has offered their clients with over 60 HDB auto Parkss around Singapore to pick up the vehicles and available on 24/7 which provides easiness and convenience ( CarClub, 2013 ) .
Who benefits from car-sharing?
The ultimate intent of car-sharing are cut downing the figure of autos, increasing the efficiency of conveyance substructure and besides altering behavior through changes in mobility forms. This has really benefits to environment, societal and authorities.
220.127.116.11 Creation a Potential for Better Quality of Life and Urban Form
Car-sharing has proved its possible to cut down the negative impacts of societal and environment. Monitoring of air quality takes topographic point at Stationss around Singapore, and plays an of import function in maintaining the population up to day of the month on haze conditions ( National Environment Agency, 2013 ) . Air emanations from the industries and motor vehicles are the two cardinal beginnings of air pollution domestically ( National Environment Agency, 2013 ) . Each car-sharing vehicle can replace 4 in private owned vehicles ( CarClub, 2013 ) . Therefore, car-sharing reduces the Numberss of autos on the route ; fewer autos equal fewer emanations of nursery gases. This means less pollution ; decrease congestion on the route every bit good as cut downing the sum of infinite used for parking and helps to recover infinite for environmental and other societal utilizations.
18.104.22.168 Decrease of COa‚‚ Burden of Transport
Car-sharing is a pay-as-you-drive transit service introduced to construct a sustainable and environmentally-friendly urban community. This service provides an inducement for people to utilize auto less and alternatively utilize public conveyance, a motorcycle or walk. Peoples have a greater assortment of conveyance options available to them as when make up one’s minding the best manner to make their finish. Commuting by public transit reduces your C emanations by 20 pounds per twenty-four hours, 4,800 pound per twelvemonth, which is more than if you weatherized your place, converted to fluorescent bulbs and replaced an old icebox, combined ( PromotingPublic Transport, 2013 ) .
22.214.171.124 Decrease of Energy Consumption
An environmentally friendly car-sharing operator provides a broad scope of vehicles to take. They can take different types of vehicles to suit their demands. Example, a little metropolis auto is normally most energy-efficient and less pollution ; an estate autos are likely to be necessary for household trips ; and a new wave may necessitate for group travel. Users choose the vehicle type that best meets their demands for a peculiar trip. This benefits consumers, and may supply external benefits by cut downing the usage of outsize vehicles when smaller vehicles are equal ( Litman, 1999 ) .
Car-sharing aids do communities more alive, attractive, safe, and less dependent on the private car, and contribute to a scope of transit, lodging, economic development and societal justness ends ( City Car Share, 2013 ) .
126.96.36.199 Save Money and Go Green
Car-sharing is an ideal for people who merely need a auto on occasion and or when the demand arises. By car-sharing strategy, people still can entree to a private auto without holding duties of ownership such as obtain a Certificate of Entitlement ( COE ) , auto insurance premium, auto care and fix costs, monthly installment, season auto parking charges and route revenue enhancement. In Singapore, 87 % of members in NTUC ‘s car-sharing co-op norm merely 2,000km in distance driven each twelvemonth, which is much less than mean milage of the mean private auto proprietor ( Singapore Environmental Vision, 2013 ) . Car sharing saves you money, it ‘s greener, more low-cost, and less nerve-racking than driving and paying for a auto you do n’t even necessitate any longer ( Cereplast, 2013 ) .
188.8.131.52 Provide Mobility
Car-sharing provides entree to a vehicle for low-income families and others without a auto, assisting them to to the full take part in the part ‘s chances ( CityCarShare, 2013 ) . Low-income families may non be able to afford the disbursals as a auto ownership, therefore public conveyance possibly their lone option. Car-sharing can supply entree for occupation interviews, serve as an “ exigency drive place ” , and run into the demand for occasional shopping and leisure trips ( CityCarShare, 2013 ) . With car-sharing strategy, they are now financially possible to fall in, in bend bettering mobility by supplying entree to a vehicle.
184.108.40.206 Improves Commuting Options
Car-sharing offers a commuter option that may work better than other methods of transit. With a car-sharing option, a public commuter is empowered to make up one’s mind the best manner to make his or her finish, i.e. by coach, MRT, cab or to drive a auto ( CSAS, 2013 ) . Presently, there are about 300 car-sharing vehicles located in over 100 locations in Singapore ( Land Transport Authority, 2013 ) . It is really convenient for users to entree a car-sharing. Besides, car-sharing provides the flexibleness and convenience of a auto when drive is a better pick compared to the coachs, MRT or taxis.
Transport issues affect the mean Singaporean in a really intimate mode. There ‘s been a crisp addition in public conveyance ridership over the past few old ages, with many people experiencing the strain of no longer being able to afford the costs of auto ownership ( iCarsclub, 2013 ) . With implementing car-sharing strategy, it will be the following solution to work out the transit issues.
220.127.116.11 Reduce Road Congestion, Air Pollution and Demand for Parking
Road congestion is progressively serious job in many metropoliss. The lone manner to cut down route congestion is either concept a new freeway or cut down the auto on the route. By cut downing the figure of in private owned autos, the possible for car-sharing to assist ease congestion on the roads is considerable ( Singapore Environmental Vision, 2013 ) . Car-sharing strategy promotes holding members portion the usage of a communal fleet of autos, which indirectly reduced auto on the route. By cut downing the Numberss of autos on the route, traffic congestion job will significantly pare down and accordingly better traffic flow during peak travel hours. This means COa‚‚ emanations which fouling the air is reduced and the demand for parking slot will besides decrease.
Analysis of car-sharing in Europe, North America and Asia
Under this subdivision, we will make analysis of car-sharing in 3 different constituents ; Europe, North America, and Asia, which are the states with really active utilizing of car-sharing systems. We will research on the history of car-sharing systems in those constituents and how their systems have been developed to what we have presents.
Car-sharing in Europe was initiated in Zurich, Switzerland, 1948. It was for the intent of sharing for the persons who could non afford to purchase autos. But it was non successful until 1980s. Current European Car-sharing Organizations ( CSOs ) exist in Denmark, England, France, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. Approximately 200 CSOs are active in 350 metropoliss throughout Switzerland, Austria, the Netherlands, and Germany. The four most active car-sharing states in Europe jointly claim over 100,000 participants. In 1991, Europe Car-sharing ( ECS ) association was established to back up car-sharing operators. In 1993, a few smart shared-use vehicle trials have already been implemented in Europe, in which a computing machine releases a key and starts charge. In 1997, electric vehicles are introduced in France and there are 1000s of system users recorded. In 2000, all the car-sharing operators have installed GPS and pilotage systems, contactless smartcard engineerings, and a cardinal computing machine to pull off the system ( Susan Shaheen, Daniel Sperling, and Conrad Wagner, 2007 ) .
2.4.2 North America
Figure 2.2: North Americal Carsharing Members and Vehicles ( Source: Carsharing.net, 2013 )
Car-sharing has become popular in more than 20 major parts throughout the US and Canada. Car-sharing was initiated in North America in 1994. North America ‘s car-sharing development can be classified into three chief stages: initial market entry and experimentation ( 1994 to mid-2002 ) ; growing and market variegation ( mid-2002 to late-2007 ) ; and commercial mainstreaming ( late-2007 to show ) .
During stage 1, the operators were larning how to run a vicinity car-sharing service, lower operational costs, and understand how to outdo construction rates to pull clients. This stage ended in June 2002, prior to the launch of a targeted scheme aimed at U.S. concerns by a bi-coastal American car-sharing operator. By the terminal of Phase Two, there were 18 operators in the U.S. and 13 in Canada, which operated a corporate fleet of 5,883 vehicles and served about 200,000 members ( Shaheen, North American car-sharing, 2008 ) . The 2nd stage reflects deriving more rank, market variegation, capital investing, engineering developments, greater insurance handiness, supportive and unsupportive policy developments, and multi-national enlargement. From 2005, car-sharing operators gained more rank because of lifting fuel monetary values. This stage ends merely prior to the Flexcar and Zipcar amalgamation in October 2007 ( Shaheen, North American car-sharing, 2008 ) . In 3rd stage, 2008, the North American car-sharing market had grown to 33 operators with 318,838 members and 7,505 vehicles wholly. Car-sharing is traveling to be used more than private vehicles as a sustainable transit alternate due to lifting fuel monetary values, smart growing enterprises, and climate alteration concerns ( Shaheen, North American car-sharing, 2008 ) .
As of September 2012, A Zipcar is the largest service in the universe with 730,000 members and offering 11,000 vehicles in urban countries and over 300 college campuses throughout the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Spain and Austria ( Elliot Martin and Susan Shaheen, 2011 ) .
2.4.3 Japan, Asia
In 1990s, Asia states such as Japan and Singapore, has besides been active in developing car-sharing systems, particularly in Japan. Similarity between Japan and Singapore is that both states have really high population densenesss. Japan ‘s major urban countries such as Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya have matching population densenesss about at 4,600, 3,000, and 2,000 people/km2 ( Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, 2003 ) . Shared-use vehicle system was one of the solutions which authorities could believe of. In late 1990s, Japan has implemented shared-use vehicle system by Honda Motor Company ‘s Intelligent Community Vehicle System ( ICVS ) ( Honda Motor Company, 2013 ) . Besides in the late ninetiess, Toyota Motor Company launched their car-sharing construct with a major presentation in Toyoda City called the Crayon System, functioning many of the Toyota Motor Company installations ( Toyota Crayon System, 2013 ) . In 1999, several government-backed, shared-used vehicle system plans were developed such as ITS Mobility System, Tourist Electric Vehicle System and Ebina Eco-Park & A ; Ride. After 2002, many of these plans were terminated because they were non able to retrieve plenty user fees to cover outgos. However since 2002, many smaller systems have emerged, and there is steady growing in the figure of systems and members ( Matthew Barth, Susan Shaheen, Tuenjai Fukuda and Atsushi Fukuda, 2006 ) .
Today, car-sharing has been expended about to 600 metropoliss around the universe in 18 states and on four continents. These include Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland in Europe ; the United Kingdom ( Scotland, England, and Wales ) ; Canada and the United States in North America ; Japan and Singapore in Asia ; and Australia. Recently in 2006, Malaysia implemented car-sharing systems and members are turning twelvemonth by twelvemonth. At present, there are an estimated 352,000 car-sharing members worldwide who portion about 13,700 vehicles.
Figure 2.3: State of Car-sharing Worldwide ( Source: Shaheen, S, Cohen, Adam, 2009 )
From the angle of our transport day-to-day activities, we could look at the necessity of most people necessitating to travel twice a twenty-four hours in order to acquire to and from work. The vehicle population in Singapore has increased by 1.45 % from 951,307 in 2011 to 965,192 in 2012 ( Singapore Police Force, 2013 ) . The addition in vehicle has caused the environment to be polluted and the route in Singapore to be congested. Therefore, to cut down these jobs, Singapore authorities has made legion attempts to cut down vehicle population growing rate by increasing the COE monetary values for autos and cut downing the quota for COE as steps to cut down autos usage.
The thought of car-sharing is foremost introduced in Singapore in 1997 since the rise of COE monetary values and over the old ages, the involvement in car-sharing in has raised as car-sharing is the ticket for drivers who can non afford or make non desire to have a auto. This strategy had made really important impacts on cut downing unneeded autos on the route by sing from the assorted benefits we can derive from.
Since its origin, car-sharing has grown quickly go more common worldwide and it has proved its possible to cut down the negative impacts of societal and environment in states such as Europe and North America.
Chapter 3: Research Plan
The methodological analysis of research such as the method of technique used, instrument used to roll up the informations and how the primary informations will be analyzed will be discussed in this chapter.
As discussed in chapter 1, this research will be carried out in both qualitative and quantitative research attack as both methods have different strengths and different failings. This method of uniting the two research method is known as assorted method. The qualitative method has been analyzed in the literature reappraisal while the quantitative method will be analyzed in this chapter by garnering information through questionnaire to detect and turn to the demand of auto sharing in Singapore base on different age groups, professions and sentiments.
The thought of assorted method research was foremost introduced by Campbell and Fiske in the twentieth century whereby they introduced the thought of triangulation, mentioning to “ multiple operationalism ” . It refers to more than one method is used as portion of a proof procedure that ensures that the explained discrepancy is the consequence of the underlying phenomenon or trait and non of the method.
Campbell and Fiske ( 1959 ) thoughts were subsequently extended farther by Webb, Campbell, Schwartz, and Sechrest ( 1966 ) . They provided a list of grounds to unite quantitative and qualitative research. They outlined how such a combination can be effectual at the research design, informations aggregation, and informations analysis phases of the research procedure. For illustration, at the research design phase, quantitative informations can help the qualitative constituent by placing representative sample members, every bit good as outlying instances. Conversely, at the design phase, qualitative informations can help the quantitative constituent of a survey by assisting with conceptual and instrument development. At the informations aggregation phase, quantitative informations can play a function in supplying baseline information and assisting to avoid “ elect prejudice ” ( speaking merely to high-status persons ) . On the other manus, at the informations aggregation phase, qualitative informations can assist in easing the informations aggregation procedure. During the informations analysis phase, quantitative informations can ease the appraisal of generalizability of the qualitative informations and shed new visible radiation on qualitative findings. Alternatively, during the informations analysis phase, qualitative informations can play an of import function by construing, clear uping, depicting, and formalizing quantitative consequences, every bit good as through foundation and modifying.
To sum up, the whole thought of assorted methods research attack involves roll uping and analysing informations from both qualitative and measures as it gives better apprehension of the job than either qualitative or quantitative research entirely. By blending the two informations collected from both qualitative and quantitative research signifier a more complete image of the job.
The research method used is Assorted Methods Research which combines both quantitative research and qualitative research. By using Mixed Methods Research methodological analysis, both quantitative and qualitative informations can be collected and analyzed.
Qualitative research is chiefly explorative research. It focused on differences in quality, instead than measure. The research method is by roll uping, analysing and construing informations by detecting what people do and state. Some common methods of aggregation information are in-depth interviews, group treatment and uninterrupted observation. Qualitative research is used to obtain an apprehension of implicit in motives, grounds and sentiments every bit good as discover tendencies in idea and sentiment. It provides perceptual experiences into the job and helps to develop thoughts or hypotheses for possible quantitative research.
Quantitative Research focuses on measures or Numberss. The intent is to place the job and at the same clip bring forthing numerical informations which can be transformed into functional statistics. The information is frequently used to explicate facts or bring forth new hypotheses. The common informations aggregation methods include face-to-face interview, telephone interview, systematic observations, studies and questionnaires.
Qualitative and quantitative research methods have different strengths and failing. By utilizing assorted methods research, its offset the failing of both qualitative and quantitative which means assorted methods research can assist to reply the inquiries that can non be answered by qualitative or quantitative approached entirely. Besides, assorted methods research provides more comprehensive grounds than either qualitative or quantitative research entirely.
Primary Data Collection Instrument Design
Research is a procedure of happening facts and set uping them in such a mode that information is obtained sing any fact, figure or phenomenon ( HubPages, 2013 ) . Good research depends on proper and accurate informations. The indispensable stairss to making good research:
Specify the challenge or job
Set research aim
Identify the specific causes for information demand to obtain the preliminary information required
Collect appropriate informations from the relevant beginning to develop and prove hypotheses
Rigorously examine those informations for obvious and concealed forms
Analysis of informations method
This research program is big and complex, aˆ¦..to be continueaˆ¦ .
This questionnaire is designed to help in primary informations aggregation in this research.
The primary aim of this questionnaire is to detect and turn to the demand of auto sharing in Singapore through different age groups, professions and sentiments as undermentioned page:
Reason for Asking
Self – Employed
To happen out which profession group required to go around more frequently
20 – 30
To happen out which age group required to go more frequently
30 – 40
40 – 50
& gt ; 50
Average Mileage per Week
& lt ; 100Km
To happen out the dependance and trust of auto use
100Km – 200Km
200Km – 300Km
300Km – 400Km
400Km – 500Km
& gt ; 500Km
How do you believe of the quality of conveyance system in Singapore?
To understand the populace ‘s sentiment towards Singapore conveyance system
How do you believe the affordability of private motor vehicles in Singapore?
To happen out the populace ‘s response about the current motor vehicle market
Do you believe Car Sharing can be encouraged in Singapore?
To understand the hereafter of auto sharing in Singapore through populace ‘s sentiment
If yes, delight province your remarks:
If no, delight province your remarks:
Reason for Asking
Do you believe, through auto sharing, can cut down the traffic congestion issue in Singapore?
To happen out the public point of position towards traffic congestion issue in Singapore.
Do you believe, through auto sharing, can better the air quality in Singapore?
To happen out the public point of position towards traffic congestion issue in Singapore.
Do you believe that auto sharing can profit the populace?
To understand the sentiment of the populace
Would you take part in auto sharing plans in Singapore?
To happen out the populace ‘s sentiment in auto sharing plan in Singapore
Do you believe the current steps from the Government can cut down the figure of autos in Singapore?
To happen out the populace ‘s trust in the Government ‘s steps
Data Analysis Method
There are two stairss in informations analysis method. First measure is by digest and tabular matter of gathered natural information. The 2nd measure is to table informations in statistics. The last measure is by reading of tabulated informations.
In the first measure of informations analysis, it involves roll uping and tabulates the gathered information into the database. This measure is the most of import portion of the information analysis as it need ensures the echt information to be tabulated consequently and truth of the informations decently reflected in the database in assorted classs. Therefore, it must be good organized in order to reflect the analysis clearly for future survey.
In the 2nd measure, the tabulated informations will be inputted into statistical format. This measure is to sum up the basic information of the informations analysis for survey. In statistical position, informations can be shown clearly and easy place the relationships between variables.
The last measure is through reading of consequences from tabulated informations into statistical graph. This measure is to generalise the overall findings from the informations collected and besides for easy survey. It besides means that the consequences analyzed have come to a decision.