A Literature Review On Adventure Tourism Tourism Essay

Adventure touristry has become more popular as an out-of-door diversion activity in the touristry industry ( Travel Industry Association of America, cited 2005 ) . The term escapade can really intend otherwise to different tourers because things that fill up the fright of one tourer may non make full up for another tourer ( Buckly, 2006 ) . Therefore, there is no any specific manner to specify adventure touristry. The word escapade is described as the hazardous activities in nature that are taken on by the tourer or the hazardous finish visited by the tourer and the tourer acquire an exciting and unusual experience from what the tourer had did ( Farlex, The Free Dictionary ) . Adventure besides is where the participants voluntarily seting themselves in a place that the participants believe that they are taking a measure into the unknown where challenges will be faced and something valuable from the experience will be discovered or gained ( Swarbrooke, Beard, Leckie, and Promfret, 2003 ) . Consequently, adventure touristry is something related to nature and it is dwelling of hazard pickings.

Muller and Cleaver ( 2000 ) ( cited in Swarbrooke et Al. 2003, p. 29 ) defined adventure touristry as the capableness to supply tourers with comparatively high grades of centripetal stimulation. It is normally contained some physical ambitious elements with the ( typically abruptly ) tourer ‘s experience. While Buckley ( 2006 ) mentioned that the term escapade touristry is used to intend as guided commercial Tourss where these major attractive force is an out-of-door activity that has natural environment characteristics and usually needs specialised sporting or equipment. It must be go outing for the tourers besides. This definition does non intend that the tourers or clients have to fix the equipments themselves, they may strictly be travelers and rely on the agents to fix the equipments for them. For illustration, tandem parachute harness or white H2O raft, etc. Therefore, adventure touristry can mention to activities done by the tourers, which have high degree of perceived or existent hazard like plunging, boosting, mountaineering, mountain biking, undermining, sky-diving, skiing, snowboarding, white H2O rafting, kayaking, seafaring, and sea kayaking. It besides refer to a specific location of topographic point with high grade of hazard such as sing sweets, jungles or mountaintops, polar parts and campaign. All these topographic points have strong elements of escapade.

Adventure touristry can be divided into soft escapade and difficult escapade. These footings are developed by research workers who devised a graduated table to explicate the diverseness of behavior, get downing with mild escapade besides known as soft escapade at one terminal of the graduated table and advancement to difficult escapade at the other extreme. This continuum, illustrate in Figure 1.1, involves different grades of ‘challenge, uncertainness, puting acquaintance, personal abilities, strength, continuance and perceptual experiences of control ‘ ( Lipscombe, 1995: 42 ) . A simpler manner to depict soft and difficult escapade is that soft escapade does non needfully necessitate past experience whereas difficult escapade requires some experiences and proficiency in the activity prior to the touristry experience ( Millington and Locke, 2001 ) .

Difficult Adventure

‘Refers to activities with high degrees of hazard, necessitating intense committedness and advanced accomplishments. ‘

Soft Adventure

‘Refers to activities with a sensed hazard but low degrees of existent hazard, necessitating minimum committedness and get downing accomplishments ; most of these activities are led by experient ushers. ‘

Figure 1: The continuum of soft and difficult escapade ( beginning: Hill, 1995, cited in Beard et Al. 2003, p. 33 ) .

Tourist behavior is an in-depth subject as the behavior of tourer alteration from clip to clip and sometimes it can be hard to judge because non everyone portions the same behavior. In order to understand tourer behavior, psychologists have found that certain constructs are utile to understand the behavior ( Bhatia, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Bhatia ( 2006 ) , tourist behavior can be understand by finding the motivation, thrusts, or concerns being satisfied by the action and the attitudes and information that the individual usage to make up one’s mind what sort of response should be made in a given state of affairs. Motivation is one ways to depict tourer behavior. Motivation is a verb derive from motivate Motivation is factor that influence or motivate trekkers to go to Everest Base Camp. Motivation is defined as a ground or grounds for moving or acting in a peculiar manner or the desire or willingness to make something ( Oxford online Dictionary ) . Hence, motive of travel is why tourers travel to a topographic point. It is of import to cognize tourer travel motives because motives will impact travel determination procedure ( Crompton and McKay, cited in Pan 2009, p. 216 ) and motives are drivers that influence and impact the specific behavior of a individual or traveler. Furthermore, it besides helps to develop schemes to pull tourers to a peculiar finish by understanding tourer behavior. For illustration, travel agent or local governments can happen a manner to increase the volume of tourers sing a finish by understanding the tourer behavior when the finish is sort of new in the touristry market or the figure of tourers in the finish had decreased. Travel motive is a broad theory where it can non be understood by looking at one portion of the theory merely.

Figure 2: The Motivation Process ( beginning: Holloway, Humphreys & A ; Davidson 2009, p.62 ) .

The procedure of interpreting a demand into motive to see a specific finish or set about a specific activity is rather complex and can be best demonstrated by agencies of a diagram ( refer to Figure 2 ) ( Holloway, Humphreys & A ; Davidson 2009, p.62 ) . Potential consumers must be able to acknowledge their demands and wants and cognize what sorts of merchandise really fulfill their demands. Figure 2 shows that consumer perceptual experience of what will fulfill their demand has to fit with consumer perceptual experience of the attractive forces. Merely when the consumer agrees on these 2 points, consumer will be motivated to see a peculiar finish. For illustration, client A and client B have the same sort of demand, where both of them like to make escapade activities and their think that trekking up to a mountain satisfies their demand. Both client A and B have the same involvement but their perceptual experience on a peculiar finish may be different. Customer A may believe that trekking to Mount Everest really fulfils what he wants and his perceptual experience towards the finish is positive. While client B may believe that trekking to Mount Everest fulfil what he wants but he has a bad perceptual experience towards the finish as he think that the finish is really hazardous to him. Therefore, client A will be willing to purchase the bundle and mount up to Mount Everest because both the perceptual experience of the demand and the attractive force lucifer. Customer B will non be motivated to travel to Mount Everest as the perceptual experience of demand and attractive force do non fit.

Harmonizing to Beerli and Martin ( cited in Correia, Valle and Moco 2007, p. 46 ) , “ motive is the demands that thrusts and single to move in a certain manner to accomplish the desire satisfaction ” . Therefore, people travel base on many different grounds. Motivation has besides been referred as psychological / biological demands and wants including built-in forces that arouse, direct, and incorporate a individual ‘s behavior and activity ( Dann ; Pearce ; Uysal & A ; Hagan, cited in Shin 2009, p. 32 ) . Travel incentives are the factors that create a individual ‘s desire to go and are normally the internal psychological influences impacting single picks ( Bhatia, 2006 ) . Travel motives normally include a broad scope of personal experiences and behaviors. Assorted surveies have been done to happen out why people wish to go after the coming of mass touristry, particularly after the Second World War. Macintosh ( cited in Bhatia 2006 ) has group the basic travel incentives into four classs.

Physical incentives, which are related to physical relaxation, refreshment of organic structure and head, athleticss, pleasance, and particular medical intervention. All these are connected with single ‘s bodily good existences and connected to activities which help to cut down tenseness.

Cultural incentives, which are related to single ‘s desire to go in order to cognize more about other states, indigens of the states and cultural heritage of the states which expressed in art, music, dance, folklore, etc.

Interpersonal incentives, which are related to single ‘s desire to run into new people, visit friends and relations, and to seek new and different experiences. Travel is merely to get away from the day-to-day modus operandi or acquire off from the usual life or environment.

Status and prestigiousness incentives, which are related to the demands of personal regard and personal development in an person. Such incentives are more likely to be concerned with the desire for acknowledgment and attending from others, in order to hike personal self-importance. Under this sort of motives, people normally travel for concern, for the intent of instruction and the chase of avocations.

Crandall ( cited in Hall & A ; Page 1999 ) who did a survey on the motives of the leisure travelers, outlined 17 motivational factors which derived from a synthesis of old surveies in this field. Below are the 17 motivational factors listed by Crandall.



To acquire off from civilization for a piece To be near to nature



To demo other I could make it

So other would believe extremely of me for making it



Change from my day-to-day modus operandi

To acquire off from the duties of my day-to-day life



To hold control over others

To be in a place of authorization



For the exercising

To maintain in form



To assist others



To be originative


Stimulation Quest

For the exhilaration

Because of the hazards involved



To loosen up physically

So the head can decelerate down for a piece



Sing the consequences of your attempts

Using a assortment of accomplishments and endowment



So I could make things with my comrades To acquire off from other people



To develop my accomplishment and ability

Because of the competition

To larn what I am capable of


Meeting New Peoples

To speak to new and varied people

To construct friendly relationships with new people



To maintain busy

To avoid ennui



To be with people of the opposite sex

To run into people of the opposite sex



To utilize my head

To believe bout my personal values



To be off from the household for a piece

To assist convey the household together more

Table 1: Crandall ‘s list of motives. Beginning: Crandall 1980 ( cited in Hall & A ; Page 1999 ) .

Pearce ( cited in Pan 2009, p. 218 ) who had based and expanded on the theory of Maslow ‘s hierarchy of human demands, foremost developed the travel calling ladder attack to go motive in 1988 and subsequently made conceptual accommodation to the travel calling ladder in 2005. The cardinal nature of this theoretical account connects the degree of travel experiences with the hierarchy of travel demands. Harmonizing to Pearce ( cited in Pan 2009, p. 218 ) , travelers who had more experiences in travel normally seek experiences that meet their higher order of travel demands such as self-esteem and self-actualization. On the other manus, inexperient travelers will be given to seek experiences that meet their basic travel demands such as security and psychological 1s. Tourism industry is a services industry and the merchandises which offer in touristry industry are intangible. It is widely known that to go is to see. Consequently, tourist experience is basically a service experience.

The five degree of travel calling ladder, get downing from the underside are ( 1 ) concern with biological demands ( including relaxation ) , ( 2 ) safety and security demands or degree of stimulation, ( 3 ) relationship development and extension demands, ( 4 ) particular involvement and self-development demands, and ( 5 ) fulfillment of deep engagement demands which officially defined as self-actualization ( Pearce cited in Marafa, Ho & A ; Chau 2007, p.8 ) . This travel calling ladder is subsequently presented diagrammatically by Ryan ( cited in Marafa, Ho & A ; Chau 2007, p.8 ) , refer to calculate 3. It is non necessary that everyone has to get down from the underside because people change from clip to clip and some may seek to seek for activities which satisfy high degree of demands in chase of leisure and diversion ( Marafa, Ho & A ; Chau, 2007 ) .

Figure 3: Travel Career Ladder by Ryan ( cited in Marafa, Ho & A ; Chau 2007, p. 9 ) .

Another theory which frequently use by research workers when depicting travel motives is the push and draw theory. This theory shows that people travel because they are pushed and pulled to go by some factors. Dann ( cited in Pan 2009, p. 219 ) whom had combined and analyzed the relevant travel motive literature, concluded that travel occurs due to the internal factors of indentified and unrealized desires ( motivational push ) and reinforce by external factors which is finish pull. Push factors are either internally generated or externally induced ( Dann, cited in Pan 2009, p. 218 ) . The desire to suppress a mountain by making the acme of the mountain is one of the illustrations of push factors. While pull factors are related to the properties of the finish that serve to fulfill the demands and wants of travelers.

Several writers assume that internal and external factors are factors that motivate human behavior. For illustration, Kotler ( cited in Correia, Valle and Moco 2007, p. 46 ) provinces that motives can be the consequence of internal and external stimulations. Internal factors are factors derive from personal demands and wants such as psychological, societal egoist, self-actualization and safety. While external factors are normally result from publicity and promotion. Travel motive can be either personal ( personal preparation, compensation remainder and cognition ) or interpersonal ( ensuing from societal relation ) ( Crompton, 1979 ; Dann, 1977 ; Yoon and Uysal, 2005, cited in Corriea et Al. 2007, p.47 ) .

Iso-Ahola ; Ryan & A ; Glendon ( cited in Pan 2009, p. 219 ) argued that travel motive is closely related to leisure motive and the former should non be studied independent of the latter. Iso-Ahola ( cited in Alexandris, Kouthouris, Funk & A ; Giobani 2009, p. 482 ) defined touristry motive as “ a meaningful set of head which adequately disposes an histrion or a group of histrion to go ” . Approach ( seeking ) and turning away ( get awaying ) are the two constituents in leisure motive, identified by Iso-Ahola. Therefore, people travel in order to seek friendly relationship, freshness, challenge, accomplishment, experience, and etc. while at the same clip flight from the day-to-day modus operandi or personal jobs. While Ryan & A ; Glendon ( cited in Pan 2009, p. 219 ) applied an brief version ( 14 points ) of the Leisure Motivation Scale of 1,127 United Kingdom tourists and identified four motive factors from the graduated table which were rational, societal, competence command and stimulus turning away. The first three factors could be categorized as “ seek ” constituents and the last factor as “ flight ” constituent.

Crompton ( cited in Kao, Patterson, Scott, and Chung 2008, p. 18 ) studied travel motive by utilizing push and draw theoretical account and developed seven socio-psychological or push motivations ( flight from a perceived mundane environment, self-exploratory, relaxation, prestigiousness and arrested development, sweetening of affinity dealingss, facilitation of societal interaction ) and two cultural motivations or draw motivations ( freshness and instruction ) . This survey refers to motivations which are more specific and direct that can impact tourers ‘ determination on the travel determination or the type of vacations ( Crompton, cited in Corriea et Al. 2007, p.47 ) . The writer place that psychological or societal motivations ( push motivations ) sustain the desire to go. While on the other manus, travel determination if affected by pull motivations and pull motivations are besides associated to the finish ‘s characteristic ( Lundberg, cited in Corriea et Al. 2007, p.47 ) .

A survey was done to research the motives and satisfactions of Chinese Tourists who visit Australia ( Kao, Patterson, Scott, and Chung, 2008 ) . Push and draw attack was used to happen 17 push motives and 18 pull motives for travel in this survey. The most of import push factor found in this survey is ‘Travelling around the universe ‘ , while the most of import pull factor is ‘sunshine and scenery ‘ and most of the Chinese tourers are satisfied after sing Australia. Study done by Chang ( 2007 ) on travel motive of bundle circuit travelers suggested that socio-psychological demands were an of import motive for travel, and socio-economic considerations were regarded as a important motive for travel determination devising. Furthermore, societal relationships – friends or relations ‘ recommendations had a strong impact in the determination devisings of the Chinese travelers ( Chang, 2007 ) . This survey was done to analyze travel motives and travel decision-making of Chinese tourers with a group bundle circuit abroad. Therefore, it can be said that tourers travel to a finish is strongly influenced by their socio-psychological demands.

Tourist builds his/her perceptual experiences based on intrinsic and extrinsic motives ( Gartner, 1993 ; Dann, 1996 ; Baloglu, 1997 ; cited in Corriea et Al. 2007, p.47 ) . Everyone receives and processes information otherwise. Therefore, person ‘s perceptual experience is besides formed otherwise base on how the information is received and transformed. Harmonizing to Oxford online lexicon, perceptual experience means the ability to see hear, or go cognizant of something through senses or the manner in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted. Percepts are besides defined as the sensed value of merchandise by many old research workers ( Correia and Crouch, 2004 ; Correia et al. , 2007C ; Holbrook, 1996 ; oh, 2000 ; Sheth et al. , 1991 ; Zeithaml, 1998 ; cited in Correia and Pimpao 2008 ) . This construct develops based on cognitive and behavioral positions which result from the acquisition and motivational procedures rendered by the tourer. Therefore, perceptual experience is the point of positions about what the tourer think about the finish.

Percept of a finish is linked to the finish image. Based on the image of the finish, perceptual experience of the finish will be generated and each tourer will hold their ain perceptual experience about the finish. Destination image is described as overall perceptual experiences of persons sing a topographic point or entire set of feelings about a finish ( Bigne et al. , 2001 ; Fakeye and Crompton, 1991 ; cited in Alvarez and Korzay 2008 ) . Destination image is normally formed through media, either positive or negative images. This is based on how the state promotes the finish in its state and through universe intelligence, people can easy cognize the jobs or issues in the state. Hence, the finish image will be easy affected and it changes over clip because people build up the finish images and representations based on the information that they receive ( Avraham, 2000 ; SoA?nmez and Sirakaya, 2002 ; cited in Alvarez and Korzay 2008 ) . In twenty-first century, cyberspace is the most powerful media that affect client ‘s perceptual experience and finish image. In the universe of cyberspace, people can easy beginning for information sing the finish and leave remarks on the web logs or travel treatment forums after sing the finish. Therefore, people nowadays non merely listen to their friends ‘ yesteryear travel experiences but besides read the world-wide tourers ‘ experiences from travel web logs or travel treatment forums. It is of import to cognize what Malayan trekkers ‘ think about Everest Base Camp which can be hazardous.

Corriea et Al. ( 2007 ) did a research on why people travel to alien topographic points by uniting motives and perceptual experiences. This is the first clip and they are the first few research workers that combine motives and perceptual experiences in order to understand how people can be pushed to go to alien topographic points and how they form their perceptual experiences. In this research, Corriea et Al. ( 2007 ) attempt to happen the relationship between push and pull motive, push motive and perceptual experience, and draw motive and perceptual experience, based on a group of Lusitanian tourers who go to alien topographic points such as Brazil, Morocco, Egypt, Sao Tome, and Principe. This survey proves that perceptual experience of tourer finishs are formed based on push and pull factors but the relationship between push factors and perceptual experiences in non important and this proves that tourer decides to travel for travel because he/she demand to work out a struggle rousing ( remainder, societal, and rational wagess ) ( Corriea et al. 2007 ) . After that, the tourer will make up one’s mind where to travel based on the finish attributes. Destination attributes ( pull motivations ) are seen as the manner to work out intrinsic motivations ( push motivations ) in this survey, but these concepts are non straight related to the overall perceptionof the finish because they are seemingly solved when the tourer turns the attending to specific properties ( Corriea et al. 2007 ) .

Gnoth ( 1997 ) studies that the perceptual experience of a finish may be analysed from a cognitive or behavioral position. There are several types of perceptual experiences which are cognitive constituent ( which consequences from the rating of the finish attributes ) and personal constituent ( which consequences from the rating of the finish attributes ) that a individual can hold, argued by Gnoth ( 1997 ) .

Travel motive is an extended researched country in touristry ( Pan, 2009 ) . Consequently, there are many theories that describe about tourer motive to go suggest by several writers or research workers as different tourer have different mentality and behavior. Furthermore, there are many signifiers of touristry and tourers can be clustered into assorted types of groups. Percepts of travelers on a peculiar finish can be improbable because everyone thinks otherwise. Due to different in civilization and the manner they receive and transform the information will impact the perceptual experience of the tourers.

Conceptual Model

Figure 4: Conceptual Model


Treking in Everest part is the dream of most of the Malaysian ‘s trekkers.

Its portion of self-realization of the trekkers and they want to dispute themselves as Malaysia does non hold mountains which are more than 5000m and Everest is the highest mountain in the universe.

Malaysian ‘s trekkers travel to Everest Base Camp but non to the acme of Mount Everest because budget and clip limit them to trek to the acme of Mount Everest.

Extra information


To cognize the factors that motivate them to take Everest base cantonment trek

To understand traveller ‘s perceptual experience on Everest base cantonment, Nepal as a touristry finish